Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and an optimized background regimen of antiretroviral agents as salvage therapy for pediatric HIV infection

HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 12/2005; 116(6):e846-54. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-0975
Source: PubMed


Highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the course of HIV infection among children, but new antiretroviral agents are needed for treatment-experienced children with drug-resistant virus. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF) is a promising agent for use in pediatric salvage therapy, because of its tolerability, efficacy, and resistance profile. We designed this study to provide preliminary pediatric safety and dosing information on tenofovir DF, while also providing potentially efficacious salvage therapy for heavily treatment-experienced, HIV-infected children.
Tenofovir DF, alone and in combination with optimized background antiretroviral regimens, was studied among 18 HIV-infected children (age range: 8.3-16.2 years) who had progressive disease with > or = 2 prior antiretroviral regimens, in a single-center, open-label trial. Tenofovir DF monotherapy for 6 days was followed by the addition of individualized antiretroviral regimens. Subjects were monitored with HIV RNA reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and routine laboratory studies; monitoring for bone toxicity included measurement of lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were monitored through 48 weeks.
Two subjects developed grade 3 elevated hepatic transaminase levels during monotherapy and were removed from the study. The remaining 16 subjects had a median of 4 antiretroviral agents (range: 3-5 agents) added to tenofovir DF. HIV plasma RNA levels decreased from a median pretreatment level of 5.4 log10 copies per mL (range: 4.1-5.9 log10 copies per mL) to 4.21 log10 copies per mL at week 48 (n = 15), with 6 subjects having < 400 copies per mL, including 4 with < 50 copies per mL. The overall median increases in CD4+ T cell counts were 58 cells per mm3 (range: -64 to 589 cells per mm3) at week 24 and 0 cells per mm3 (range: -274 to 768 cells per mm3) at week 48. The CD4+ cell responses among the virologic responders were high and sustained. The major toxicity attributed to tenofovir DF was a >6% decrease in BMD for 5 of 15 subjects evaluated at week 48, necessitating the discontinuation of tenofovir DF therapy for 2; all 5 subjects experienced >2 log10 copies per mL decreases in HIV plasma RNA levels.
Tenofovir DF-containing, individualized, highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens were well tolerated and effective among heavily treatment-experienced, HIV-infected children. Loss of BMD may limit tenofovir DF use among prepubertal patients.

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Available from: John F Flaherty, Jan 07, 2014
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    • "These include lipid abnormalities in approximately 20–25% and insulin resistance in 15% [63]. Low bone density has been reported in a number of studies, with boys potentially more affected than girls, but this finding may not be as severe as initially thought, since lower than expected height may explain a large part of the low BMD findings [55, 64, 65]. While concerns about renal impairment due to toxicity from prolonged ART have been raised, to date, studies have been reassuring that major renal toxicity is rare and much less common than was seen in in the era of suboptimal therapy [66]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The global paediatric HIV epidemic is shifting into a new phase as children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) move into adolescence and adulthood, and face new challenges of living with HIV. UNAIDS reports that 3.4 million children aged below 15 years and 2 million adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years have HIV. Although the vast majority of children were perinatally infected, older children are combined with behaviourally infected adolescents and youth in global reporting, making it difficult to keep track of their outcomes. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are a highly unique patient sub-population, having been infected before development of their immune systems, been subject to suboptimal ART options and formulations, and now face transition from complete dependence on adult caregivers to becoming their own caregivers. As we are unable to track long-term complications and survival of PHIVA through national and global reporting systems, local and regional cohorts are the main sources for surveillance and research among PHIVA. This global review will utilize those data to highlight the epidemiology of PHIVA infection, treatment challenges and chronic disease risks. Unless mechanisms are created to count and separate out PHIVA outcomes, we will have few opportunities to characterize the negative consequences of life-long HIV infection in order to find ways to prevent them.
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    • "Nevertheless TDF has been already used as salvage therapy in paediatric patients for several years, often in association with boosted Protease Inhibitors (PI), and few reports described the use of this drug in children. Two studies determined a favourable safety profile for this drug [13,14] whereas renal toxicity and bone density loss were reported by other studies both in adults and children [15-18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney disease is an important complication in HIV infected people, and this may be related to infection or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our aim is to assess renal function in HIV infected paediatric patients, who may be particularly affected and are likely to take ART for longer than adults, and investigate the long term role of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF) alone or co-administered with Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitors (PI). Serum creatinine, phosphate and potassium levels, with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), had been prospectively evaluated for 2 years in a cohort of HIV infected children and adolescents (age 9-18) on ART, and data analyzed according to the exposure to TDF or simultaneous TDF and PI. Forty-nine patients were studied (57% female, mean age 14). Sixty-three percent were treated with ART containing TDF (Group A), and 37% without TDF (Group B); 47% with concomitant use of TDF and PI (Group C) and 53% without this combination (Group D). The groups didn't differ for age, gender or ethnicity. The median creatinine increased in the entire cohort and in all the groups analyzed; eGFR decreased from 143.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline to 128.9 after 2 years (p = 0.006) in the entire cohort. Three patients presented a mild eGFR reduction, all were on TDF+PI. Phosphatemia decreased significantly in the entire cohort (p = 0.0003) and in TDF+PI group (p = 0.0128) after 2 years. Five patients (10%) developed hypophosphatemia (Division of Acquired Immune Deficiency AE grade 1 or 2), and four of them were on TDF+PI. Renal function decrease and hypophosphatemia occur over time in HIV infected children and adolescents on ART. The association with co-administration of TDF and PI appears weak, and further studies are warranted.
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    • "The children under study were also required to have long-lasting viral suppression prior to the switch to TDF and were exposed to TDF levels that may have been lower, as fractions of pills were administered. This study design is different to the other studies, which involved relatively younger children that did not have long lasting viral suppression prior to the switch to TDF, which were entire pills (ie, 300 mg).39–41 "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical observations have revealed a strong correlation between loss of bone density in HIV-infected individuals, particularly in conjunction with the antiretroviral drug tenofovir, a nucleotide analog that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase. The most compelling correlations have been observed in clinical studies involving young children and adolescents. These observations strongly suggest that bone density is being affected during active bone growth and development, implicating a role for tenofovir in bone loss. Here we discuss the literature and potential mechanisms for how tenofovir-associated bone loss may arise, which likely involves perturbation of cellular DNA synthesis and gene expression. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) involved in tenofovir-mediated bone loss will help in developing adjuvant therapies to reduce tenofovir-associated bone density loss.
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