Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity: Analyses of the NHANES I

Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Sleep (Impact Factor: 4.59). 11/2005; 28(10):1289-96.
Source: PubMed


Sleep deprivation has been hypothesized to contribute toward obesity by decreasing leptin, increasing ghrelin, and compromising insulin sensitivity. This study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a large United States sample to determine whether sleep duration is associated with obesity and weight gain.
Longitudinal analyses of the 1982-1984, 1987, and 1992 NHANES I Followup Studies and cross-sectional analysis of the 1982-1984 study.
Probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States.
Sample sizes of 9,588 for the cross-sectional analyses, 8,073 for the 1987, and 6,981 for the 1992 longitudinal analyses.
Measured weight in 1982-1984 and self-reported weights in 1987 and 1992. Subjects between the ages of 32 and 49 years with self-reported sleep durations at baseline less than 7 hours had higher average body mass indexes and were more likely to be obese than subjects with sleep durations of 7 hours. Sleep durations over 7 hours were not consistently associated with either an increased or decreased likelihood of obesity in the cross-sectional and longitudinal results. Each additional hour of sleep at baseline was negatively associated with change in body mass index over the follow-up period, but this association was small and statistically insignificant.
These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is associated with obesity in a large longitudinally monitored United States sample. These observations support earlier experimental sleep studies and provide a basis for future studies on weight control interventions that increase the quantity and quality of sleep.

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    • "Recently, several studies have shown conflicting reports on the association between sleep duration and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension [4] [5], diabetes [6] [7] [8] [9], obesity [10] [11] [12] and dyslipidaemia [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]. The fact that two independent studies showed an association between short sleep and cardiovascular mortality is supportive of the hypothesis that short sleep is related to CVD risk factors [20] [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short sleep duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid profile among various ethnic groups (South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaians, Turks, Moroccans and the Dutch) living in the Netherlands. The contribution of social economic status (SES) and lifestyle factors were also examined to this association. Method: A total of 12,805 participants (aged 18-70 years) from the multi-ethnic Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) cohort. Short sleep duration was defined as <7 h/night. The association between short sleep and CVD risk factors, along with the contribution of SES and lifestyle factors, was assessed using prevalence ratios (PRs). Results: Short sleep was significantly associated with obesity in four out of six ethnic groups, with the socio-demographic-adjusted PR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07-1.95) in the Dutch, 1.21 (1.01-1.44) in South Asian Surinamese, 1.25 (1.09-1.43) in African Surinamese and 1.16 (1.04-1.29) in Turks. Short sleep was significantly associated with diabetes in African Surinamese (1.45, 1.14-1.84), Turks (1.59, 1.26-2.02) and Moroccans (1.29, 1.02-1.63). By contrast, the associations between other cardiovascular risk factors and short sleep were not significant in most ethnic groups, with the exception of the association with hypertension in the Dutch and Turks, and dyslipidaemia in South Asian Surinamese (reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) and Moroccans (raised total cholesterol). SES and lifestyle factors contributed little to the observed associations. Conclusion: The findings indicate that short sleep is associated with obesity and diabetes in most ethnic groups. The associations for other risk factors vary between ethnic groups. Further studies are warranted to establish the potential factors that might lead to the observed differences across populations.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Sleep Medicine
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    • "Sleep is a basic life process that greatly affects human health. The effects of sleep disturbance or deprivation on the brain, mind and body include not only hypobulia and depression, but also effects potentially leading to hypertension and obesity (Gangwisch et al. 2005), thus impairing human quality of life. According to a World Health Organization study, 1 of every 2 persons with insomnia develops some illness other than sleep disturbance within 1 year and requires medical care (Ustün et al. 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of L-serine intake on human sleep, we conducted two randomized double-blinded crossover studies. In Study 1, healthy subjects who were dissatisfied with their sleep were given L-serine or a placebo 30 min before going to bed. After waking the next morning, subjective sleep quality was rated using the Ogri-Shirakawa-Azumi subjective sleep rating scale. In Study 2, subjective sleep quality was rated using the St. Mary's Hospital sleep questionnaire, and objective parameters, including sleep initiation time, number of nighttime awakenings, and hours of sleep, were evaluated using actigraphy. In Study 1, factors related to "sleep initiation" and "sleep maintenance" during the L-serine intake period were significantly improved compared to the placebo intake period (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively). In Study 2, scores for "How well did you sleep last night?" and "How satisfied were you with last night's sleep?" were significantly better during L-serine intake compared to placebo (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). Subjective evaluation of sleep quality on waking was thus improved. In addition, objective evaluation using actigraphy showed that the "number of nighttime awakenings" tended to be decreased (p = 0.08). These findings suggest that intake of L-serine before going to bed may improve human sleep.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · SpringerPlus
    • "Short sleep durations have been linked with increased obesity risk, likely due to changes in the secretion of hormones known to regulate hunger and satiety (Patel et al., 2008; Tsou, 2011; Van den Berg et al., 2008). Sleeprestricted individuals exhibit elevated levels of serum ghrelin (an appetite stimulant) and reduced levels of serum leptin (a satiety factor) (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Knutson and Van Cauter, 2008; Patel and Hu, 2008; Spiegel et al., 2004, 2009; Taheri et al., 2004). These changes increase perceived hunger, especially for caloriedense foods with high carbohydrate content (Spiegel et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Changes in sleep patterns often occur in older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and obesity risk in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends in lower-income countries. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to examine these relationships. Methods. Two hypotheses related to obesity risk and sleep patterns were tested using data from the first wave of the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). This longitudinal study draws on samples of older adults (>50 years old) in six middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russian Federation, and South Africa). Self-report data were used to measure sleep duration, sleep quality, lifestyle and sociodemographic information, while anthropometric measurements were collected to assess body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and obesity risk while controlling for lifestyle factors. Results. Shorter sleep durations in both men and women were significantly associated with higher BMI and WC measures (P < 0.05). Low sleep quality did not significantly contribute to increased obesity risk. Surprisingly, high sleep quality was significantly associated with increased male BMI and WC in China and India (P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study documented an association between short sleep duration and increased obesity risk, which is important given the global increase of obesity-related diseases. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · American Journal of Human Biology
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