Outcome Expectations and Physical Activity Participation in Two Samples of Older Women
Department of Exercise Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.Journal of Health Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.22). 01/2006; 11(1):65-77. DOI: 10.1177/1359105306058850
Outcome expectations have received little study in physical activity (PA) research. This study examined whether initial outcome expectations and their achievement at 6 months (i.e. outcome realizations) predicted subsequent PA participation (7-12 months) in 118 older women. Initial outcome expectations were not associated with PA participation. Outcome realizations at 6 months, however, predicted subsequent PA participation (p < .05). Women with high expectations but low attainment had the lowest subsequent participation rates. Women with high attainment, regardless of expectations, had the highest rates. Findings replicate and extend an earlier study and argue for a more dynamic conceptualization of outcome expectations.
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- "Many studies have used telephone calls and printed material as a strategy for increasing the level of physical activity [52-60]. Macfarlane et al.  conducted an eight-week intervention involving 50 employees at a university in Hong Kong, who received two telephone calls in conjunction with weekly physical activity sessions. "
ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity practice has been widely recommended for promoting health, but the physical activity levels remain low in the population. Therefore, the study of interventions to promote physical activity is essential. Objective: To present the methodology of two physical activity interventions from the “Ambiente Ativo” (“Active Environment”) project. 12-month non-randomized controlled intervention trial. 157 healthy and physically inactive individuals were selected: health education (n = 54) supervised exercise (n = 54) and control (n = 49). Intervention based on health education: a multidisciplinary team of health professionals organized the intervention in group discussions, phone calls, SMS and educational material. Intervention based on supervised exercise program: consisted of offering an exercise program in groups supervised by physical education professionals involving strength, endurance and flexibility exercises. The physical activity level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version), physical activities recalls, pedometers and accelerometers over a seven-day period. This study described two different proposals for promoting physical activity that were applied to adults attended through the public healthcare settings. The participants were living in a region of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the characteristics and organization of the system and its professionals, and also adapting the interventions to the realities of the individuals attended. Both interventions are applicable in regions of low socioeconomic level, while respecting the social and economic characteristics of each region. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01852981
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- "However, there are also some studies that failed to find an association between outcome expectancies and physical activity (Anderson, Wojcik, Winett, & Williams, 2006; Wilcox, Castro, & King, 2006). This suggests that outcome expectancies might be more distal predictors of physical activity. "
ABSTRACT: When people intend and plan to perform higher levels of physical activity, they do not start on impulse without preparing. Thus, preparation is a behavioral construct positioned between planning and target behavior. This may be reflected by the acquisition of sports equipment as well as monitoring devices such as pedometers. The research questions are who takes such preparatory action, whether picking up a complimentary pedometer can be predicted by self-efficacy and outcome expectancies, and whether this kind of preparatory action facilitates subsequent physical activity. A longitudinal physical activity survey was conducted with 143 university students who were offered a complimentary pedometer. Collecting this free gift served as indicator of preparatory behavior. Outcome expectancies and self-efficacy beliefs were specified as predictors of this behavior. Two weeks later, physical activity differences between the groups were determined. Collecting the pedometer was associated with higher levels of physical activity at follow-up. Outcome expectancies failed to predict the pedometer collection, but self-efficacy did. An interaction between these two factors indicated that self-efficacy compensated for low outcome expectancies. Pedometer acquisition signifies a preparatory action that is facilitated by self-efficacy. Positioned between planning and target behavior, they constitute a proximal self-regulatory step towards health behavior change.
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- "Among women randomized to an Atkins weight-loss diet, positive 6-month outcome realizations regarding perceived improvements in physical shape and appearance predicted less weight regain during a 6–12 month follow-up, after controlling for baseline outcome expectations and the interaction between expectations and realizations. The result mirrors research highlighting the importance of realizations for long-term health behavior change success (Brassington, et al., 2002; Finch, et al., 2005; Neff & King, 1995; Wilcox, et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: This prospective study tested whether (a) baseline outcome expectations regarding the benefits of a weight-loss diet, (b) 6-month outcome realizations regarding perceived benefits actually experienced, and/or (c) the interaction between them predicted 6-12-month weight regain among overweight/obese women randomized to one of four popular weight-loss diets (N=311). Positive 6-month realizations regarding improvements in physical shape and appearance predicted less 6-12-month weight regain among Atkins diet participants only (n=70), controlling for baseline expectations, the expectations-realization interaction, and initial weight loss. Atkins participants displayed three distinct patterns of regain based on levels of 6-month realizations and initial weight loss. Experimental research should investigate whether improving realizations leads to reduced weight regain in response to this popular diet.
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