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Effect of Caffeine on the Body Fat and Lipid Metabolism of Rats Fed on a High-Fat Diet

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Abstract

The intake of caffeine (CF) at 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1% for 21 days progressively reduced the body fat mass and body fat percentage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed on a high-fat diet with increasing administration level. Moreover, CF increased the serum concentrations of catecholamines and free fatty acids in SD rats orally administered with CF (5 mg/kg). These results suggest that the intake of CF reduced body fat by lipolysis via catecholamines. CF has potential as a functional food ingredient with an anti-obesity action.

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... Thus, the caffeine may act independently or synergistically with catechins and theaflavins of GTD and BTD [23]. The anti-obesity effect of caffeine from tea, especially in animals, has been observed in different experimental conditions [35]. Hence, the intake of caffeine doses (0.025-0.1%) for 21 days reduced body fat mass gain in rats fed a high-fat diet in a dose dependant manner [35]. ...
... The anti-obesity effect of caffeine from tea, especially in animals, has been observed in different experimental conditions [35]. Hence, the intake of caffeine doses (0.025-0.1%) for 21 days reduced body fat mass gain in rats fed a high-fat diet in a dose dependant manner [35]. This reduction was concomitant with an increase of serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and free fatty acid levels, suggesting an active catecholamine synthesis and lipolysis [35]. ...
... Hence, the intake of caffeine doses (0.025-0.1%) for 21 days reduced body fat mass gain in rats fed a high-fat diet in a dose dependant manner [35]. This reduction was concomitant with an increase of serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and free fatty acid levels, suggesting an active catecholamine synthesis and lipolysis [35]. In addition, the caffeine consumption showed to inhibit the enzyme phosphodiesterase and leading to increase intracellular cAMP as well as sympathetic nervous system and lipase activities, which promotes lipolysis [36]. ...
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Background/Aims: In contrast to the usual tea infusion, the anti-obesity effect of tea decoction (TD) is poorly documented. Here, we compared and contrasted the chronic effect of short-time decoction (15-min) of green versus black tea (GTD, BTD) prepared at a dose of 5% on lipid digestion and weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. Methods: The rats were assigned into three groups (n = 10–12 each) and given ad libitum the HFD + water (CTRL) or GTD (GTGr) or BTD (BTGr). The food and fluid intake were measured daily and weight gains once/week. The fecal matters were collected twice/week for TPC, caffeine, total lipids and triglycerides (TG) analysis. In addition, the liver, perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues (AT) were removed and blood was collected for the same analysis and leptine level. Results: 10-weeks TD consumption increased fecal TG excretion (+170 in GTGr and +230% in BTGr; P
... The intracellular signal can be sustained for a longer period by the inhibition of PDEs such as methylxanthines that are present in caffeine. Caffeine has also been associated with loss in body weight and increased energy expenditure in humans and animal models [4][5][6][7]. These studies indicate the strong relationship between caffeine intake and lipid metabolism. ...
... Previous studies have suggested that caffeine intake affects lipid metabolism [7,24,25]. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate lipid metabolism regulation by caffeine intake in C. elegans. GC-TOF-MS chromatography was performed to analyze changes in fatty acid composition owing to caffeine intake. ...
... We also recently reported the reduced fertility caused by defective oocytes and eggshell integrity resulting from the decreased production of yolk protein owing to caffeine intake in adultstage C. elegans [13], thereby suggesting that caffeine modulates metabolism. Here, we further examined the effects of caffeine intake on metabolism by analyzing lipid composition in caffeine-fed animals because caffeine intake is known to be closely linked to lipid metabolism [4][5][6][7]. We found that caffeine intake significantly reduced the level of PE, leading to a decrease in mitochondrial activity and disruption in mitochondrial morphology. ...
Article
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Caffeine intake is strongly linked to lipid metabolism. We previously reported the age-dependent physiological effects of caffeine intake in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Since nutritional status can actively influence metabolism and overall health, in this study, we evaluated the effect of caffeine intake on lipid metabolism in adult-stage C. elegans. We found that, in C. elegans, fat storage and the level of phosphoethanolamine (PE) were significantly reduced with caffeine intake. In addition, mitochondrial activity decreased and mitochondrial morphology was disrupted, and the expression of oxidative stress response genes, hsp-6, gst-4, and daf-16, was induced by caffeine intake. Furthermore, the level of an energy metabolism sensor, phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, was increased, whereas the expression of the sterol regulatory element binding protein gene and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes, fat-5, -6, and -7, was decreased with caffeine intake. These findings suggest that caffeine intake causes mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces lipogenesis. Interestingly, these changes induced by caffeine intake were partially alleviated by PE supplementation, suggesting that the reduction in mitochondrial activity and lipogenesis is in part because of the low PE level, and proper dietary supplementation can improve organelle integrity.
... DM diet was balanced to have the same total chlorogenic acid content as MT. The dose (0.1% caffeine in the diet) for the in vivo study was selected on the basis of a previous study using a wider caffeine range (Kobayashi-Hattori, Mogi, Matsumoto, & Takita, 2005), and considering a physiological range. Diet calories derived from 40% fat, 45% carbohydrate (30% sucrose), and 15% protein. ...
... This anti-adipogenic potential was associated with decreased gene expression of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (Creb) 1, C/EBPα, and Pparγ (Arçari et al., 2013). Moreover, caffeine has also evidenced its potential in the prevention of weight and fat gain (Kobayashi-Hattori et al., 2005). Nevertheless, the weight of the liver did not suffer any change among treatments; only DM seemed to trigger an increase in the liver. ...
Article
The objective was to examine the effectiveness of mate tea (MT, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) and caffeine from mate tea (MC) on in vitro lipid accumulation and in vivo diet-driven-obesity. MC and decaffeinated mate (DM) were obtained using supercritical CO2 extraction and mainly composed of caffeine and caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. MC reduced lipid accumulation (41%) via downregulation of fatty acid synthase (Fasn) (39%) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Rats fed a high-fat-high-sucrose-diet and 0.1% of caffeine from MC, MT, or DM. MC attenuated weight gain (16%) and body fat accumulation (22%). MC reduced Fasn expression in both adipose tissue (66%) and liver (37%). MC diminished pyruvate kinase (Pkm, 59%) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp, 50%) hepatic expression. In silico, neochlorogenic acid interacted with PK and MTP allosteric sites. FAS β‐ketoacyl reductase domain showed the highest affinity to 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Caffeine suppressed lipid accumulation and body weight gain, through the modulation of lipogenic gene expression.
... Caffeine, another major component of green tea, is also known for its anti-obesity effects. Caffeine increases serum free fatty acid levels by inducing lipolysis and decreases serum and hepatic TG in high-fat fed rats (Kobayashi-Hattori, Mogi, Matsumoto, & Takita, 2005). Prior studies have also demonstrated that subcutaneous administration of caffeine upregulates the expression of UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue, which contributes to thermogenesis in obese mice (Kogure et al., 2002). ...
... Kobayashi-Hattori et al. demonstrated that caffeine treatment, which were the same doses used in the present study, markedly reduced body weight gain and body fat mass in high-fat diet-fed rats. Moreover, the caffeine treatments significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (Kobayashi-Hattori et al., 2005). This is consistent with our results (Table 2). ...
... There are many active chemical compounds in food that may affect adipose tissue by inducing, for example, lipolysis, or completely affect the apoptosis of adipocytes [6]. The results of scienti c studies show the effect of given lipotropic factors based on in vitro studies conducted on murine models of adipose tissue [5,[7][8][9] as well as in vivo studies [7,[10][11][12][13]. Regulation of lipolysis occurs at many levels in response to changing metabolic conditions and nutrient intake. ...
... Consumption of methylxanthines may also contribute to weight loss or maintenance [39]. In the work of Kobayashi-Hattori et al. [9] it was shown that administering caffeine to rats in a dose of 5 mg / kg for 21 days gradually decreased the weight and the percentage of adipose tissue in Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be suggested that in the case of a high-fat diet, caffeine consumption enhanced lipolysis mediated by catecholamines. ...
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Background Scientific literature provides more and more information on compounds supporting fat metabolism. More research is needed to fully characterize the effects of compounds that increase concentration triglycerides. The aim of our study was to test the influence of caffeine and genistein consumption on triglyceride status in athletes. Methods Fourteen Polish adult sub-elite soccer players (23.1 ± 2.1 years; 179.6 ± 8.5 cm; 74.1 ± 8.5 kg; 12.4 ± 3.8% body fat) were accepted for research. The athletes for this randomized, double-blind study were joining fasted. After consuming a standardized milk meal, participants took caffeine (400 mg), genistein (120 mg), or placebo (400 mg of vitamin C). Athletes ate the compound if it saw a sequentially increase and decrease in triglyceride concentration after eating the test meal. Participants had their glucose levels measured every 15 minutes with a glucometer (Accu-Chek Active) and their triglyceride levels with CardioChek PA. The subject was terminating the study when he had sequentially increased and decreased triglyceride concentration after the compound. If no such reaction occurred, measurements were taken for up to 90 minutes. In order to determine statistically significant differences between the variables, non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and U Mann-Whitney tests were used. The significance level of α = 0.05 was adopted for both of these tests. The relationships between the variables were determined using the Spearman R correlation. The correlations were statistically significant at p ≤ 0.100. Results A statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the initial and maximum triglyceride concentration after caffeine consumption compared to placebo (p = 0.049). After consuming caffeine, the athletes had a significant difference in trigliceride concentration at 30 min (p = 0.018) and 60 min (p = 0.036) compared to placebo. In the group taking genistein, only a statistically significant difference was noticed compared to placebo only in 60 min (p = 0.029). Conclusion Our research results show that after acute caffeine and genistein supplementation, triglyceride concentration increase in soccer players.
... In this regard, CS emerges as a natural source of several bioactive compounds, such as CGA, caffeine, and melanoidins (Table 12.1). The anti-obesity effect (reduction of the body fat mass and body fat percentage) of coffee may be attributed to caffeine [27], CGAs [28] and melanoidins that are also present in CS. A significant dosedependent effect on reducing body fat accumulation was found for pure CGA (3.54 mg/L) and caffeine (4.85 mg/L), achieving approximately 30% reduction of lipid deposits in Caenorhabditis elegans used as an in vivo animal model [17]. ...
Chapter
Coffee silverskin (CS) is a thin tegument of the outer layer of the coffee bean and it is the only by‐product of the roasting process. CS and its derivatives are a source of bioactive compounds, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA), caffeine, melanoidins, and dietary fiber, among others, with putative health benefits. To date, the health‐promoting properties of CS are mainly attributed to its powerful antioxidant character. It also presents anti‐inflammatory effects, although few reports have been published. In addition, this coffee by‐product shows potential beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal health as a prebiotic and source of dietary fiber. The health‐promoting properties associated with dietary fiber are intestinal regulation, increased satiety, and slimming. The in vitro antidiabetic effect of CS has been initially associated with its capacity to inhibit α‐glucosidase and lipase activities, which is related to metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Other beneficial effects of CS have been described on skin health. The aim of this chapter is to review the use of CS as a functional food ingredient for preventing metabolic disorders and improving gastrointestinal and skin health; the data presented here support the valorization of CS to achieve a sustainable health.
... Authors noted reducing the body fat mass and body fat percentage in a dose-dependent manner in rats fed with a high-fat diet, presumably because of increased lipolysis via catecholamines. Rats receiving 0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1% caffeine had about 7, 10, and 11 g less body fat mass and 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5% less body fat percentage, respectively, than rats from the control group (12). Caff eine has penetrating properties, unchanged by the thickness of the skin or the occlusive layer. ...
Article
Plants are a rich source of a wide variety of bioactive compounds that can be used for the preparation of cosmetics. Natural cosmetics with plant components such as vitamins, polyphenols, and alkaloids have become more and more popular. Alkaloids are important secondary metabolites in plants. They are known to possess therapeutic properties. Alkaloids can be used in the production of tonics, creams, lotions, face and hair masks, compresses for skin problems with numerous inflammations, and discoloration and antiaging products, as well as for reducing the formation of cellulitis. Alkaloids are also used in the production of ampoules for cosmetologists and aesthetic medicine doctors. However, at higher doses, they may exhibit toxic properties. Several studies have been carried out in evaluation of the activity of alkaloids from various plants for their use in cosmetics. This review describes alkaloids (caffeine, capsaicin, berberine, piperine, spilanthol, and anatabine) derived from various plants that are used in cosmetics, as well as their reported activities.
... Animal studies indicate that brown and beige cells could be activated through nutrients such as capsaicin analogs 10,11 , and capsinoids exert similar effects in increasing BAT-dependent energy expenditure as cold exposure 12 . Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxantine), a plant alkaloid found in coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate, is widely consumed, has been associated with weight loss and increased energy expenditure in both human and animal models in vivo, and reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes [13][14][15][16][17][18] . Although caffeine has been reported to upregulate UCP1 in obese mice 19 , the extent to which caffeine (or coffee) may directly stimulate BAT is not known. ...
Article
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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is able to rapidly generate heat and metabolise macronutrients, such as glucose and lipids, through activation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Diet can modulate UCP1 function but the capacity of individual nutrients to promote the abundance and activity of UCP1 is not well established. Caffeine consumption has been associated with loss of body weight and increased energy expenditure, but whether it can activate UCP1 is unknown. This study examined the effect of caffeine on BAT thermogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Stem cell-derived adipocytes exposed to caffeine (1 mM) showed increased UCP1 protein abundance and cell metabolism with enhanced oxygen consumption and proton leak. These functional responses were associated with browning-like structural changes in mitochondrial and lipid droplet content. Caffeine also increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha expression and mitochondrial biogenesis, together with a number of BAT selective and beige gene markers. In vivo, drinking coffee (but not water) stimulated the temperature of the supraclavicular region, which co-locates to the main region of BAT in adult humans, and is indicative of thermogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that caffeine can promote BAT function at thermoneutrality and may have the potential to be used therapeutically in adult humans.
... Adipose tissue was removed from euthanized rats and extracted with chloroform-methanol (2:1). Percentage body fat was calculated as previously described (29). ...
Article
Although stress is one of the risk factors of diabetes, few studies have assessed the effects of stress on diabetic rats. This study therefore analyzed differences in cardiovascular-related factors among control, non-stressed diabetic, and stressed diabetic rats, as well as assessed the effects of linalyl acetate (LA) on stressed diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to immobilization stress throughout the entire experimental period, and diabetes was induced on day 15 by a single injection of streptozotocin. After confirming the induction of diabetes, stressed diabetic rats were administered LA (10 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) or metformin (500 mg/kg) for the last 7 days. Compared with non-stressed diabetic rats, stressed diabetic rats had significantly lower body weight, body fat percentage, ACh-induced vasorelaxation, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and NF-κB expression, as well as increased serum nitrite concentration. Although metformin increased serum insulin concentration significantly, LA 100 mg/kg showed only an increasing tendency. However, treatment with LA 100 mg/kg not only reduced serum glucose and NF-κB expression, but restored ACh-induced vasorelaxation, SBP, DBP, HR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and serum nitrite almost to control levels. Importantly, LA 100 mg/kg was more effective than metformin in ameliorating serum glucose, eNOS expression, HR, and serum nitrite. These findings suggest that chronic stress can aggravate endothelial dysfunction and hemodynamic alterations in diabetes and that LA may have potent therapeutic efficacy in diabetic patients with cardiovascular disease complications or chronic stress.
... Caffeine is not only known for its stimulatory effect (Sharangi 2009), but contributes to tea briskness and other taste characteristics, which is considered an important parameter for the evaluation of tea quality (Obanda et al. 1997;Nitin et al. 2006). Caffeine has also been reported to suppress body weight gain by suppressing food intake and reducing adipose tissue (Kobayashi-Hattori et al. 2005). These health benefits associated with tea intake have led to high consumption of tea products as tea extracts in pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and cosmetic industries. ...
Article
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Tea (Camellia sinensis) contains polyphenols and caffeine which have been found to be of popular interest in tea quality. Tea production relies on well-distributed rainfall which influence tea quality. Phenotypic data for two segregating tea populations TRFK St 504 and TRFK St 524 were collected and used to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing tea biochemical and drought stress traits based on a consensus genetic map constructed using the DArTseq platform. The populations comprised 261 F1 clonal progeny. The map consisted of 15 linkage groups which corresponds to chromosome haploid number of tea plant (2n = 2× = 30) and spanned 1260.1 cM with a mean interval of 1.1 cM between markers. A total of 16 phenotypic traits were assessed in the two populations. Both interval and multiple QTL mapping revealed a total of 47 putative QTL in the 15 LGs associated with tea quality and percent relative water content at a significant genome-wide threshold of 5%. In total, six caffeine QTL, 25 catechins QTL, three theaflavins QTL, nine QTL for tea taster score, and three QTL for percent relative water contents were detected. Out of these 47 QTL, 19 QTL were identified for ten traits in three main regions on LG01, LG02, LG04, LG12, LG13, and LG14. The QTL associated with caffeine, individual catechins, and theaflavins were clustered mostly in LG02 and LG04 but in different regions on the map. The explained variance by each QTL in the population ranged from 5.5 to 56.6%, with an average of 9.9%. Identification of QTL that are tightly linked to markers associated with black tea quality coupled with UPLC assay may greatly accelerate development of novel tea cultivars owing to its amenability at seedling stage. In addition, validated molecular markers will contribute greatly to adoption of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for drought tolerance and tea quality improvement.
... Químicamente pertenece a las metilxantinas y es un estimulante del sistema nervioso central 15 , provocando además relajación muscular, diuresis y broncodilatación 7 . Un estudio realizado en ratas demostró que la administración de cafeína por vía oral a dosis de 5 mg/kg de peso incrementa las concentraciones séricas de catecolaminas y ácidos grasos libres, reduciendo la grasa corporal por lipólisis mediada por los agentes adrenérgicos 13 . Para inducir experimentalmente la DM se han empleado diversas sustancias, entre los cuales destaca la streptozotocina (STZ), antibiótico de amplio espectro que posee propiedades antitumorales, oncogénicas y diabetogénicas 6 , por destrucción selectiva de las células beta de los islotes pancreáticos. ...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting various organs and tissues, being its main feature the high blood glucose level that leads to a series of alterations that makes animals' everyday life challenging. It has been reported that caffeine modifies the metabolism of glucose, lipids and proteins. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine on hyperglycemia, trigliceridemia and cholesterolemia in mice with experimental diabetes mellitus. Female mice were used with an average weight of 35 g, divided into three groups: controls, diabetic (D) and diabetics treated with caffeine (C). Diabetes was induced by the administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg for 5 days). On days 0, 20 and 35 blood plasma was analyzed to determine glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol. Caffeine was administered for 15 days in the drinking water at a concentration of 0.7 mg/ml. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p<0.05). Results reveal a significant difference in the values of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol between D and C groups. It was evident that group C had lower levels for all the parameters. It can be concluded that caffeine decreases blood levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides and may well improve their metabolism in patients with diabetes.
... Contrary to many reports describing the body weight reduction caused by the regular consumption of roasted and green coffee [20], in our study this effect occurred only at an excessive intake of fat (the CF, FGCE and FβCD-CGAs diets). This suggests that caffeine could play the crucial role in weight reduction with proper diet (no significant effects with CB, BGCE and BβCD-CGAs diets, P > 0.05) [21]. The GCE contained some fiber, which may reduce the bioavailability of fats and can also lead to a limited weight gain [22]. ...
Article
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Green coffee is one of health-promoting supplements of the diet, applied in the form of either preparations or enriched food products. Its positive impact is manifested by mitigation of the development of certain tumors, e.g., in the colon and liver, and type 2 diabetes. Many studies proved that chlorogenic acids are the main active substances in green coffee. The bioavailability of these compounds depends among others on their interactions with other components of the diet, mainly proteins. When they are used as food ingredients, their bioavailability is additionally decreased because of the decomposition or interactions with other ingredients during food processing. The undesirable changes may be limited among others by microencapsulation, for example with β-cyclodextrin. In this study, rats were fed the pro-oxidative high fat diet, which was supplemented with chlorogenic acids from green coffee that were used in four forms such as: a purified extract, complexes of chlorogenic acids and β-cyclodextrin, and bread supplemented with either the extract or the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. Chlorogenic acids added to bread because of the reduced absorption from the crumb in the small intestine and increased passage to the colon, contributed to the beneficial modification of enzymatic activities of intestinal microbiota. When added directly to the diet, they contributed to the improved antioxidant status in the liver and kidneys, lowered glucose level and increased HDL level. A high ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione in the liver and a high concentration of antioxidants in the blood serum were observed after administration of chlorogenic acids in the form of inclusion complexes with β-cyclodextrin, indicating that microencapsulation increased their bioaccessibility due to the limited interactions with other components of the diet.
... However, the lipolytic activity observed in Tanaka's study could be attributed to caffeine. Other studies demonstrated that caffeine may reduce obesity by stimulating catecholamine (important regulators of lipolysis) secretion [96]. Current evidence corroborates the beneficial effects of CGA on body weight in dietinduced obese rats through modulating PPARα [49]. ...
Article
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Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important biologically active dietary polyphenol, is produced by certain plant species and is a major component of coffee. Reduction in the risk of a variety of diseases following CGA consumption has been mentioned in recent basic and clinical research studies. This systematic review discusses in vivo animal and human studies of the physiological and biochemical effects of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) on biomarkers of chronic disease. We searched PubMed, Embase, Amed and Scopus using the following search terms: ("chlorogenic acid" OR "green coffee bean extract") AND (human OR animal) (last performed on April 1st, 2015) for relevant literature on the in vivo effects of CGAs in animal and human models, including clinical trials on cardiovascular, metabolic, cancerogenic, neurological and other functions. After exclusion of editorials and letters, uncontrolled observations, duplicate and not relevant publications the remaining 94 studies have been reviewed. The biological properties of CGA in addition to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects have recently been reported. It is postulated that CGA is able to exert pivotal roles on glucose and lipid metabolism regulation and on the related disorders, e.g. diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, and hepatic steatosis. The wide range of potential health benefits of CGA, including its anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity impacts, may provide a non-pharmacological and non-invasive approach for treatment or prevention of some chronic diseases. In this study, the effects of CGAs on different aspects of health by reviewing the related literatures have been discussed.
... The observed increase in the circulating catecholamine in response to caffeine in this study agrees with a few earlier reported acute studies in humans 4 and rats. 31 Earlier reports explained that the increase in serum adrenaline and ...
... Químicamente pertenece a las metilxantinas y es un estimulante del sistema nervioso central 15 , provocando además relajación muscular, diuresis y broncodilatación 7 . Un estudio realizado en ratas demostró que la administración de cafeína por vía oral a dosis de 5 mg/kg de peso incrementa las concentraciones séricas de catecolaminas y ácidos grasos libres, reduciendo la grasa corporal por lipólisis mediada por los agentes adrenérgicos 13 . Para inducir experimentalmente la DM se han empleado diversas sustancias, entre los cuales destaca la streptozotocina (STZ), antibiótico de amplio espectro que posee propiedades antitumorales, oncogénicas y diabetogénicas 6 , por destrucción selectiva de las células beta de los islotes pancreáticos. ...
Article
Ruiz, S.; Lucena, E.; Linarez, R.; Matheus, N.; Mendoza, C.: Efecto de la cafeína sobre parámetros sanguíneos de ratones con diabetes mellitus inducida por streptozotocina. Rev. vet. 26: 2, 120-123, 2015.
... Banerjee et al. [18] report that a single dose of green tea extract was capable of increasing hepatic AMPK level and phosphorylation of LKB1, demonstrating the potent effects of green tea on these molecules. Studies with similar bioactive compounds have suggested that EGCG could prevent peripheral insulin resistance induced by the increase in NEFA level and that this protective effect may be associated with the inhibition of oxidative stress and AMPK signaling activation30313233343536. Stimulation of AMPK phosphorylation, which in turn inhibits ACC and FAS activity, could reduce the accumulation of hepatic TAGs. ...
Article
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Supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been determined to aid in the prevention of obesity. Decaffeinated green tea extract appears to restore a normal hepatic metabolic profile and attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced effects, thereby preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Mice were maintained on either a control diet (CD) or HFD for 16 weeks and supplemented with either water or green tea extract (50 mg/kg/day). The body mass increase, serum adiponectin level, and lipid profile were measured over the course of the treatment. Furthermore, the AMPK pathway protein expression in the liver was measured. From the fourth week, the weight gain in the CD + green tea extract (CE) group was lower than that in the CD + water (CW) group. From the eighth week, the weight gain in the HFD + water (HFW) group was found to be higher than that in the CW group. Moreover, the weight gain in the HFD + green tea extract (HFE) group was found to be lower than that in the HFW group. Carcass lipid content was found to be higher in the HFW group than that in the CW and HFE groups. Serum analysis showed reduced non-esterified fatty acid level in the CE and HFE groups as compared with their corresponding placebo groups. Increased adiponectin level was observed in the same groups. Increased VLDL-TG secretion was observed in the HFW group as compared with the CW and HFE groups. Increased protein expression of AdipoR2, SIRT1, pLKB1, and pAMPK was observed in the HFE group, which explained the reduced expression of ACC, FAS, SREBP-1, and ChREBP in this group. These results indicate that the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract may be related to the activation of AMPK via LKB1 in the liver of HFD-fed mice.
... Polymethoxyflavones, the major components of orange peel, have been found to render health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-thrombogenic and anti-atherogenic properties Lai et al., 2007;Middleton et al., 2000). Caffeine was also effective in suppressing body weight gain by stimulating thermogenesis, extending sympathetic stimulation, suppressing food intake and reducing adipose tissue mass (Kobayashi-Hattori, Mogi, Matsumoto, & Takita, 2005;Tremblay, Masson, Leduc, Houde, & Despres, 1988). In addition, hydroxytyrosol, one of the major phenolic constituents in olive oil, was reported to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis by itself (Salami, Galli, De Angelis, & Visioli, 1995;Tuck & Hayball, 2002). ...
... Similar results were found by Abdel-Tawwab (2015a) who reported that RCP supplementation increased lipid content and decreased protein content in Nile tilapia body. Kobayashi-Hattori et al. (2005) reported that caffeine induced lipolysis reducing body fat in rats fed a high-fat diet. Contrarily, Chatzifotis et al. (2008) found that caffeine cannot reduce the lipid content of white muscle and liver in sea bream. ...
... As protein content of whole tilapia bodies decreased with increasing GRC inclusion level, lipid content decreased. These results disagree with Kobayashi-Hattori et al. (2005), who reported that caffeine induced lipolysis, ...
Article
This study was conducted to use ground roasted coffee bean (GRC; Coffee arabia) as a feed supplement in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (1.9 ± 0.03 g) were fed diets containing 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 5.0 g GRC/kg in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final fish weight, weight gain, and specific growth rate were not significantly (P Keywords: Body composition; Nile tilapia; coffee bean; feed utilization; fish growth Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2015.1007021 Affiliations: Department of Fish Biology and Ecology, Central Laboratory for Aquaculture Research, Abbassa, Abo-Hammad, Sharqia, Egypt Publication date: January 2, 2015 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Abdel-Tawwab GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
... Moreover, lipid levels such as TC and TG in the serum and liver were decreased in the HFDC group, accompanied by decreased GPDH and LPL enzyme activities, both of which are indicators of lipid metabolism and function to increase TG accumulation [25,26]. A number of studies have demonstrated that weight gain caused by increasing fat content is delayed by caffeine consumption in the HFD group [20,27]. In addition, Sinha et al. [28] have reported that caffeine induces autophagy and increases lipolysis in the hepatic cell, which plays a negative role in fat accumulation. ...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.
... Similar finding was also reported by Mohmoud et al. in which feeding on different doses of Arabic coffee for 30 days lowered body weight in rats fed on basal diet [14]. The possible mechanism by which coffee prevented higher body weight gain in the present study could be by increasing lipolysis via catecholamines [15,16]. Caffeine might also have caused body weight loss by increasing physical activity. ...
Article
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Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide and is assumed to have protective effects against metabolic syndrome. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of coffee on body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels in male albino Wistar rats feeding on high fructose diet. A post-test experimental study was conducted on a total of 30 (9–10 weeks old) male albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups: group I (normal control)-fed on standard chow and plain tap water only; group II (fructose control)-fed on standard chow and 20% of fructose solution; group III–VI (treatment groups)-fed on standard chow, 20% of fructose solution and treated with 71, 142, 213 and 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee respectively for six weeks. At the end, body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels were investigated. Data was entered and cleared by epi-data software version 3.1 and analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS V. 23.00. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The results showed that body weight, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels significantly lowered in rats treated with 213 (p = 0.047; 0.049; 0.026) and 284 (p = 0.035; 0.029; 0.010) mg/kg body weight/day of coffee compared to fructose control group. Fasting serum triglycide (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels showed significant reduction in rats treated with 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee as compared to fructose control group (p = 0.031; 0.046) respectively. In conclusion, treating rats with coffee decreased body weight, fasting serum glucose, uric acid, TC, TG and LDL-C, and increased HDL-C in a dose dependent manner in rats feeding on high fructose diet, suggesting that coffee consumption may be helpful in ameliorating metabolic syndrome.
... Huang et al., 2009) found that antioxidant phenolic compounds in orange peel, black tea extract, caffeine could suppress the body weight gain and adipose tissue formation. In particular, caffeine could lose weight by suppressing food intake and reducing adipose tissue mass (Kobayashi-Hattori et al., 2005;Tremblay et al., 1988). Resveratrol, a robust antioxidant product mainly found in red wine, was reported to be one of the most effective in obesity treatment (Rayalam et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
apeseed and sunflower are the most cultivated oilseed plants in Europe in general, and in France in particular. Some industrialists are currently focusing on the development of industrial processes for the extraction/purification of proteins from the oil cakes of these two plants. These processes generate co-products which are saline aqueous effluents rich in phenolic compounds such as cholorgenic acid (CGA, for sunflower) and sinapine (SP, for rapeseed). The capture of these phenolic compounds, which can act as natural antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory agents in nutrition and health, is therefore a promising way of valorization. The main objectives of this work were: 1) to characterize and identify the phenolic compounds of protein isolate by-products from SFM and RSM; 2) to select the best macroporous resins and to study the adsorption mechanism of phenolic compounds; 3) to optimize the conditions in the phenolic compounds adsorption column; and 4) to evaluate the biological activities of the obtained phenolic fractions, especially the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.By different analytical methods, we determined that the liquid effluents consisted of phenolic compounds, amino acids, carbohydrates, and salt, which have a low molecular weight and can easily pass through a UF/DF membrane. All phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis in comparison with standards. CGA is the main phenolic compound in the sunflower effluent. The main phenolic compound of rapeseed effluents is MS. Unlike sunflower, they also contain many other minor compounds. The adsorption/desorption of sunflower and rapeseed phenolic compounds was evaluated using different macroporous resins including XAD4, XAD7, XAD16, XAD1180 and HP20. We found that all phenolic compounds adsorbed readily onto the resins. XAD7 and XAD16 resins showed the best adsorption/desorption properties in sunflower and rapeseed liquid effluents, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption of all phenolic compounds follows a Langmuir model. According to the determined thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption process, is in all cases physical and is exothermic.The optimal condition for column adsorption was determined on the selected resins by experimental planning and multicriteria optimization. A multicriteria optimization methodology based on design of experiments showed the optimal conditions were adsorption flow rate of 15 BV/h at pH 2.7 for CGA from SFM. Meanwhile, adsorption flow rate of 13.3 BV/h and at pH ranging from 2 to 5 were the optimal conditions for sinapine from RSM. Ethanol solutions 50% (v/v) for chlorogenic acid, 70% (v/v) for sinapine were used for desorption.These approaches successfully produced the phenolic fractions for biological activities such as antioxidation and anti-inflammation. Phenolic fraction showed a higher antioxidant capacity than vitamin C in DPPH and ABTS assays (IC50/phenolic fractions < IC50 vitamin C, p < 0.05. In addition, it was discussed whether the phenolic fractions obtained in this project also showed an inflammatory effect. The sunflower fraction (CGA) effectively inhibited the production of TNF-α, which is a pro-inflammatory marker when a sample is treated with LPS. However, the rapeseed fractions were not effective against proinflammatory mediators. None of the fractions showed cytotoxicity.
... Caffeine has been reported to have anti-obesity and positive metabolic effects when consumed in adulthood [5]. Animal studies have shown that oral administration of caffeine (5 mg/kg of body weight) can increase lipolysis via catecholamine release, and rats fed on a diet with 0.05% 1 1 1 1 caffeine for three or four weeks showed reduced body fat percentage [6,7]. Smaller doses of caffeine (0.005% of food or 0.5 g/kg of food) for eight weeks decreased body fat and systolic blood pressure and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after a highcarbohydrate and high-fat diet [8]. ...
Article
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, with recommendations from health associations and regulatory bodies for limiting caffeine consumption during pregnancy being increasingly common. Prenatal exposure to caffeine has been shown to increase the risk of developing abnormalities in lipid metabolism in adult life. We further investigated the effect of prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) (20 mg/kg of body weight) on the metabolic "reserve" of male Sprague Dawley offspring fed on a high fructose diet in adult life. Male adult PCE offspring were assigned to four groups; Nw and Nf: offspring of control mothers (N group of mothers), having received tap water or high fructose water respectively; Cw and Cf: offspring exposed to caffeine during gestation (C group of mothers) and receiving tap water or a high fructose water solution, respectively. Cf rats presented increased serum triglyceride level, as well as raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, together with extensive renal tissue oedema in adulthood, compared to the other groups (p<0.05 for all comparisons). These findings show further evidence for potential detrimental metabolic effects of prenatal caffeine exposure during adulthood in this animal model.
... Furthermore, ingesting caffeine increases corporal energy consumption. Caffeine was found to increase the serum release of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) (21) and the oxidation of lipids (22,23). The group fed 450 ppm caffeine showed an increased mortality rate, with a mortality rate of 1.45% per week, whereas the mortality rates of hens fed 0, 150, and 300 ppm caffeine were 0.23, 0.41, and 0.69%, respectively. ...
Article
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This study's objective was to determine the effects of caffeine intake at various levels, incorporated in the layers' food, on performance and egg quality of hens. A total of 576 hens, aged 56 weeks, were used. The layers were fed rations containing 0 (control), 150, 300, or 450 ppm of caffeine for 12 weeks. During the experimental period, performance parameters (weight, feed consumption, and livability) and egg production and quality (weight, Haugh unit, percentages of yolk, albumen and eggshell, yolk color, eggshell thickness, and resistance, and calcium and phosphorus eggshell contents) were evaluated. The highest concentration of caffeine in the diet (450 ppm) promoted a significant increase in the mortality of hens (1.45% per week) compared to controls (0.23%). There was a reduction in feed consumption by hens, decreased egg production, and reduced eggshell thickness and percentage, with the increase of caffeine. The egg yolk percentage was increased, and the eggshell percentage was reduced in the groups treated with 300 and 450 ppm of caffeine. Furthermore, reduced eggshell thickness was found in all groups that received caffeine. However, it was found that 150 ppm of caffeine in the food did not cause significant changes in most egg production and quality parameters. In summary, caffeine consumption by laying hens increased mortality rate and promoted deleterious effects on chicken production and egg quality at concentrations of 300 and 450 ppm.
... One instance of PE reduction is associated with caffeine intake. Sustained cAMP signaling in the presence of caffeine activates important lipid metabolizing enzymes, increasing lipid breakdown [30,61]. In C. elegans, caffein intake significantly reduces PE. ...
Article
The Caenorhabditis elegans plasma membrane is composed of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids with a small cholesterol. The C. elegans obtain the majority of the membrane lipids by modifying fatty acids present in the bacterial diet. The metabolic pathways of membrane lipid biosynthesis are well conserved across the animal kingdom. In C. elegans CDP-DAG and Kennedy pathway produce glycerophospholipids. Meanwhile, the sphingolipids are synthesized through a different pathway. They have evolved remarkably diverse mechanisms to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. The lipid bilayer stress operates to accomplish homeostasis during any perturbance in the lipid composition. Meanwhile, the PAQR-2/IGLR-2 complex works with FLD-1 to balance unsaturated to saturated fatty acids to maintain membrane fluidity. The loss of membrane lipid homeostasis is observed in many human genetic and metabolic disorders. Since C. elegans conserved such genes and pathways, it can be used as a model organism.
... Similar finding was also reported by Mohmoud et al. in which feeding on different doses of Arabic coffee for 30 days lowered body weight in rats fed on basal diet [14]. The possible mechanism by which coffee prevented higher body weight gain in the present study could be by increasing lipolysis via catecholamines [15,16]. Caffeine might also have caused body weight loss by increasing physical activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide and is assumed to have protective effects against metabolic syndrome. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of coffee on body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels in male albino Wistar rats feeding on high fructose diet. A post-test experimental study was conducted on a total of 30 (9-10 weeks old) male albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups: group I (normal control)-fed on standard chow and plain tap water only; group II (fructose control)-fed on standard chow and 20% of fructose solution; group III-VI (treatment groups)-fed on standard chow, 20% of fructose solution and treated with 71, 142, 213 and 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee respectively for six weeks. At the end, body weight, serum glucose, uric acid and lipid profile levels were investigated. Data was entered and cleared by epi-data software version 3.1 and analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS V. 23.00. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The results showed that body weight, fasting serum glucose and uric acid levels significantly lowered in rats treated with 213 (p = 0.047; 0.049; 0.026) and 284 (p = 0.035; 0.029; 0.010) mg/kg body weight/day of coffee compared to fructose control group. Fasting serum triglycide (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels showed significant reduction in rats treated with 284 mg/kg body weight/day of coffee as compared to fructose control group (p = 0.031; 0.046) respectively. In conclusion, treating rats with coffee decreased body weight, fasting serum glucose, uric acid, TC, TG and LDL-C, and increased HDL-C in a dose dependent manner in rats feeding on high fructose diet, suggesting that coffee consumption may be helpful in ameliorating metabolic syndrome.
... Although a case-control study found an unfavorable association between caffeine consumption and cholesterol [51], one of the finding of present study was that caffeine intake (200 mg/ d) was associated with about 20 mg/ dl decrease in total cholesterol over 6 months of follow up after adjustment for potential confounders. Increase of fecal lipid extraction has been suggested as a possible mechanism underling the cholesterol -decreasing effect of caffeine [52]. In addition, in observational studies, many people do not consume coffee in isolation, but add sugar (glucose and fructose) and milk which might be responsible for increase in cholesterol levels [46]. ...
Article
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Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is much more frequent and more severe, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Coffee is a complex beverage with hundreds of compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acid are the most abundant bioactive compounds. The published epidemiological data demonstrating beneficial associations between all categories of coffee exposure and ranges of liver outcomes are rapidly growing; however, the main contributors and cause-effect relationships have not yet been elucidated. To address existing knowledge gaps, we sought to determine the efficacy and safety of 6 months chlorogenic acid and/or caffeine supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes affected by NAFLD. Methods This trial was carried out at two Diabetes Centers to assess the effects of supplementation with daily doses of 200 mg chlorogenic acid, 200 mg caffeine, 200 mg chlorogenic acid plus 200 mg caffeine or placebo (starch) in patients with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. The primary endpoint was reduction of hepatic fat and stiffness measured by FibroScan, and changes in serum hepatic enzymes and cytokeratin − 18 (CK-18) levels. Secondary endpoints were improvements in metabolic (including fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), hemoglobin A1c (HBA1C), C-peptide, insulin and lipid profiles) and inflammatory (including nuclear factor k-B (NF-KB), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), high sensitive- C reactive protein(hs-CRP)) parameters from baseline to the end of treatment. Results Neither chlorogenic acid nor caffeine was superior to placebo in attenuation of the hepatic fat and stiffness and other hepatic outcomes in patients with diabetes and NAFLD. Except for the lower level of total cholesterol in caffeine group (p = 0.04), and higher level of insulin in chlorogenic acid plus caffeine group (p = 0.01) compared with placebo, there were no significant differences among the treatment groups. Conclusion These findings do not recommend caffeine and/or chlorogenic acid to treat NAFLD in type 2 diabetes patients. Trial registration IRCT201707024010N21. Registered 14 September 2017.
... The lower weight gain was attributed to the possible increase in muscle thermogenesis induced by caffeine in cola soft drinks [51]. Other studies have also shown bene cial effects of caffeine on the adiposity of animals fed high-fat diets, demonstrating a reduction in body fat mass and percentage of body fat, possibly due to increased lipolysis via catecholamines [52,53]. The lower LI in the CD + NCS group may be related to the lower insulinogenic effect of the non-caloric soda due to the greater presence of caffeine in the drink and the 17% reduction in carbohydrates compared to the CD + CS group. ...
Preprint
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Ultra-processed food consumption, which is highly palatable, rich in fat, sugar, and salt causes uncontrolled food intake and has contributed to a sharp increase in obesity worldwide. This study evaluated the effects of soft drink and/or ultra-processed food intake on eating behavior and metabolic parameters in rats fed with a cafeteria diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. 1) CON: standard chow and water; 2) CD: cafeteria diet, standard chow, and water; 3) CS: caloric soft drink, standard chow, and water; 4) NCS: non-caloric soft drink, standard chow, and water; 5) CD + CS: cafeteria diet, caloric soft drink, standard chow, and water; and 6) CD + NCS: cafeteria diet, non-caloric soft drink, standard chow, and water. The cafeteria diet intake resulted in higher energy consumption (30% increase on average), a 450% increase in lipid consumption, and a 50% reduction in protein intake, which contributed to a 60% increase in body weight relative to the controls. This diet increased the metabolic risk, as observed in the Homeostasis Model Assessment changes in the CD groups. The CD + NCS group presented a lower liposomatic index, which may be related to the lower insulinogenic effect of caffeine contained in the soda, and 17% carbohydrate reduction compared to the CD + CS group. This result suggests that caffeine consumption in non-caloric soda may help prevent obesity associated with the sucrose's absence. However, it is necessary to compare the effects of the sugary drink intake with those of the artificially sweetened consumption, caffeine-free drinks associated with a cafeteria diet. No Level of evidence: animal study.
... It has been reported that in zebrafish, caffeine intake has a role in the suppression of fatty liver by downregulation of genes associated with lipogenesis, and enhancement of lipid oxidation and autophagy activity [44]. A relationship between caffeine intake and fat metabolism has also been observed in a rat model system, which has shown that caffeine intake reduces body fat by lipolysis and has an anti-obesity effect [45]. These findings suggest that caffeine intake affects lipid metabolism, which in turn possibly controls eggshell formation. ...
Article
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During pregnancy, most women are exposed to caffeine, which is a widely consumed psychoactive substance. However, the consequences of maternal caffeine intake on the child remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the intergenerational effects of maternal caffeine intake on offspring in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. We treated a young mother (P0) with 10 mM of caffeine equivalent to 2–5 cans of commercial energy drinks and examined its reproduction and growth rate from P0 to F2 generation. The fertility decreased and embryonic lethality increased by defective oocytes and eggshell integrity in caffeine-ingested mothers, and F1 larval development severely retarded. These results were due to decreased production of vitellogenin protein (yolk) in caffeine-ingested mothers. Furthermore, effects of RNA interference of vitellogenin (vit) genes, vit-1 to vit-6, in P0 mothers can mimic those by caffeine-ingested mothers. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) depletion of unc-62 (human Meis homeobox), a transcriptional activator for vit genes, also showed similar effects induced by caffeine intake. Taken together, maternal caffeine intake reduced yolk production mediated by the UNC-62 transcription factor, thereby disrupting oocyte and eggshell integrity and retarding larval development. Our study suggests the clinical significance of caffeine intake for prospective mothers.
... Similar finding was also reported by Mohmoud et al. in which feeding on different doses of Arabic coffee for 30 days lowered body weight in rats fed on basal diet [14]. The possible mechanism by which coffee prevented higher body weight gain in the present study could be by increasing lipolysis via catecholamines [15,16]. Caffeine might also have caused body weight loss by increasing physical activity. ...
... Journal of Endocrinology Astrup et al. 1990, Bracco et al. 1995, Kobayashi-Hattori et al. 2005, Bhupathiraju et al. 2013. By using a stem cell model of adipocyte browning (Velickovic et al. 2018) a physiological amount of caffeine was shown to promote UCP1 function (Velickovic et al. 2019). ...
Article
Adipose tissue is usually laid down in small amounts in the fetus and is characterised as possessing small amounts of the brown adipose tissue specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). In adults, a primary factor determining the abundance and function of UCP1 is ambient temperature. Cold exposure causes activation and the rapid generation of heat through the free flow of protons across the mitochondria with no requirement to convert ADP to ATP. In rodents, housing at an ambient temperature below thermoneutrality promotes the appearance of beige like adipocytes. These arise as discrete regions of UCP1 containing cells in white fat depots. There is increasing evidence to show that, to gain credible translational results on brown and beige fat function in rodent models, they should be housed at thermoneutrality. This not only reflects the type of environment in which humans spend the majority of their time, but is in accord with the rise of global temperature caused by industrialisation and the uncontrolled burning of fossil fuels. There is now good evidence that stimulating brown fat in adult humans by nutritional or pharmacological interventions can improve glucose homeostasis. The challenge, therefore, is to establish credible developmental models in animals maintained at thermoneutrality which will elucidate the true impact of nutrition. The primary focus should fall specifically on the components of breast milk and how these modulate long term effects on brown or beige fat development and function.
... The anti-obesity effect of coffee may be attributed to caffeine [58] and CGA [59] that are also present in CS. The anti-obesity properties of CS have been studied in novel antioxidant beverages based on CS from Arabica and Robusta species to determine their inhibitory effect on in vivo fat accumulation using Caenorhabditis elegans as an animal model [36]. ...
Article
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To obtain the coffee beverage, approximately 90% of the edible parts of the coffee cherry are discarded as agricultural waste or by-products (cascara or husk, parchment, mucilage, silverskin and spent coffee grounds). These by-products are a potential source of nutrients and non-nutrient health-promoting compounds, which can be used as a whole ingredient or as an enriched extract of a specific compound. The chemical composition of by-products also determines food safety of the novel ingredients. To ensure the food safety of coffee by-products to be used as novel ingredients for the general consumer population, pesticides, mycotoxins, acrylamide and gluten must be analyzed. According with the priorities proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to maximize the benefit for the environment, society and economy, food waste generation should be avoided in the first place. In this context, the valorization of food waste can be carried out through an integrated bio-refinery approach to produce nutrients and bioactive molecules for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and non-food applications. The present research is an updated literature review of the definition of coffee by-products, their composition, safety and those food applications which have been proposed or made commercially available to date based on their chemical composition.
... 14 Pada penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Kazuo Kobayashi et all menunjukkan bahwa pemberian kopi selama 21 hari pada tikus sprague dawley dapat menurunkan kadar trigliserida. 19 Kopi mengandung kafestol yang bersifat antagonis dengan kafein. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh penelitian De Ross dan Strandhagen bahwa konsumsi kopi tanpa filter yang mengandung kafestol sebanyak 200 ml yang diberikan 5 kali setiap hari dapat meningkatkan kadar trigliserida 0,32 mmol/L. ...
... In the same light, Nakamura et al. [17] stated that feeding animals with green tea polyphenols from 0.01 to 0.2g/Kg produced no significant changes in hepatic lipids parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids), but higher concentrations (0.5 to 1.0g/Kg) provoked a decrease in hepatic triglycerides. This decrease in hepatic triglyceride is possibly due according to Kobayashi-Hattori et al. [32] to an increased hepatic-β oxidation activity. ...
... On the contrary, RA presented reduced yolks compared to body lengths. All of them, have been previously described to affect lipid metabolism by interacting with important metabolic players such as sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 or catecholamines [95][96][97]. In the cases of DAS and IMA, metabolic alterations may be related to death induction in senescent cells [98]. ...
Article
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The early identification of teratogens in humans and animals is mandatory for drug discovery and development. Zebrafish has emerged as an alternative model to traditional preclinical models for predicting teratogenicity and other potential chemical-induced toxicity hazards. To prove its predictivity, we exposed zebrafish embryos from 0 to 96 h post fertilization to a battery of 31 compounds classified as teratogens or non-teratogens in mammals. The teratogenicity score was based on the measurement of 16 phenotypical parameters, namely heart edema, pigmentation, body length, eye size, yolk size, yolk sac edema, otic vesicle defects, otoliths defects, body axis defects, developmental delay, tail bending, scoliosis, lateral fins absence, hatching ratio, lower jaw malformations and tissue necrosis. Among the 31 compounds, 20 were detected as teratogens and 11 as non-teratogens, resulting in 94.44 % sensitivity, 90.91 % specificity and 87.10 % accuracy compared to rodents. These percentages decreased slightly when referred to humans, with 87.50 % sensitivity, 81.82 % specificity and 74.19 % accuracy, but allowed an increase in the prediction levels reported by rodents for the same compounds. Positive compounds showed a high correlation among teratogenic parameters, pointing out at general developmental delay as major cause to explain the physiological/morphological malformations. A more detailed analysis based on deviations from main trends revealed potential specific modes of action for some compounds such as retinoic acid, DEAB, ochratoxin A, haloperidol, warfarin, valproic acid, acetaminophen, dasatinib, imatinib, dexamethasone, 6-aminonicotinamide and bisphenol A. The high degree of predictivity and the possibility of applying mechanistic approaches makes zebrafish a powerful model for screening teratogenicity.
Article
In obesity, there are no effective therapies for parallel immune and metabolic abnormalities including systemic/tissue insulin-resistance/inflammation, adiposity and hepatic steatosis. Caffeine has anti-inflammation, anti-hepatic steatosis and anti-insulin-resistance effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of 6-week of caffeine treatment (HFD-caf) on immunologic and metabolic abnormalities of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. In comparison with HFD-V rats, in HFD-caf rats the suppressed circulating immune cell inflammatory [TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1) and nitrite] profiles were accompanied by decreased liver, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle' macrophages and its intracellular cytokines levels. Metabolically, the increased in metabolic rates reduced lipid accumulation in various tissues resulting in reduced adiposity, a lower fat mass, decreased body weight, an amelioration of hepatic steatosis and improved systemic/muscle insulin-resistance. Further mechanistic approaches revealed an up-regulation of tissue lipogenic [SREBP1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase]/insulin sensitizing (GLUT4 and p-IRS1) markers in HFD-caf rats. Significantly, ex vivo experiments revealed that the cytokines release by the co-cultured PBMC (monocyte) and WAT (adipocyte), which are known to stimulate macrophages migration and hepatocyte lipogenesis, were lower in HFD-V groups than HFD-caf groups. Caffeine treatment simultaneously ameliorates immune and metabolic pathogenic signals present in tissue to normalize immunolgical and metabolic abnormalities found in HFD-induced obese rats.
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We examined the effect of a lactate-based compound containing caffeine with voluntary running exercise on fat loss and metabolic improvement in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. The rats treated with exercise training (Ex) and the compound (i.e., 1000 mg/kg body weight of sodium lactate and 36 mg/kg body weight of caffeine) with exercise training (ExLC) for 5 weeks showed decreased epididymal and scapular fat mass compared to the sedentary (S) rats, while LC rats displayed significantly decreased scapular fat mass compared to the Ex rats. The area under the curve for the LC rats during an oral glucose tolerance test was significantly lower compared with the S and Ex rats. Thus, administration of a lactate-based compound containing caffeine can effectively decrease fat mass and improve glucose tolerance even with low volume exercise training in DIO rats.
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The present study was aimed to determine the ameliorative effect of caffeine on Body weight and lipid profile in male rats treated with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2). Seventy Two adult male rats were used in this study. The study included two experiments ,in each experiments 36 males were randomly assigned two six equal groups of six animals in each group .The animals in both experiments were treated with the same substances and doses for each group as follows .Group one (control) animals were drenched normal saline ,Group two animals were treated (5.63 mg/kg. Bw)H 2 O 2 daily by oral gavage also group three , animals were treated with low dose caffeine (150 mg /kg Bw) daily .Group four , animals were treated with high dose caffeine (250 mg /kg Bw) daily. Group five. animals were treated (5.63 mg/kg. Bw)H 2 O 2 dose after 1 h animals were given low dose of caffeine (150 mg/kg Bw) .Group Six animal were treated with H 2 O 2 dose(5.63 mg/kg Bw) each rat after one hour was given high dose of caffeine (250 mg /Kg Bw). The first experiments lasted for one month and second experiments lasted for two months. At the end of the two experiments, animals of all group were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia .Blood samples were collected from
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Natural products such as caffeine have been found to be effective in reducing body weight through lipolysis. Here, we report the successful loading of caffeine onto dissolving microneedle following inhibition of its crystal growth by hyaluronic acid (HA), the matrix material of the dissolving microneedle (DMN). Further, the anti-obesity activity of caffeine was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. After 6weeks of caffeine loaded dissolving microneedle patch (CMP) administration, lipolysis improved significantly as shown by leptin and adiponectin activity, which resulted in considerable weight loss of about 12.8±0.75% in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Comparison of the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol after CMP administration with the initial levels in obese mice indicated significant anti-obesity activity of CMP. These findings suggested that a novel CMP with an increased amount of caffeine loaded onto DMN has therapeutic activity against obesity.
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Non-degassed roasted coffee bean extracts contain large quantity of volatile compounds, compared with degassed roasted coffee bean extracts. In this study, we investigated the effect of non-degassed roasted coffee bean extracts or degassed roasted coffee bean extracts, on lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice, fed a high fat diet, were administered with non-degassed, or degassed roasted coffee bean extracts for 8 weeks. At the end of the administration period, in non-degassed roasted coffee bean extracts group, plasma triglyceride elevation was suppressed. On the other hand, in degassed roasted coffee bean extracts group, the effect was not observed. On hepatic triglyceride level, non-degassed roasted coffee bean extracts showed a significant suppressive effect. Moreover, the 33 volatile compounds mixture which were decreased by degassing, suppressed plasma triglyceride elevation. These results suggested that volatile compounds, decreased by degassing, might involve the suppressive effects on plasma and hepatic triglyceride elevation in mice.
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Cold-adapted endo-β-1,4-glucanases hold great potential for industrial processes requiring high activity at mild temperatures such as in food processing and extraction of bioactive compounds from plants. Here, we identified and explored the specificity, mode of action, kinetic behavior, molecular structure and biotechnological application of a novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XacCel8) from the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This enzyme belongs to an uncharacterized phylogenetic branch of the glycoside hydrolase family 8 (GH8) and specifically cleaves internal β-1,4-linkages of cellulose and mixed-linkage β-glucans releasing short cello-oligosaccharides ranging from cellobiose to cellohexaose. XacCel8 acts in near-neutral pHs and in a broad temperature range (10–50 °C), which are distinguishing features from conventional thermophilic β-1,4-glucanases. Interestingly, XacCel8 was greatly stimulated by cobalt ions, which conferred higher conformational stability and boosted the enzyme turnover number. The potential application of XacCel8 was demonstrated in the caffeine extraction from guarana seeds, which improved the yield by 2.5 g/kg compared to the traditional hydroethanolic method (HEM), indicating to be an effective additive in this industrial process. Therefore, XacCel8 is a metal-stimulated and cold-adapted endo-β-1,4-glucanase that could be applied in a diverse range of biotechnological processes under mild conditions such as caffeine extraction from guarana seeds.
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Tea from the leaves of guayusa (Ilex guayusa) has a long history of consumption by Ecuadorian natives in regions where the plant is indigenous. The tea contains the methylxanthines caffeine and theobromine as well as chlorogenic acids, flavonoids, and sugars. Various studies were performed to evaluate the general and genetic toxicology of a standardized liquid concentrate of guayusa (GC). Guayusa concentrate was found to be negative in in vitro genotoxicity tests including the Ames test and a chromosome aberration study in human lymphocytes. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of GC was >5,000 mg/kg for female rats. Guayusa concentrate was administered to male and female rats in a 90-day subchronic study at 1,200, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg/d of GC and a caffeine-positive control at 150 mg/kg/d corresponding to the amount of caffeine in the high-dose GC group. Effects observed in the GC-treated groups were comparable to those in the caffeine control group and included reductions in body weights, food efficiency, triglycerides values, and fat pad weights and increases in blood chemistry values for serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, and cholesterol and adaptive salivary gland hypertrophy. No signs of incremental toxicity due to any other components of guayusa were observed. The studies indicate no harmful effects of GC in these test systems.
Article
Background and aims: Obesity is the principal risk factor for metabolic syndrome. The establishment of an appropriate animal model is urgently required to elucidate the mechanisms of visceral fat accumulation, metabolic syndrome and to develop therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated a novel and natural obesity-resistant animal model, the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus. Methods: Ten male Suncus murinus were employed to investigate the body weight, body mass index (BMI), and plasma glucose levels. Besides, five male Suncus murinus were employed to measure visceral fat accumulation by in vivo micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) during gradual aging. Thirteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were employed as control animals (n=10, n=3, respectively). Results: Body weight hardly changed during aging from 2-month to 12-month-old, and less visceral fat accumulation, especially mesenteric fat accumulation, occurred until old age in Suncus murinus. BMI and micro-CT measurement showed the same results; the rate of visceral fat accumulation in 1-year-old shrews was only 2.93% and was considerable lower than in 1-year-old rats (36.03%). Conclusions: It was suggested that Suncus murinus is a suitable and efficacious model to investigate obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly the mechanism of obesity resistance.
Article
Fubrick tea aqueous extract (FTEs) has been reported to improve lipid metabolism and gut microbiota communities in mice and humans. However, it is still unclear how FTEs prevents obesity through gut microbiota, and whether some other regulatory mechanisms are involved in the process. Here, we found that FTEs supplementation effectively alleviated the body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD), and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from FTEs-treated mice showed similar protective effects as FTEs supplementation in mice fed with a HFD. The results confirmed that gut microbiota played key roles in attenuating HFD-induced fat deposition and metabolic disorder. In particular, FTEs reversed HFD-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis via increasing the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Adlercreutzia, Alistipes, Parabacteroides, and norank_f_Lachnospiraceae, and reducing that of Staphylococcus. Interestingly, FTEs could still alleviate HFD-induced lipid accumulation in mice treated with antibiotics, which had increased relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides, and Bacteroides_uniformis sp. In addition, supplementation with FTEs also modified the serum metabolome, especially the “caffeine metabolism” pathway. Furthermore, FTEs supplementation increased the concentrations of caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine in serum, which were positively correlated with an abundance of norank_f_Lachnospiraceae. Overall, FTEs exerts beneficial effects against obesity induced by HFD, and the underlying mechanism is partially related to the reprogramming of intestinal microbiota, while the metabolism of caffeine in FTEs also played an important role in the process. This study provides a theoretical basis for the further study of the anti-obesity effects of FTEs and the consideration of gut microbiota as a potential target for the treatment of obesity induced by a HFD.
Article
Background & Objective: Beverages containing caffeine have an anti-obesity function. Reduction of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) inflammation is considered an important strategy to ameliorate obesity compilations such as insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 8-week caffeine supplementation on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetuin-A (FetA) in the liver and nuclear factor kappa B (Nf-κb) and toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) in the VAT of rats with a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials & Methods: A total of 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, caffeine, HFD, and HFD+caffeine supplement groups. After 2 weeks of acclimatization, the rats were randomly fed with HFD (46% fat) and a normal diet (5% fat) for 8 weeks. The rats in the caffeine groups were gavaged with 6 mg of the caffeine solution per kg of body weight. FetA mRNA of the liver, Nf-κb, and Tlr4 mRNA of VAT were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The results indicated that FetA mRNA expression and weight gain in HFD+caffeine were significantly reduced compared to the other groups. Nf-κb mRNA expression was significantly higher in the HFD group than in the caffeine groups. No statistically significant differences were found in Tlr4 mRNA expression between the groups. Conclusion: These findings suggest that consuming caffeine can prevent HFD-induced liver and adipose tissue (AT) inflammation.
Article
Objective The effects of neonatal caffeine therapy in adults born preterm are uncertain. We studied the impact of neonatal caffeine on systemic blood pressure, vessel reactivity, and response to stress in adult mice. Study Design Mice pups were randomized to caffeine (20 mg/kg/d) or saline by intraperitoneal injection for 10 days after birth. We performed tail-cuff BP (8/12 weeks), urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and fecal corticosterone (14 weeks), and vessel reactivity in aortic rings (16 weeks) in adult mice. Results No differences were noted in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures between the two groups at 8 and 12 weeks of age. However, norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction was substantially higher in aortic rings in CAF-treated male mice. More significant vasodilator responses to nitric oxide donors in aortic rings in female mice may suggest gender-specific effects of caffeine. Female mice exposed to caffeine had significantly lower body weight over-time. Caffeine-treated male mice had substantially higher fecal corticosterone and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine at 14 weeks, suggestive of chronic stress. Conclusion We conclude sex-specific vulnerability to the heightened vascular tone of the aorta in male mice following neonatal caffeine therapy. Altered vessel reactivity and chronic stress in the presence of other risk factors may predispose to the development of systemic hypertension in adults born preterm.
Article
We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and unripe satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) fruits, and investigated the effects of feeding the tea extract on serum and liver lipid concentrations in rats. The tea extract contained narirutin and hesperidin from unripe satsuma mandarin fruits, catechins from green tea leaves, and black tea polyphenols produced by oxidation of catechins. The fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. When rats were fed diets supplemented with the freeze-dried tea extract (0.50% or 0.75%) for 4 weeks, hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, and the reductions were significant in rats fed diet composed of 0.75% tea extract compared to those fed the control diet. These results suggest that the tea produced by mixing third crop green tea leaves and unripe satsuma mandarin fruits has a hypolipidemic property.
Article
Tea (Camellia sinensis) has enthralled both consumers and researchers, due to its taste, aroma and its medicinal attributes. Tea consumers concern themselves with the quality of tea in particular, its taste and aroma based on which consumers are willing to pay premium prices for the best quality teas. The quality of tea is undeniably affected by variations in its metabolite composition. In this study, two groups of black tea cultivars were compared using a metabolomics approach. Data were generated via GC–MS and 1H-NMR. The GC–MS differentiated between the two groups, based on carbohydrates. The 1H-NMR differentiated between the two groups, based on caffeine, catechins and amino acids. These metabolites applicability in the discrimination of newly developed cultivars into potentially commercialisable and non-commercialisable groups at an early stage in the tea improvement programme is demonstrated. This may help tea breeders to select promising high quality tea cultivars either for release or further field evaluations.
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We have recently demonstrated dose-dependency of caffeine metabolism under multiple dosing conditions. Whether there are persistent pharmacodynamic actions of caffeine under such circumstances is the focus of this report. Nine healthy subjects were given, in randomized 5 day blocks, placebo, 4.2 (low) and 12 (high) mg · kg−1 · day−1 of caffeine in 6 divided doses. After 5 days, complete tolerance developed to the effects of caffeine on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma glucose concentrations. The 24-h area under the curve (AUC) for plasma norepinephrine and the AUC for the total sum of free fatty acids (FFA) both demonstrated a trend to increase with the high dose caffeine treatment. When the AUC for norepinephrine was split into 12 h time periods, a significant difference between the placebo and the high dose treatment block was seen. We conclude that regular consumption of 12 mg · kg−1 of caffeine per day (equivalent to approximately 6 to 11 cups of coffee per day) may produce pharmacodynamic effects not completely compensated for by the development of tolerance. Mechanisms of tolerance may be overwhelmed by the nonlinear accumulation of caffeine and other methylxanthines in the body when caffeine metabolism becomes saturable.
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Full-text available
Age-related differences in energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and norepinephrine (NE) kinetics after caffeine ingestion were examined using a placebo-controlled double-blind study in 10 older (O, 65-80 yr) and 10 younger (Y, 19-26 yr) men who were moderate consumers of caffeine. Caffeine ingestion resulted in similar increases in Y and O men for plasma caffeine levels (Y = 89 +/- 100 to 6,340 +/- 1,938 ng/ml, P < 0.05; O = 124 +/- 38 to 7,066 +/- 2,366 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and energy expenditure (Y = 11%, 1.38 +/- 0.15 to 1.52 +/- 0.22 kcal/min, P < 0.05; O = 9.5%, 1.15 +/- 0.13 to 1.26 +/- 0.20 kcal/min, P < 0.05). However, caffeine ingestion increased fatty acid concentrations (362 +/- 159 to 803 +/- 253 mumol/l, P < 0.05) and tended to increase rate of appearance of fatty acids (624 +/- 376 to 1,394 +/- 1,331 mumol/l, P = 0.07) in younger but not older men. Rates of fat oxidation and NE appearance and clearance did not significantly differ from baseline values in either group. In conclusion, older and younger men show a similar thermogenic response to caffeine ingestion, whereas older men show a smaller increase in fatty acid availability after a caffeine challenge. These metabolic differences are not related to alterations in NE kinetics or fat oxidation.
Article
Four groups of male rats were fed for 4 weeks the same purified diet, but were given ad libitum either water (group A), instant coffee prepared in strength as recommended by the manufacturer (group B), boiled coffee (group C) in which the caffeine concentration was equal to that of group B, or a pure caffeine solution of the same strength (group D). Group order of voluntary intake of fluids was: A>D>B>C. Group C and D had a lower concentration of whole plasma triacylglycerols than group A. Fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was measured in group A and D. Cholesterol excretion was lower, but the main bacterial product of cholesterol, coprosterol, was higher in group D than in group A, so that sum of neutral sterols was the same in both groups. Also excretion of bile acids was the same in both groups. The results provide direct evidence that coffee by its caffeine component can reduce plasma triacylglycerols. However, the hypolipemic caffeine effect does not seem to be caused by increased excretion of cholesterol or its metabolites.
Article
We studied the influence of powdered green tea (PGT) and its caffeine content on the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells by insulin and lipolysis of well-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. In the 11 days of culture with insulin, the fat cells exhibited more numerous and larger intracytoplasmic lipid droplets, and the activities of glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a marker of adipose conversion, were increased. When PGT and insulin were added simultaneously, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the increase of GPDH were significantly inhibited (p < 0.01). But the caffeine, which has the same concentration as PGT, accelerated adipose conversion. When PGT or caffeine was exposed to mature adipocytes, smaller-sized intracytoplasmic lipid droplets selectively disappeared. These data suggest that PGT inhibited lipogenesis and stimulated lipolysis.
Article
Caffeine is metabolized extensively (on average 80%) to paraxanthine. With regular caffeine consumption, average serum levels of paraxanthine are two thirds those of caffeine. Both caffeine and paraxanthine competitively and nonselectively inhibit adenosine receptors in vitro. To examine the contribution of paraxanthine to the pharmacologic activity of caffeine, we administered to 12 subjects in a crossover design oral caffeine (2 or 4 mg/kg) versus placebo or oral paraxanthine (same dose as caffeine) versus placebo, each after 3 days of methylxanthine abstinence. Both caffeine and paraxanthine significantly increased diastolic blood pressure, plasma epinephrine levels, and free fatty acids. Caffeine and paraxanthine produced a similar magnitude of response at 4 mg/kg; however, caffeine appeared to produce greater responses than paraxanthine at 2 mg/kg. Caffeine and paraxanthine have similar sympathomimetic actions. The activity of paraxanthine needs to be considered in understanding the clinical pharmacology of caffeine, particularly with chronic, repetitive caffeine consumption.
Article
Using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over protocol, we studied the effect of a single dose of oral caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and cardiovascular control in nine healthy, young, non-coffee drinkers maintained in sodium balance throughout the study period. Caffeine (250 mg) or placebo was administered in a methylxanthine-free beverage to overnight-fasted supine subjects who had had no coffee, tea or cola in the previous three weeks. Caffeine increased plasma renin activity by 57 per cent, plasma norepinephrine by 75 per cent and plasma epinephrine by 207 per cent. Urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine were increased 52 per cent and 100 per cent respectively. Mean blood pressure rose 14/10 mm Hg one hour after caffeine ingestion. There was a slight fall and then a rise in heart rate. Plasma caffeine levels were usually maximal one hour after ingestion but there was considerable individual variation. A 20 per cent increase in respiratory rate correlated well with plasma caffeine levels. Under the conditions of study caffeine was a potent stimulator of plasma renin activity and adrenomedullary secretion. Whether habitual ingestion has similar effects remains to be determined.
Article
1. The effect of caffeine (2.5 g/kg diet) on lipid metabolism was examined in rats fed on a stock (low-cholesterol) diet or on a cholesterol plus cholic acid-supplemented (high-cholesterol) semi-synthetic diet. 2. When caffeine was included in the stock diet fed to rats for 7 d, there was a moderate but significant increase in the concentration of serum cholesterol compared to the levels observed in the control rats. This change can be accounted for by the increase that was observed in the rate of cholesterogenesis in the liver. 3. After 25 d of caffeine in the stock diet, hepatic cholesterogenesis was still increased but the concentration of serum cholesterol was now the same as in the control rats. During the experimental period there was a progressive increase in the faecal excretion of neutral sterols in the rats receiving caffeine. 4. When caffeine was added to a cholesterol plus cholic acid-supplemented diet, there was a marked increase in the concentration of serum cholesterol but hepatic cholesterogenesis was now reduced. 5. Caffeine in the high-cholesterol diet appeared to delay, but probably did not reduce, the absorption of an oral dose of radio-labelled cholesterol. This conclusion was confirmed using rats which had not previously received either caffeine or cholesterol in the diet. 6. When the effect of caffeine in the high-cholesterol diet was investigated during a 24 h period, an exacerbation of the hypercholesterolaemia was seen only at certain times. 7. After a 4-month period of feeding rats on the caffeine-supplemented high-cholesterol diet, histological examination did not detect any damage to the heart and aorta. 8. The metabolic regulations involved in the effects of caffeine in the two diets are discussed and the relevance of the present results to observations made with human subjects is considered.
Article
In humans caffeine stimulates thermogenesis by unknown mechanisms and its effect on body weight has not been studies. The effect of placebo and 100, 200, and 400 mg oral caffeine on energy expenditure, plasma concentrations of substrates and hormones, blood pressure, and heart rate was investigated in a double-blind study in healthy subjects who had a moderate habitual caffeine consumption. Caffeine increased energy expenditure dose dependently and the thermogenic response was positively correlated with the response in plasma caffeine (r = 0.52; p less than 0.018), plasma lactate (r = 0.79; p less than 0.000001), and plasma triglyceride (r = 0.53; p less than 0.02). Stepwise regression analysis with the thermogenic response as the dependent variable excluded plasma caffeine and yielded the following equation: thermic effect (kcal/3 h) = -0.00459 X heart rate + 0.30315 X (triglyceride) + 0.53114 X (lactate) + 15.34 (r = 0.86; p = 0.0001). The results suggest that lactate and triglyceride production and increased vascular smooth muscle tone may be responsible for the major part of the thermogenic effect of caffeine.
Article
It has been suggested that coffee-drinking may be a factor in the causation of cardiovascular disease, and tea drinking a factor in its prevention. In the present study, freeze-dried tea, decaffeinated coffee, coffee and pure caffeine were fed to rats, for 54 days, in a starch-based diet devoid of recognized atherogenic agents. None of the dietary supplements affected growth rate, the efficiency of food conversion or the weights of the organs. Changes produced in the plasma lipid values were proportional to the caffeine content of the diets. With increasing intake of caffeine, plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations rose, while the triglyceride concentration fell. Feeding sucrose affected the plasma lipids in the opposite direction; triglycerides were increased whereas cholesterol and phospholipids were unaltered. This difference in response is attributed to a difference in the rate of lipid synthesis in the liver. The activity of pyruvate kinase, which was used as an index of lipogenesis, was unaffected by coffee, but was doubled by the substitution of sucrose for starch in the diet. Results are discussed briefly in relation to current views on the role of plasma lipids in atherogenesis.
Article
Rats consuming Coca-Cola and Purina chow ad libitum increased their total energy intake by 50% without excess weight gain. Their resistance to cold was markedly improved. These phenomena were characterized by significant increases in interscapular brown adipose tissue weight (IBAT) (91%), cellularity (59%), triglyceride content (52%), protein content (94%), and cytochrome oxidase activity (167%). In contrast, Coca-Cola consumption did not significantly affect the cellularity or triglyceride content of parametrial white adipose tissue (PWAT), although it slightly augmented PWAT weight. The effects of Coca-Cola on cold resistance, IBAT cellularity, and composition were entirely reproduced by sucrose, but not caffeine, consumption. Although caffeine also increased IBAT cellularity and composition, it significantly decreased the rate of body weight gain, PWAT weight, and adipocyte size. Moreover, it markedly inhibited adipocyte proliferation in PWAT thereby mimicking the effects of exercise training and food restriction (Bukowiecki et al., Am. J. Physiol. 239 (Endocrinol. Metab. 2): E422-E429, 1980). It is concluded a) that sucrose and Coca-Cola consumption improve the resistance of rats to cold, most probably by increasing brown adipose tissue cellularity, and b) that moderate caffeine intake might be useful for inhibiting proliferative activity in white adipose tissue, thereby preventing obesity.
Article
Most obesities are known low in sympathetic activity, and brain neurotransmitters may play roles in the defective exhibitions of obesity. Caffeine, a stimulant, which can prompt lipolysis, has been applied on the therapy of obesity. Although the interactive combinations between caffeine and certain neurotransmitters has been appreciated recently, but its regulatory mechanisms are still obscure. This study investigated the effect of caffeine on the body fat deposition, and its interactions with brain serotonin and catecholamine in the genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. At 12-week of age, obese mice and their lean counterparts (+/?) were administered with caffeine (4 mg/d) in water for 4 weeks. The brain neurotransmitters levels and body fat content were measured. The obese mice without caffeine treatment had lower brain norepinephrine and epinephrine levels than the lean controls. And there had no difference between obese and lean mice in brain levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Caffeine treatment showed no effect on the food intake, but decreased the body fat content significantly in obese mice. Mice with caffeine treatment showed increase of the levels of brain neurotransmitters in both phenotypes; this effect was more predominant in obese mice. This study indicated that the effect of caffeine to decrease body fat deposition in the obese mice might be associated with the recovered increases of sympathetic activity.
Article
The time course of effects of caffeine on plasma glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured and related to various hormonal responses associated with substrate mobilization and utilization. Participation of the sympatho-adrenal system (SAS) in the metabolic and hormonal actions of caffeine was also investigated by the use of ganglionic blockade. Following 50 mg kg-1 i.p. injections of caffeine in rats, plasma glucose increased 25% and NEFA 40%, and these actions were parallelled by an elevation of plasma insulin, ACTH and corticosterone, without changes in glucagon. It is suggested that the insulin response is related to the plasma glucose increase and possibly also to an action of cAMP. When caffeine was injected in rats previously treated with the ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium, none of the responses mentioned above were modified. These results show that the glucose and NEFA responses are independent of glucagon secretion and are due not only to SAS activation but also to other mechanisms such as the increased ACTH and corticosterone secretion. It is also suggested that the mobilization of substrates by caffeine is mediated, through these various mechanisms, by the activation of cAMP and by phosphodiesterase inhibition.
Article
1. The hypothesis that caffeine upregulates uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 expression, which contribute to thermogenesis, was investigated in obese mice. 2. The mRNA levels of UCP-1, -2 and -3 in brown adipose tissue (BAT), UCP-2 in white adipose tissue (WAT), and UCP-2 and -3 in skeletal muscle were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis in obese yellow KK mice 4 h after the subcutaneous administration of either 60 mg/kg caffeine or physiological saline. Plasma free fatty acids, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were also measured. 3. In caffeine-injected obese mice, UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 1.5-fold in BAT, UCP-2 mRNA levels were increased by 1.8- and 2.5-fold in BAT and skeletal muscles, respectively, and UCP-3 mRNA levels were increased 1.7- and 3.4-fold in BAT and skeletal muscles, respectively, compared with control mice injected with physiological saline. There was no difference in UCP-2 mRNA levels in WAT between the two groups. 4. Plasma free fatty acids and adrenaline levels were significantly elevated in mice treated with caffeine compared with those injected with physiological saline. 5. It was concluded that caffeine upregulates the expression of UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 in BAT and UCP-2 and UCP-3 in skeletal muscles, which may contribute to thermogenesis in obese mice.
Article
Obesity has become a public health problem in Japan. The National Nutrition Survey (2000) showed prevalence of preobese (body mass index: 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity (>/= 30 kg/m2) was 24.5% and 2.3%, respectively, in males, and 17.8% and 3.4%, respectively, in females aged 20 years and over. Trends in prevalence of overweight in the last 25 years differed among age-sex groups and across residential areas. The most significant increase in overweight was observed in men in small towns, whilst there was a remarkable decrease in women in metropolitan areas. In the 10 year national plan for health promotion named 'Health Japan 21', maintaining appropriate body weight (obesity control and prevention of thinness brought about by dieting in young women) is a core component of the prioritized issues. Increasing the number of people who know their healthy body weight and practice weight control is also listed as an important objective. The proportion of people engaged in regular exercise for health and following the recommended average number of steps in daily life is a major indicator for evaluation of the program. We conclude that when formulating effective public health strategies for obesity control, it is important to consider each country's own situation related to obesity issues including the proper BMI cutoff point, which might be much different from that in western societies.
Article
Administration of green tea or caffeine was shown previously to inhibit ultraviolet B light-induced carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice, and this effect was associated with a reduction in dermal fat. In the present study, oral administration of 0.6% green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) or 0.04% caffeine (0.4 mg/ml; equivalent to the amount of caffeine in 0.6% green tea) as the sole source of drinking fluid to SKH-1 mice for 15 weeks increased total 24 hr locomotor activity by 47 and 24%, respectively (p<0.0001). Oral administration of 0.6% decaffeinated green tea (6 mg tea solids/ml) for 15 weeks increased locomotor activity by 9% (p<0.05). The small increase in locomotor activity observed in mice treated with decaffeinated green tea may have resulted from the small amounts of caffeine still remaining in decaffeinated green tea solutions (0.047 mg/ml). The stimulatory effects of orally administered green tea and caffeine on locomotor activity were paralleled by a 38 and 23% increase, respectively, in the dermal muscle layer thickness. In addition, treatment of the mice with 0.6% green tea or 0.04% caffeine for 15 weeks decreased the weight of the parametrial fat pad by 29 and 43%, respectively, and the thickness of the dermal fat layer was decreased by 51 and 47%, respectively. These results indicate that oral administration of green tea or caffeine to SKH-1 mice increases locomotor activity and muscle mass and decreases fat stores. The stimulatory effect of green tea and caffeine administration on locomotor activity described here may contribute to the effects of green tea and caffeine to decrease fat stores and to inhibit carcinogenesis induced by UVB in SKH-1 mice.
Article
To evaluate clinical measures of obesity for their ability to predict death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD), in parallel with conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analysis of an age- and sex-stratified sample of 9206 adults aged 20-69 years from Australian capital cities (1989 Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Survey). Blood pressure, fasting serum lipid levels, smoking, history of heart disease or diabetes, and obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were recorded. These data were linked with the National Death Index to determine causes of death of the 473 survey subjects who had died to 31 December 2000. Hazard ratios for the risk factors predicting CVD mortality and CHD mortality. Of the modifiable risk factors, obesity, as measured by waist-hip ratio, is a dominant, independent, predictive variable for CVD and CHD deaths in Australian men and women. Self-reported angina/myocardial infarction in both sexes, and cigarette smoking in women, are also independent risk factors. Obesity assessed by waist-hip ratio is a better predictor of CVD and CHD mortality than waist circumference, which, in turn, is a better predictor than BMI. The recognition of central obesity is clinically important, as lifestyle intervention is likely to provide significant health benefits.
Article
To study whether serum triglyceride (TG) was associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. A cohort analytic study carried out in a machinery factory in Xi'an, China on 1696 subjects aged 35 years or above (1124 men and 572 women) examined in 1976 and followed up till 2000. At baseline, the mean serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) was 4.64 and 1.16 mmol/L in men, 4.62 and 1.10 mmol/L in women, respectively. Three hundred six (239 men, 67 women) had died within 37,781 person-years of follow-up, with 49 CHD deaths (36 male, 13 female). The relative risk (95% confidence interval) of CHD mortality per mmol/L increase in TG was 2.13 (1.46-3.17) after adjusting for age, marital status, occupation, education, systolic blood pressure and TC. Dose-response relationship between TG levels by tertiles and CHD risk was found. Stratified analyses showed TG was an independent predictor for CHD mortality in subjects with lower or higher TC. Chinese had lower levels of TC and TG than Western populations. This study provides new evidence that TG is an independent risk factor of CHD in subjects with lower or higher TC levels, and supports the lowering of cut-off value for elevated triglyceride.
Article
To elucidate the anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, female ICR mice were fed on diets containing 2% green tea powder and diets containing 0.3% catechins, 0.05% caffeine and 0.03% theanine, which correspond, respectively, to their concentrations in a 2% green tea powder diet, singly and in combination for 16 weeks. Body weight and food intake were determined monthly during this period, kidneys, adrenals, liver, spleen, brain, pituitary and intraperitoneal adipose tissues (IPAT) were weighed and lipid levels in the serum and liver were measured at the end of this period. The body weight increase and weight of IPAT were significantly reduced by the diets containing green tea, caffeine, theanine, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine. Noticeably, the IPAT weight decreased by 76.8% in the caffeine + catechins compared to the control group. Serum concentrations of triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were decreased by green tea, catechins and theanine. Moreover, caffeine + catechins, caffeine + theanine and caffeine + catechins + theanine also decreased NEFA in the serum. The TG level in the liver was significantly reduced by catechins and catechins + theanine in comparison with the control. These results indicated that at least caffeine and theanine were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea powder (GTP) on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, it was shown that catechins and caffeine were synergistic in anti-obesity activities.
Article
Rapid socioeconomic development in Japan since the beginning of the Seven Countries Study in 1958 has brought remarkable changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. We investigated the relationship between time trends in nutrient intake and serum cholesterol levels in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town on Kyushu Island. Subjects totaled 628 in 1958, 539 in 1977, 602 in 1982, 752 in 1989, and 402 in 1999, and all of the subjects were men aged 40-64 years. Eating patterns were evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall from 1958 through 1989, and by a food frequency questionnaire in 1999. We also measured serum cholesterol levels in each health examination. The total daily energy intake decreased from 2837 kcal in 1958 to 2202 kcal in 1999. The carbohydrate intake in percentage of total daily energy intake decreased markedly, from 84% in 1958 to 62% in 1999, in contrast to large increases during this period in protein intake (from 11% to 18%) and fat intake (from 5% to 20%). In proportion to the dramatic change in protein and fat intake, serum cholesterol levels showed large increases (from 152.5mg/dl to 194.2 mg/ dL). In spite of such big dietary changes toward a westernized diet, the incidence of coronary artery disease in a rural Japanese area remains low. However, careful surveillance is needed in the future because of the remarkably increasing intake of fats, especially saturated fatty acids.
Reducing effect of theophylline on the body fat and serum triacylglyceride in rats fed a high-fat diet
  • H Inoue
  • K Kobayashi-Hattori
  • S Yamabe
  • H Taniguchi
  • T Takita
Inoue, H., Kobayashi-Hattori, K., Yamabe, S., Taniguchi, H., and Takita, T., Reducing effect of theophylline on the body fat and serum triacylglyceride in rats fed a high-fat diet. ITE Lett. Batt. New Technol. Med., 6, 61–67 (2005).
Coffee drinking reduces fecal sterol excretion in the rat
  • A T Høstmark
  • A Haug
  • T Bjerkedal
  • E Eilertsen
  • Ø Spydevoid
  • E Lystad
Høstmark, A. T., Haug, A., Bjerkedal, T., Eilertsen, E., Spydevoid, Ø., and Lystad, E., Coffee drinking reduces fecal sterol excretion in the rat. Nutr. Rep. Int., 34, 119–127 (1986).