Characterization of atmospheric particulate and metallic elements at Taichung Harbor near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005

ArticleinChemosphere 63(11):1912-23 · June 2006with3 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.10.010 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) and metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the range 132-171.1 microg m(-3) and 43-49.5 microg m(-3), respectively. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter <2.5 microm, PM(2.5)) were in the following order: winter>spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.
    • "In order to study this issue before applying the model to our data, the more recent experimental data on the distribution of pesticides in air from others studies (Table SD-6) has been depicted together with its theoretical distribution according to the K oa model (Fig. 2). For this model different scenarios have been used, taking into account the range of values of f OM (from 0.05 to 0.35) (Harrison et al., 2004) and C TSP (from 35 to 500 mg m À3 ) (Chrysikou and Samara, 2009; Fang et al., 2006) that can be found in the atmosphere.Fig. 2 shows that most of the experimental data on the pesticide G/P distribution agree with the absorption model proposed by Harner and Bidleman, considering the wide range of experimental conditions covered by the different studies. For instance, terbuthylazine shows a K oa ¼ 9.03 and consequently, according to the model, it is prone to partition into the gaseous phase. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel screening approach for inhalation risk assessment of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in ambient air, based on the measurements of pesticide levels in the inhalable fraction of the particulate matter (PM10). Total concentrations in ambient air (gas + particle phases) were estimated using a theoretical model of distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds between the gas and the particulate phase based on the octanol-air partition (K-oa) of each pesticide. The proposed approach was used in a pilot study conducted in a rural station in Valencia (Spain) from April through to October 2010. Twenty out of 82 analysed pesticides were detected in average concentrations ranging from 1.63 to 117.01 pg m(-3). For adults, children and infants the estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ) was <1 for all pesticides. Likewise, the cumulative exposure for detected organophosphorus, pyrethroids and carbamates pesticides, was estimated using as metrics the Hazard Index (HI), which was less than 1 for the three families of pesticides assessed. The cancer risk estimated for the detected pesticides classified as Likely or Possible carcinogens was less than 1.15E-7 for infants. In our opinion, the screening approach proposed could be used in the monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in ambient air.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
    • "They assume higher values in spring (greater part of 04-07.2008) and winter, lower in summer and autumn [17] . High yearly PM 2.5 concentrations are caused by high concentrations in winter (heating season) – not only in the south of Poland (Zabrze) but also in other EuropeanTable 4. Mass concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 at selected sites in Europe and the world Country Location, measuring period PM 2.5 [µg·m -3 ] PM 2.5-10 [µg·m -3 ] Poland (e.g. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations and elemental composition of fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) ambient particles, at two sampling points located at the same urban background sites, were investigated. The points were 20 m distant from each other and at various heights (2 and 6 m) above the ground. A dichotomous sampler, equipped with a virtual impactor, and a cascade impactor were used to sample the dust. An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used in the elemental analyses. The investigations revealed heterogeneity of the spatial distribution and the elemental composition of suspended dust at the investigated urban background site. Coarse dust, whose concentration at 2.0 m above the ground was affected by secondary emission from roads, soil and other local low-level sources in some periods, appeared more heterogeneous. © 2011 Copyright by Institute of Envionmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
    • "The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the fine and coarse particulate concentrations of metallic elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cr). Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5–10 m, PM 2.5–10 ), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 m, PM 2.5 ) and metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan [17]. The sampler has a designed inlet sampling flow rate of 300 L/min. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have monitored atmospheric particulates and gaseous phases of PM(2.5) in Asia over the past 10 years. This work also compared and discussed different sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods in Asia countries in past decade. The results indicated that the main PM(2.5) sources are traffic exhausts. PM(2.5) concentrations are also ranked highest in the areas of traffic, followed by the urban sites, and lowest in rural sites in Asian countries. This work elucidates the sources, analytical tools, and the average concentrations for PM(2.5) and related metallic elements during 1995-2005. The results indicated that the average highest concentrations order of metallic elements for PM(2.5) were Fe>Mg>Zn, and the average concentrations of lowest metallic elements was Pb>Cu>Mn>Cr>Cd. The results also indicated that the concentration of metallic element Cu increased as the averaged concentrations of metallic element Zn and Mn increased during the past 10 years in Asian countries.
    Article · May 2007
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