Article

Prognostic Value of Troponin T and I Among Asymptomatic Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Meta-Analysis

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 11/2005; 112(20):3088-96. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.560128
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The prognostic usefulness of troponin enzymes in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is controversial. To resolve this uncertainty of troponin as a prognostic tool, we conducted a systematic review to quantify the association between elevated troponin I or T and long-term total mortality among ESRD patients not suspected of having acute coronary syndrome.
We conducted an unrestricted search from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and DARE bibliographic databases to December 2004 using the terms troponin.mp. or exp troponin and exp kidney, exp renal, exp kidney disease exp renal replacement therapy. We also manually searched review articles and bibliographies to supplement the search. Studies were included if they were prospective observational studies, used cardiac-specific troponin assays, and evaluated long-term risk of death or cardiac events for asymptomatic ESRD patients. Two authors independently abstracted data on study and patient characteristics. Studies findings were stratified according to troponin T or I levels. We used a random-effects model to pool study results and tested for heterogeneity using chi2 testing and used funnel-plot inspection to evaluate the presence of publication bias. Data from 28 studies (3931 patients) published between 1999 and December 2004 were included in this review. Patients received dialysis for a median duration of 4 years, with a mean follow-up of 23 months. From the pooled analysis, elevated troponin T (>0.1 ng/mL) was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (relative risk, 2.64; 95% CI, 2.17 to 3.20). Although the prognostic effect sizes were all consistent with a positive relationship between troponin T and mortality, there was significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of these effect sizes (P=0.015). The funnel plot showed evidence of publication bias. Elevated troponin T was also strongly associated with increased cardiac death. Studies evaluating troponin I included a wide variety of assays and differing cut points, rendering synthesis of the study findings difficult.
Elevated troponin T (>0.1 ng/mL) identifies a subgroup of ESRD patients who have poor survival and a high risk of cardiac death despite being asymptomatic. These findings suggest that troponin T is a promising risk stratification tool and may help frame therapeutic decisions. The clinical interpretation of elevated troponin I levels, however, remain unclear, largely because of the lack of standardization of assays.

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Available from: Christopher Richard Thompson, Jan 24, 2014
    • "Cardiac troponins (cTn) are specific biomarkers of myocardial injury and have a well-established role in guiding the management of chest pain [5] [6]. An elevated troponin has also been associated with a poor prognosis in critical illness, pulmonary embolism, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, stroke, and end-stage renal disease [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]. However more recently there has been interest in the role of cTn as a potential biomarker for cardiovascular risk in the general population . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical relevance of minor elevations of cardiac troponin (cTn) in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature and evaluate the prevalence of raised cTn in asymptomatic, community populations and explore the strength of the relationship between cTn and cardiovascular mortality amongst those studied. Methods: Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, Cochrane Library and using the "related citation" search tool in PubMed from inception through August 2014. Prospective cohort studies of asymptomatic individuals recruited from the community (age ≥ 18 years) that assessed the relationship between cTn levels and mortality or cardiovascular events were included. Results: Twenty-one prospective studies involving 64,855 participants were identified. An elevated cTn measurement (>99th percentile) occurred in 5% of individuals and was associated with a tripling of risk of mortality (adjusted RR 3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.32-4.06) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted RR 3.30, 95% CI 1.77-6.12). In studies including high sensitivity assays, cTn was detectable in 58% of individuals. A detectable cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10 - 1.59). The risk increased with increasing cTnT level. Conclusions: Elevated troponin in asymptomatic individuals in the community is associated with a tripling of risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is generally not measured in this group of patients, but may potentially have utility in predicting risk in this population. Further research is required to assess if this risk is modifiable with usual primary prevention treatments.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Heart, Lung and Circulation
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    • "In pazienti asintomatici per cardiopatia ischemica ovvero per scompenso cardiaco congestizio , ma affetti da CKD ovvero ESRD, la presenza di elevati livelli sierici di troponina (valutati con tecniche di dosaggio di prima generazione) è associata con un rischio maggiore di eventi cardiovascolari avversi e di mortalità per tutte le cause [19] [19] (full text) [20] [20] (full text) [21] [21] (full text) [22] [22] [23] [23] (full text). "
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary thrombosis was recognized since 19th century as clinical entity with bad outcomes; only in 1912 it was reported that acute myocardial infarction had to been distinguished from angina pectoris. First diagnostic test was electrocardiogram, while white blood cells count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate were the only available laboratory tests Late in the 60s and 70s glutammic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyravate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase were added to biomarkers pool to provide a diagnosis of myocardial infarction related to myocardial cells injury. Only in 1987 assays for cardiac troponin were developed to assess structural damage of myocardial cells and in 2010 high sensibility troponins first dosage kits became available. It is well known that the population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is at greater risk for cardiovascular disease and death than the general population. The use and interpretation of high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have been particularly challenging in these patients with the majority having elevated levels at baseline Aim of this review is to evaluate hs-cTn in patients with CKD for the diagnosis of AMI and for the prognostic significance of elevated levels in CKD patients without AMI.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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    • "Some authors have described absolute levels of serum TnI in the diagnosis of BCI [17] [20], but there is no consensus for the absolute cut-off of serum TnI for the diagnosis. It has been shown in a number of studies that patients with troponin elevation not related to ischaemic cardiac disease have a worse prognosis [24] [25] [26]. Due to the numerous types of assays available for serum TnI with varying reference ranges, it is practical to take a value above the 99th centile for the diagnosis of acute myocardial dysfunction as significant in blunt thoracic trauma, as we did in this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study describes the incidence and outcomes of blunt cardiac injury (BCI) in a single trauma intensive care unit (TICU), together with the spectrum of thoracic injuries and cardiac abnormalities seen in BCI. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study of 169 patients with blunt thoracic trauma admitted from January 2010 to April 2013. BCI was diagnosed using an elevated serum troponin in the presence of either clinical, ECG or transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) abnormalities in keeping with BCI. The mechanism of injury, associated thoracic injuries and TTE findings in these patients are reported. Results The incidence of BCI among patients with blunt thoracic trauma was 50% (n = 84). BCI patients had higher injury severity scores (ISS) (median 37 [IQR 29–47]; p = 0.001) and higher admission serum lactate levels (median 3.55 [IQR 2.4–6.2], p = 0.008). In patients with BCI, the median serum TnI level was 2823 ng/L (IQR 1353–6833), with the highest measurement of 64950 ng/L. TTEs were performed on 38 (45%) patients with BCI, of whom 30 (79%) had abnormalities. Patients with BCI had a higher mortality (32% vs. 16%; p = 0.028) and trended towards a longer length of stay (17.0 days [standard deviation (SD) 13.5] vs. 13.6 days [SD 12.0]; p = 0.084) Conclusions BCI was associated with an increased mortality and a trend towards a longer length of stay in this study. It is a clinically relevant diagnosis which requires a high index of suspicion. Screening of high risk patients with significant blunt thoracic trauma for BCI with serum troponins should be routine practise. Patients diagnosed with BCI should undergo more advanced imaging such as TTE or TOE to exclude significant cardiac structural injury.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Injury
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