Article

Occupational Asthma And Occupational Rhinitis In Hairdressers

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy
Chest (Impact Factor: 7.48). 12/2005; 128(5):3590-8. DOI: 10.1378/chest.128.5.3590
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Hairdressers are at risk for occupational respiratory diseases, but the risk factors, causal agents, and underlying mechanisms are not completely defined.
To describe the features of a large group of hairdressers consecutively referred to our center for suspected occupational asthma (OA) over an 8-year period, the type of occupational respiratory diseases, the etiologic agents, and the diagnostic tests.
Forty-seven hairdressers (mean age, 25 years; range, 17 to 52 years) were studied. On the basis of the response to the specific inhalation challenge (SIC), 24 patients received a diagnosis of OA (51.1%), which was due to persulfate salts in 21 patients (87.5%), permanent hair dyes in 2 patients (8.3%), and latex in 1 patient (4.2%). Thirteen of these 24 patients (54.2%) also received a diagnosis of occupational rhinitis, which was due to persulfate salts in 11 patients (84.6%) and to paraphenylenediamine in two patients (15.4%). Patients with persulfate asthma had a long period of exposure to bleaching agents, a long latent period between the start of exposure and the onset of symptoms, and a prevalent eosinophilic airway inflammation in induced sputum. The skin-prick test with ammonium persulfate performed in a subset of patients gave negative results
In the present study, we confirmed that persulfate salts are the major agents involved in OA and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers. The positive response to the SIC in only a part of the population of symptomatic exposed workers, the period between the starting of exposure and the onset of symptoms, the type of response to the SIC, and the high frequency of association of asthma with other diseases such as dermatitis and rhinitis suggest an immunologic mechanism that remains to be elucidated.

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    • "Asthma induced by low molecular weight (LMW) chemicals (Sastre et al., 2003) at the workplace is a common type of allergy, as 15–20% of all asthma cases are due to this type of exposure. Occupational asthma is described for several work environments, such as hospitals (Vellore et al., 2006) and hair salons (Moscato et al., 2005), and the socioeconomic-and medical impact is significant (Mapp et al., 2005; Toren and Blanc, 2009). There are currently no widely accepted tests available to identify respiratory sensitizers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chemicals that induce asthma at the workplace are substances of concern. At present, there are no widely accepted methods to identify respiratory sensitizers, and classification of these substances is based on human occupational data. Several studies have contributed to understanding the mechanisms involved in respiratory sensitization, although uncertainties remain. One point of interest for respiratory sensitization is the reaction of the epithelial lung barrier to respiratory sensitizers. To elucidate potential molecular effects of exposure of the epithelial lung barrier, a gene expression profile was created based on a DNA microarray experiment using the bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o(-). The cells were exposed to 12 respiratory sensitizers and 10 non-sensitizers. For statistical analysis, we used a class prediction approach that combined three machine learning algorithms, leave-one-compound-out cross validation, and majority voting per tested compound. This approach allowed for a prediction accuracy of 95%. Identified predictive genes were mainly associated with the cytoskeleton and barrier function of the epithelial cell. Several of these genes were reported to be associated with asthma as well. Taken together, this indicates that pulmonary barrier function is an important target for respiratory sensitizers and associated genes can be used to predict the respiratory sensitization potential of chemicals.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Toxicology in Vitro
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    • "In certain studies, it was demonstrated that major agents that caused occupational asthma and occupational rhinitis in hairdressers were persulphate salts. Hairdressers are at risk in respect of occupational respiratory diseases; however, risk factors, causing agents, and underlining mechanisms could not be defined exactly [22–24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: and Aim . It was observed that occupation and smoking increased each other’s effects on the development of airway diseases. We aimed to search the relationship between respiratory symptoms, smoking, and occupation. Materials and Methods . 225 employees in Düzce, Turkey, were applied a survey questioning respiratory complaints, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and cotinine measurements in urine. Results . Cough (26.7%), phlegm (30.7%), and chest tightness (21.3%) were encountered more in carpenters compared to other groups and phlegm was statistically higher at significant level compared to other groups. The complaints of cough (30.4%), phlegm (27.4%), and chest tightness (21.5%) were significantly higher in individuals whose cotinine level was above 500 ng/mL and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio, maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) values were significantly lower. Dyspnea complaint of auto painters whose cotinine level was below 500 ng/mL was significantly higher and also expected MMFR% value of this group was significantly lower compared to other groups. While age had independent effect on respiratory function tests, type of the job was found to be independently effective on MMFR. Conclusion . Smoking increases respiratory complaints of employees. In auto painters, the occupation causes airway disease regardless of smoking.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "Environmental stimulants, including indoor allergens, can affect the development of allergic responses [3]. Indoor allergens involved in this process can include arthropod allergens, mammalian allergens, fungal allergens, and also occupational allergens [3] [4] [5] [6]. Occupational asthma and allergic rhinitis are common respiratory diseases in industrialized countries [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study evaluated the frequencies of allergic symptoms and rate of upper respiratory infections during the past year in the general population, kitchen workers (KW) and health care workers (HCW). Methods: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used to inquire retrospectively about asthma and asthma-like symptoms and the number of treatments required for previous upper respiratory tract infections (URTI: acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, etc.) during the past year for health care workers, kitchen workers, and members of the general population. Adjusted odds ratios by gender, age, and smoking status were calculated. Results: 579 subjects (186 from the general population, 205 KW, and 188 HCW; 263 females, 316 males) participated in the study. Noninfectious (allergic) rhinitis was significantly higher in the HCW and KW groups than in the general population (P < 0.001). Cumulative asthma was significantly higher only in the HCW group (P < 0.05). In addition, the HCW and KW groups had significantly higher risks of ≥2/year URTI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07-2.38 versus OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.38) than the general population. Conclusion: Occupational allergic respiratory diseases are an important and growing health issue. Health care providers should become familiar with workplace environments and environmental causes of occupational rhinitis and asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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