Functional Outcome Scales in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (Extended) and the Functional Status Examination

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390-9055, USA.
Journal of Neurotrauma (Impact Factor: 3.71). 12/2005; 22(11):1319-26. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2005.22.1319
Source: PubMed


Clinical trials aimed at developing therapies for traumatic brain injury (TBI) require outcome measures that are reliable, validated, and easily administered. The most widely used of these measures, the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and the GOS-Extended (GOS-E), have been criticized as suffering from ceiling effects. In an attempt to develop a more useful and dynamic outcome measure, the Functional Status Examination (FSE) was developed, which grades outcome across 10 functional domains. The FSE has been demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive in monitoring recovery after TBI. This manuscript compares FSE with GOS-E in a cohort of patients with a wide range of injury severities. 177 individuals who survived at least 6 months after TBI were studied. The FSE and GOS-E were administered 6-12 months after injury. FSE and GOS-E scores correlated well with each other. FSE scores were distributed throughout the range, indicating that ceiling and floor effects were not present. Physiologic measures of injury severity (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS]) did not correlate with anatomic measures (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] and Injury Severity Score [ISS]). GCS correlated weakly with both outcome measures, but AIS/ISS did not. We conclude that FSE and GOS-E are reliable outcome measures for TBI survivors, and FSE may offer some advantages over GOS-E due its ability to provide a more detailed description of deficits. The majority of the variance in outcome is not accounted for by currently available measures of injury severity.

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    • "for daily function status). Each of these functional measures has been validated and used extensively in characterizing daily-life functioning in adults with TBI (Hudak et al., 2005; Shukla, Devi, & Agrawal, 2011). Overview of statistical analyses Descriptive analyses examined distribution patterns of participant characterization variables of age at testing, IQ, education, socioeconomic status, reading proficiency, and speed of processing as these variables could influence gist reasoning performance . "
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    ABSTRACT: Gist reasoning (abstracting meaning from complex information) was compared between adults with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, n = 30) at least one year post injury and healthy adults (n = 40). The study also examined the contribution of executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and switching) and memory (immediate recall and memory for facts) to gist reasoning. The correspondence between gist reasoning and daily function was also examined in the TBI group. Results indicated that the TBI group performed significantly lower than the control group on gist reasoning, even after adjusting for executive functions and memory. Executive function composite was positively associated with gist reasoning (p < .001). Additionally, performance on gist reasoning significantly predicted daily function in the TBI group beyond the predictive ability of executive function alone (p = .011). Synthesizing and abstracting meaning(s) from information (i.e., gist reasoning) could provide an informative index into higher order cognition and daily functionality.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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    • "Following the intervention, the patients received a loading dose of 150 mg of clopidogrel and 200 mg aspirin on day 1, followed by a dose of 75 mg clopidogrel or 100 mg aspirin per day. All patients were followed-up using the Glasgow outcome scale (extended) (GOS-E) [22] and by cerebral angiography within 12 months after the operation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ruptured intracranial aneurysm (ICA) with bleb formation (RICABF) is a special type of ruptured ICA. However, the exact role and effectiveness of endovascular coil embolization (ECE) in RICABF is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ECE of aneurysm neck for RICABF treatment. Material and methods: We retrospectively assessed consecutive patients who were hospitalized in our endovascular intervention center between October 2004 and May 2012. Overall, 86 patients underwent ECE of aneurysm neck for 86 RICABF. Treatments outcomes included secondary rupture/bleeding rate, aneurysm neck embolization rate, residual/recurrent aneurysm, intraoperative incidents, and post-embolization complications, as well as improvements in the Glasgow outcome scale (extended) (GOS-E). Results: Complete occlusion was achieved in 72 aneurysms (72/86, 83.7%), while 12 aneurysms (12/86, 14.0%) had a residual neck, and 2 aneurysms (2/86, 2.3%) had a residual aneurysm. The postoperative GOS-E was 3 in 3 patients (3.5%), 4 in 10 patients (11.6%), and 5 in 73 patients (84.9%). Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients (mean 9.0 months, interquartile range of 9.0). Recurrence was found in 3 patients (3/86, 3.5%). No aneurysm rupture or bleeding was reported. Conclusions: Our mid-term follow-up study showed that ECE of aneurysm neck was an effective and safe treatment modality for RICABF. The long-term effectiveness and safety of this interventional radiology technique need to be investigated in prospective and comparative studies.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
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    • "The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended describes the outcome on an 8-point scale ranging from 1 (death) to 8 (full recovery) without symptoms or signs. The extended version has less ceiling effect than the 5-point scale [23]. The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended also has better test-retest reliability than the GOS, respectively , κ = 0.98 and κ = 0.92 [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Major trauma is the leading cause of death in children of developed countries. However, little is known about its long-term health consequences in survivors. Our aim was to describe the health condition in children at long-term after major trauma. Prospective cohort study of severely injured children (Injury Severity Score > or =16, age <16) admitted to a Dutch level I trauma center in 1999 to 2000 (N = 40). About 7 years after trauma (median, 7.3; range, 6.3-8.2 years), survivors' health condition was assessed with the following: guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment of the American Medical Association (AMA-guides), Glasgow Outcome Scales (GOS/GOSE), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Of 40 children, 28 were followed up. Most (n = 16; 57%) had no impairments (AMA guides); minor to severe impairments were found in 12 of the respondents. About 80% (n = 22) had good recovery (GOS 5 and GOSE 7/8); the remaining had moderately disability (GOS 4 or GOSE 5/6). The mean scores on the VABS and the frequency of behavioral problems on the CBCL (24%) and the SDQ (20%) were comparable to healthy peers. This long-term follow-up study after major trauma revealed that most children had a health condition comparable to healthy peers; about 40% of the respondents was physically impaired or restricted in daily activities. Our experiences with different measures may be helpful to apply age-appropriate outcome measures for the clinical follow-up of children after major trauma and to design future longitudinal studies.
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