Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) - Commentary

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.59). 01/2006; 95(1):4-14. DOI: 10.1002/jps.20477
Source: PubMed


Literature data are reviewed on the properties of acetaminophen (paracetamol) related to the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS). According to the current BCS criteria, acetaminophen is BCS Class III compound. Differences in composition seldom, if ever, have an effect on the extent of absorption. However, some studies show differences in rate of absorption between brands and formulations. In particular, sodium bicarbonate, present in some drug products, was reported to give an increase in the rate of absorption, probably caused by an effect on gastric emptying. In view of Marketing Authorizations (MAs) given in a number of countries to acetaminophen drug products with rapid onset of action, it is concluded that differences in rate of absorption were considered therapeutically not relevant by the Health Authorities. Moreover, in view of its therapeutic use, its wide therapeutic index and its uncomplicated pharmacokinetic properties, in vitro dissolution data collected according to the relevant Guidances can be safely used for declaring bioequivalence (BE) of two acetaminophen formulations. Therefore, accepting a biowaiver for immediate release (IR) acetaminophen solid oral drug products is considered scientifically justified, if the test product contains only those excipients reported in this paper in their usual amounts and the test product is rapidly dissolving, as well as the test product fulfils the criterion of similarity of dissolution profiles to the reference product.

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    • "Cocrystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is an increasingly attractive technique to provide a new solid form with improved physicochemical properties such as melting point, dissolution rate, moisture uptake, stability, and bioavailability without chemical modification of API and may replace salt complex formation and polymorph formation (McNamara et al., 2006; Hickey et al., 2007; Basavoju et al., 2008; Sekhon, 2009). Paracetamol (acetyl-para-aminophenol, APAP) is a widely used antipyretic agent and is classified as a class III (high solubility, low permeability) compound in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) (Amidon et al., 1995; Kalantzi et al., 2006). Crystalline polymorphs of APAP were identified as stable form I (monoclinic, P2 1 / n), metastable form II (orthorhombic, Pcab), and form III (Pca2 1 ) (Wilson, 2000; Andre et al., 2012; Thomas et al., 2011; Chan and Goossens, 2012; Perrin et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Paracetamol (APAP), a frequently used antipyretic drug, has poor compression moldability. In this study, we identified a novel cocrystal consisting of APAP and trimethylglycine (TMG) that exhibits improved tabletability. TMG was used instead of oxalic acid (OXA), which is a coformer reported previously. The cocrystal (APAP-TMG at a molar ratio of 1:1) was characterized by X-ray analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The crystal structure of APAP-TMG revealed that it was a cocrystal, since no proton was transferred between the APAP and TMG molecules. The compression and dissolution properties of APAP-TMG were similar to that of the APAP-OXA cocrystal. In addition, taste sensing measurements suggested that TMG has a sweet and umami taste, indicating that TMG should suppress the bitterness of APAP. From these results, TMG could be a safe and promising cocrystal former that could replace OXA, which can irritate tissues.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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    • "According to the current BCS criteria (Biopharmaceutics Classification System), acetaminophen is a BCS Class III (high solubility and low permeability) and tramadol is a BCS Class I (high solubility and high permeability) compound [8] [11]. Paracetamol is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the small intestine with t max 30–90 min for tablets or capsules and 15 min for effervescent [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Tramadol/paracetamol is a fixed-dose combination prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain. The combination acts synergistically and guarantees the rapid onset of paracetamol and the prolonged analgesic effect of tramadol with good tolerability. These drugs are often used in various formulations in the treatment of patients with postoperative pain, e.g. after stomach resection. Gastrectomy leads to pathophysiological changes within the alimentary tract, which may affect the process of drug absorption. The aim of the research was an analysis of the pharmacokinetics of tramadol/paracetamol from effervescent and conventional tablets in patients after total gastrectomy. Methods: The research was carried out on patients after gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The patients received two tramadol/paracetamol fixed-dose combination tablets in a single orally administered dose of 75/650 mg (2 × 37.5/325 mg). The patients were subjected to one of the two study drug group with: I. effervescent tablet (ET) (n = 14; mean [SD] age, 63.4 [10.1] years; weight, 75.5 [15.3]kg; and BMI, 26.0 [4.6]kg/m(2)) and II. conventional tablet (CT) (n = 12; mean [SD] age, 66.8 [7.7] years; weight, 79.8 [17.8]kg; and BMI, 27.4 [5.3]kg/m(2)). Blood samples were collected within 10 h after the drug administration. The plasma concentrations of tramadol and paracetamol were measured with validated HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) method with UV detection. Results: The comparison of the paracetamol and tramadol C(max) ratio for the ET group with that of the CT group gave ratios of 1.16 [90% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.27] and 0.86 (90% CI 0.72, 1.02), respectively. The comparison of the paracetamol and tramadol AUC(0-t) ratio for the ET group with that of the CT group showed ratios of 0.99 (90% CI 0.88, 1.10) and 1.00 (90% CI 0.82, 1.22), respectively. The comparison of the difference for the effervescent and conventional formulation gave an estimated decrease in t(max) of 0.5 h for paracetamol and 0.13 h for tramadol. Conclusions: In view of the changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and tramadol in the patients after gastric resection for both formulations compared the conventional tablet seems to be more appropriate due to the comparable rate of absorption of both substances, higher concentrations of tramadol and comparable exposure to paracetamol.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Pharmacological reports: PR
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    • "Acetaminophen is a model molecule for small molecular weight compounds (MW of 151.2 Da) with a molecular radius of approximately 0.36 nm [17] and a logP n-octanol/water of 0.2–0.89 [18]. Insulin has been chosen as a model protein. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate porcine sclera as a model of human sclera for in vitro studies of transscleral drug delivery of both low and high molecular weight compounds. Human and porcine scleras were characterized for thickness and water content. The tissue surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the histology was studied with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Comparative permeation experiments were performed using three model molecules, acetaminophen as the model compound for small molecules; a linear dextran with a molecular weight of 120 kDa as the model compound for high molecular weight drugs; and insulin, which was chosen as the model protein. Permeation parameters such as flux, lag time, and permeability coefficient were determined and compared. Human and porcine scleras have a similar histology and collagen bundle organization. The water content is approx 70% for both tissues while a statistically significant difference was found for the thickness, porcine sclera being approximately twofold thicker than human sclera. Differences in thickness produced differences in the permeability coefficient. In fact, human sclera was found to be two to threefold more permeable toward the three molecules studied than porcine sclera. The results obtained in the present paper prove that porcine sclera can be considered a good model for human sclera for in vitro permeation experiments of both low and high molecular weight compounds. In fact, if the different tissue thickness is taken into account, comparable permeability was demonstrated. This suggests a possible use of this model in the evaluation of the transscleral permeation of new biotech compounds, which currently represent the most innovative and efficient therapeutic options for the treatment of ocular diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Molecular vision
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