Astrinidis A, Henske EP.. Tuberous sclerosis complex: linking growth and energy signaling pathways with human disease. Oncogene 24: 7475-7481

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.46). 12/2005; 24(50):7475-81. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1209090
Source: PubMed


The most exciting advances in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) field occurred in 1993 and 1997 with the cloning of the TSC2 and TSC1 genes, respectively, and in 2003 with the identification of Rheb as the target of tuberin's (TSC2) GTPase activating protein (GAP) domain. Rheb has a dual role: it activates mTOR and inactivates B-Raf. Activation of mTOR leads to increased protein synthesis through phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1. Upon insulin or growth factor stimulation, tuberin is phosphorylated by several kinases, including AKT/PKB, thereby suppressing its GAP activity and activating mTOR. Phosphorylation of hamartin (TSC1) by CDK1 also negatively regulates the activity of the hamartin/tuberin complex. Despite these biochemical advances, exactly how mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 lead to the clinical manifestations of TSC is far from being understood. Two of the most unusual phenotypes in TSC are the apparent metastasis of benign cells carrying TSC1 and TSC2 mutations, resulting in pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis, and the ability of cells with TSC1 or TSC2 mutations to differentiate into the separate components of renal angiomyolipomas (vessels, smooth muscle and fat). We will discuss how the TSC signaling pathways are affected by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, focusing on how these mutations may lead to the renal and pulmonary manifestations of TSC.

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Available from: Elizabeth Petri Henske
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    • "Kidney cancer development is rare in TSC, occurring in only 2–3% of all patients [3-5]. Multicentric angiomyolipomas are much more common in patients with TSC than RCCs, but may, nonetheless, have similar underlying genetic basis at early steps in their genesis and/or progression, specifically in the setting of tuberin deficiency [6]. Angiomyolipomas (AMLs) are benign kidney tumors composed of smooth muscle, fat, and vessel cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Deficiency in tuberin results in activation the mTOR pathway and leads to accumulation of cell matrix proteins. The mechanisms by which tuberin regulates fibrosis in kidney angiomyolipomas (AMLs) of tuberous sclerosis patients are not fully known. Method In the present study, we investigated the potential role of tuberin/mTOR pathway in the regulation of cell fibrosis in AML cells and kidney tumor tissue from tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. Results AML cells treated with rapamycin shows a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression as well as in promoter transcriptional activity of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) compared to untreated cells. In addition, cells treated with rapamycin significantly decreased the protein expression of the transcription factor YY1. Rapamycin treatment also results in the redistribution of YY1 from the nucleus to cytoplasm in AML cells. Moreover, cells treated with rapamycin resulted in a significant reduce of binding of YY1 to the αSMA promoter element in nuclear extracts of AML cells. Kidney angiomyolipoma tissues from TSC patients showed lower levels of tuberin and higher levels of phospho-p70S6K that resulted in higher levels of mRNA and protein of αSMA expression compared to control kidney tissues. In addition, most of the α-SMA staining was identified in the smooth muscle cells of AML tissues. YY1 was also significantly increased in tumor tissue of AMLs compared to control kidney tissue suggesting that YY1 plays a major role in the regulation of αSMA. Conclusions These data comprise the first report to provide one mechanism whereby rapamycin might inhibit the cell fibrosis in kidney tumor of TSC patients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Molecular Cancer
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    • "Although they both express alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), epithelioid cells often harbor melanoma markers such as gp100, MART-1 [18]. TSC2-deficient cells are histologically benign, but have the potential to metastasize in vivo [19], [20], [21]. Several TSC2-deficient or null cells have been isolated from AML patients previously, but isolating and establishing sustained cultures of AML and LAM cells has been challenging [22], [23], [24], in part because of the heterogeneity of LAM nodules [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: TSC2-deficient cells can proliferate in the lungs, kidneys, and other organs causing devastating progressive multisystem disorders such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Preclinical models utilizing LAM patient-derived cells have been difficult to establish. We developed a novel animal model system to study the molecular mechanisms of TSC/LAM pathogenesis and tumorigenesis and provide a platform for drug testing. TSC2-deficient human cells, derived from the angiomyolipoma of a LAM patient, were engineered to co-express both sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). Cells were inoculated intraparenchymally, intravenously, or intratracheally into athymic NCr nu/nu mice and cells were tracked and quantified using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). Surprisingly, TSC2-deficient cells administered intratracheally resulted in rapid dissemination to lymph node basins throughout the body, and histopathological changes in the lung consistent with LAM. Estrogen was found to be permissive for tumor growth and dissemination. Rapamycin inhibited tumor growth, but tumors regrew after the drug treatment was withdrawn. We generated homogeneous NIS/GFP co-expressing TSC2-deficient, patient-derived cells that can proliferate and migrate in vivo after intratracheal instillation. Although the animal model we describe has some limitations, we demonstrate that systemic tumors formed from TSC2-deficient cells can be monitored and quantified noninvasively over time using SPECT/CT, thus providing a much needed model system for in vivo drug testing and mechanistic studies of TSC2-deficient cells and their related clinical syndromes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "TSC-1 and -2 form a heterodimer harboring GTPase activity and inhibiting the GTPase RHEB (RAS homolog enriched in brain). Upon phosphorylation, the RHEB-GTP complex accumulates and leads to activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) [146, 147]. Activated mTOR phosphorylates 4E-BP (4E binding protein) which then releases eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) promoting translation initiation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies suggest that being obese in midlife is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Hyperinsulinemia is one of the most frequent endocrine features in overweight people which results in insulin desensitization. Thus, chronically high insulin levels have been identified as risk factor for dementia. Accordingly, chronically high insulin levels might be harmful for brain function. Furthermore, insulin and IGF-1-induced signaling is reduced in the brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, studies in rodents suggest that reduced insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling decrease AD pathology, that is, β-amyloid toxicity. Data obtained in C. elegans indicate that the beneficial effect mediated via reduced IR/IGF-1R signaling might partially be induced via the forkhead-box O transcription factors (FoxO). In the mammalian brain, there are FoxO1, FoxO3a, and FoxO6 expressed. Surprisingly, high-fat diet specifically reduces the expression of FoxO3a and FoxO6 suggesting that IR/IGF-1 → FoxO-mediated transcription is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cognitive impairment. Therefore, the function of FoxO1 and FoxO3a has been investigated in animal models of Alzheimer's disease in detail. The current paper focuses on the role of IR/IGF-1 signaling and IR/IGF-1 → FoxO-mediated transcription for the pathogenesis of obesity-associated dementia.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
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