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Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents

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Abstract

In a longitudinal study of 140 eighth-grade students, self-discipline measured by self-report, parent report, teacher report, and monetary choice questionnaires in the fall predicted final grades, school attendance, standardized achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring. In a replication with 164 eighth graders, a behavioral delay-of-gratification task, a questionnaire on study habits, and a group-administered IQ test were added. Self-discipline measured in the fall accounted for more than twice as much variance as IQ in final grades, high school selection, school attendance, hours spent doing homework, hours spent watching television (inversely), and the time of day students began their homework. The effect of self-discipline on final grades held even when controlling for first-marking-period grades, achievement-test scores, and measured IQ. These findings suggest a major reason for students falling short of their intellectual potential: their failure to exercise self-discipline.

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... In fact when elaborating on her work, Duckworth (2016) contended that grit was not as imperative as self-control when an individual was faced with temptations or distractions, as often these occur in an everyday context. Research regarding the relationship between self-control and grit tout the high correlation between these two determinants of success (Duckworth et al., 2007) and how each can be a greater predictor of success over other factors such as intelligence, (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005) or cognitive ability (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). As Duckworth herself states, "gritty people tend to be self-controlled and vice versa" (Duckworth, 2016, p. 273). ...
... In fact when elaborating on her work, Duckworth (2016) contended that grit was not as imperative as self-control when an individual was faced with temptations or distractions, as often these occur in an everyday context. Research regarding the relationship between self-control and grit tout the high correlation between these two determinants of success (Duckworth et al., 2007) and how each can be a greater predictor of success over other factors such as intelligence, (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005) or cognitive ability (Duckworth et al., 2007;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). As Duckworth herself states, "gritty people tend to be self-controlled and vice versa" (Duckworth, 2016, p. 273). ...
... Studies have shown that self-control and grit are significantly and positively related (Duckworth & Gross, 2014;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Muenks et al., 2017;Wayment & Cavolo, 2019). College students with high selfcontrol are better able to engage in self-discipline and are able to self-regulate their emotions more effectively, and this enables them to exhibit grit (Credé et al., 2017;Wayment & Cavolo, 2019). ...
Article
To use self‐control and self‐determination theories in a grit model with self‐control as a mediator of autonomous learning and well‐being. A cross‐sectional online survey using a convenience sampling approach was employed to recruit 511 university students (70.6% female) with an average age of 25. Grit was positively related to self‐control, autonomous learning, and grade point average (GPA). Additionally, self‐control had a mediated effect on the relationship between grit and autonomous learning, and between grit and well‐being. Findings offer insights on the role of self‐control in enhancing autonomous learning and GPA among gritty students. Implications are also offered for research and practice in higher education settings. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being. Students with higher levels of grit reported higher autonomous learning and self‐control. Self‐control mediated the relationship between students' grit and autonomous learning. Self‐control served as a mediator between students' grit and well‐being.
... These findings provide crucial evidence that dog interventions can successfully attenuate stress levels in school children with important implications for AAI implementation, learning and wellbeing. Introduction Prolonged exposure to stressors, including academic stresses, can cause adverse effects on learning, behavior, health and wellbeing in children cross-culturally and over their lifespan, hence, it is important to prevent and reduce stressors in schools [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. To counter stressrelated negative effects, support needs to be provided and effective interventions are required (see [10] for recent overview). ...
... This is a novel and important finding in itself, as it clearly shows the effects of school stress on children's cortisol levels-strikingly, with neurotypical children's cortisol levels elevated at the end of the school term to levels of children with SEN. This increase is likely to be the result of the pressures children face within current mainstream educational settings as described by other research above [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11], for example, academic pressures and limited good-quality child-care and education. While higher cortisol levels had been reported in children with SEN in response to novel situations [57] school integration [58,59], and with growing self-awareness of their lack of social competence [60], we can now also add that stress levels rise significantly in typically developing children over the school term. ...
... This result therefore captures children's real increase in stress levels in mainstream educational settings within a typical school term. While some work on interventions of different types, from teaching interventions [11] to yoga, mindfulness and other interventions [12][13][14][15][16][17] has begun and shown mixed effects, the current results on the mediating effects of dog interventions are clearly promising and worthy of further investigation of effects of mounting pressure on school children as a consequence of educational targets and exam pressures [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. ...
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Prolonged or excessive stress negatively affects learning, behavior and health across the lifespan. To alleviate adverse effects of stress in school children, stressors should be reduced, and support and effective interventions provided. Animal-assisted interventions (AAI) have shown beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, however, robust knowledge on stress mediation in children is lacking. Despite this, AAIs are increasingly employed in settings world-wide, including schools, to reduce stress and support learning and wellbeing. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate dog-assisted interventions as a mediator of stress in school children with and without special educational needs (SEN) over the school term. Interventions were carried out individually and in small groups twice a week for 20 minutes over the course of 4 weeks. We compared physiological changes in salivary cortisol in a dog intervention group with a relaxation intervention group and a no treatment control group. We compared cortisol level means before and after the 4 weeks of interventions in all children as well as acute cortisol in mainstream school children. Dog interventions lead to significantly lower stress in children with and without special educational needs compared to their peers in relaxation or no treatment control groups. In neurotypical children, those in the dog interventions showed no baseline stress level increases over the school term. In addition, acute cortisol levels evidenced significant stress reduction following the interventions. In contrast, the no treatment control group showed significant rises in baseline cortisol levels from beginning to end of school term. Increases also occurred in the relaxation intervention group. Children with SEN showed significantly decreased cortisol levels after dog group interventions. No changes occurred in the relaxation or no treatment control groups. These findings provide crucial evidence that dog interventions can successfully attenuate stress levels in school children with important implications for AAI implementation, learning and wellbeing.
... Other pertinent factors which are associated with school achievement include in particular conscientiousness, which is a part of the five-factor model of personality (FFM, openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, e.g., Conard, 2006;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Poropat, 2009). Such results have also been found among Swedish samples at the elementary and lower-secondary school levels (Rosander & Bäckström, 2014). ...
... Such results have also been found among Swedish samples at the elementary and lower-secondary school levels (Rosander & Bäckström, 2014). There are many studies which include both cognitive and non-cognitive or personality factors such as the FFM or other non-cognitive abilities such as self-efficacy or locus of control (e.g., Bandura, 2006;Borghans et al., 2008;Duckworth et al., 2011;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Guez et al., 2018;Heckman & Kautz, 2014;Lu et al., 2011;Rammstedt et al., 2016;Sorjonen et al., 2012;Vazsonyi et al., 2022). Humphries and Kosse (2017), however, stress that it is important to separate personality constructs such as the FFM from (other) non-cognitive constructs. ...
... However, the problem with earlier research endeavors which focus on the nexus between cognitive ability, non-cognitive abilities, SES, and academic achievement is that several studies are based on small samples (e.g., Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Lu et al., 2011;Vazsonyi et al., 2022), or use PISA or Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) as proxies for cognitive abilities (Rammstedt et al., 2016). Specifically, smaller sample sizes decrease generalizability whereas PIAAC or PISA tests that measure literacy are likely influenced by school knowledge and teacher's cognitive skills, domain-specific skills, and instructional competence (Hanushek et al., 2019), to a substantially larger extent than "pure" cognitive ability tests (Bardach & Klassen, 2020;Borghans et al., 2016). ...
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It is well established that socioeconomic status, cognitive ability, and non-cognitive abilities such as self-efficacy are substantially associated with academic achievement. However, the specific relationships of these variables remain a relatively unexplored topic in regard to more recent and representative samples. The current study examined such relations by taking advantage of two cohorts (total N = 12,315) of Swedish students at the elementary (Grade 6) and lower-secondary school levels (Grade 8) in the compulsory school. The regression models showed that all three variables explained a substantial portion of grade variance, with cognitive ability having the strongest relationship, followed by non-cognitive abilities, and SES. Longitudinal associations, which accounted for previous academic achievement, showed that the three variables did still explain a substantial amount of grade variance.
... The problem with identifying the goals of CE centers on the fact that it is used so broadly in educational circles that the GPS appears to be pointing in different directions with a myriad of different routes and destinations. Some educators think that CE is simply social-emotional learning (SEL) and that the goal is to fundamentally support students in managing their emotions (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). Other educators see CE as anything dealing with drug prevention, bullying prevention, online etiquette, behavior intervention, and conflict resolution. ...
... The researchers had students fill out two self-report measures (Eysenck I.6 Junior Impulsiveness Subscale and The Brief Self-Control Scale) prior to the start of the study. The researchers also had parents and teachers fill out a 33item questionnaire called the Self-Control Rating Scale (SCRS), which was developed to assess children's intrapersonal competencies (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). The results were compiled and analyzed among a team of researchers. ...
... After the results of the study were evaluated, Duckworth and Seligman (2005) found that: ...
Thesis
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Character education programs have been increasing in size and scope throughout the United States and in the world as an answer to a perceived increase in academic underachievement, classroom misbehavior, aggression, violence, bullying, drug use, alcohol abuse, suicides, sexual promiscuity, school shootings, and crime among developing youths. Three research questions guided this investigation into the ways 12 middle school eighth-grade students identified the most salient character traits within one character education program in one international school in Colombia. Since character education is such a broad construct, this research study employed the tripartite taxonomy of character to better understand how character traits identified by the participants impacted their achievement character, social character, and intellectual character. This study used an embedded-single case study design to collect descriptions, views, and insights from the participants. The results of the study revealed that the character traits of responsibility and commitment were the most predominant traits impacting achievement character, self-awareness and volition were the most significant traits impacting the positive relationships the participants maintained with peers within the social character domain, and proactivity and curiosity had the most influence on thinking and learning within the intellectual character domain. This study offers implications for school leaders and character education advocates aiming to implement character development programs in K-12 schools.
... This study moves beyond previous research by explicitly focusing on the educational variation in the linkages between mothers' various nonstandard work schedules and children's behavior problems. As one essential component of non-cognitive skills, children's behavioral functioning in early life is a significant predictor of their cognitive ability and school success (Duckworth and Seligman 2005;Farkas 2003), and also has lasting implications for later-life employment, earnings, and other socioeconomic success (Heckman and Rubinstein 2001;Heckman, Stixrud, and Urzua 2006). Existing empirical studies have shown that parents' nonstandard work schedules have more consistent relationships with children's behavior problems during early childhood and adolescence than cognitive outcomes (Li et al. 2014). ...
... Recession (Kalleberg and von Wachter 2017), and that the recent COVID-19 pandemic has worsened existing socioeconomic gaps in job quality, childcare, parental well-being, school resources and children's outcomes (Doyle 2020;Kalluri, Kelly, and Garg 2021;Lyttelton and Zang 2022;Terrier, Chen, and Sutter 2021). All these point to the importance of increasing access to health services, childcare support, and more flexible, family-friendly work schedules among lesseducated mothers with young children to reduce growing inequality. ...
Preprint
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Increasing evidence has demonstrated that nonstandard work schedules are more prevalent among the less-educated population, and mothers' nonstandard work schedules have adverse influences on children's development. Yet, we have known relatively little about how such impacts differ across the educational distribution. Analyses using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study revealed that mothers' nonstandard work schedules were associated with increased behavior problems among children, which was consistent across types of nonstandard schedules. Moreover, a "pattern of disadvantage" existed because such relationships were primarily limited to children born to mothers without high school education, a "truly disadvantaged" group in the contemporary United States. Comparisons in mothers' well-being and family dynamics across educational groups suggested that the least-educated mothers not only had worse physical and mental health but also experienced elevated work-family conflicts on multiple dimensions. Decomposition analyses indicated that these intermediary pathways could account for a relatively small proportion of adverse influences of nonstandard work schedules among children of mothers without high school education. These findings suggest that children born to the least-educated mothers experience compounded disadvantages that may reinforce the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages and "diverging destinies" of American children.
... Two additional factors that are influential in increasing, decreasing and understanding the strength of the relationship between IQ scores and educational attainment are self-efficacy and self-discipline (Sternberg et al., 2001;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). These beliefs assert that intellectual strengths (memory, abstract thinking, information processing) and nonintellectual strengths (motivation, self-efficacy, self-discipline) are essential in predicting performance and educational achievement. ...
... Thus, the strong predictive success of IQ in terms of academic achievement is possibly a result of "the feelings of self-efficacy that IQ creates in those who have more of it" (Sternberg et al., 2001: 8). Duckworth & Seligman (2005) actually found that self-discipline is a stronger predictor of academic achievement than IQ. ...
Article
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Each of us is a unique person, a combination of inherited genetic material and environmental influences. A basic theme and controversial issue throughout the history of psychology has been the debate and investigation of the relative roles of heredity and environment in the formation of individual differences. Despite beliefs that men are born equal, they are not. Every person possesses a unique set of genetic material bestowing them with variations in aptitude, physical development, and capacities, which in turn are acted on by the occurrence of unique environmental experiences some of which even influence the creature prenatally. There are many claims, opinions, and arguments about where intelligence comes from - is it from our genetic heritage, or is it a result of the environment and our experiences? A substantial body of research tells us that both heredity and environment affect intelligence.
... Some people will spend a good few years of their lives training and working day after day to achieve these challenges, whereas other people prefer short-term goals. To engage and achieve long-term goals require grit, a personality trait that refers to the tenacious pursuit of a dominant superordinate goal despite setbacks [1][2][3]. In the last decade, grit has received attention within the discipline of positive psychology as well as in the fields of motivation and education. ...
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Although grit is predictive of wellbeing, educational achievement, and success in life, it has been conceptualized as largely distinct from cognitive ability. The present study investigated the link between grit and executive functions since regulation abilities might underlie the expression of grit. A hundred thirty-four people were administered personality questionnaires (grit, impulsiveness, and mindfulness) and four experimental tasks tapping into Miyake's and Braver’s models of executive functioning (including measures of flexibility, inhibition, working memory, and control mode dimensions). Multivariate analyses showed that two composite scores (trait and executive functioning) were reliably predictive of grit, although it was the trait composite (characterized by low impulsivity and high mindfulness) that explained more variance. Importantly, gritty participants did not demonstrate enhanced executive functioning. Instead, they exhibit a different pattern of performance that might be reflecting a cautious profile of control, characterized by paying attention to all available information, less reliance on previous contextual cues but sensitive to conflicting information of the current context. These findings converge with Duckworth’s idea that high grit people do not necessarily have a greater cognitive capacity, rather they use it in a different way.
... Several studies of math skills included both cognitive measures but focused on EF, while controlling for IQ (Bull & Scerif, 2001;Fitzpatrick & Pagani, 2012;Fuhs et al., 2016;Mazzocco & Kover, 2007). Other investigations directly compared the two measures in predicting general academic outcomes (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005) and math outcomes specifically (Alloway & Alloway, 2010;Filippetti & Richaud, 2016;Kyttälä & Lehto, 2008). Most findings converge in showing the distinct contributions of fluid intelligence and EF to academic achievement in general and math skills in particular. ...
... Duckworth and Seligman [12] believe that self-discipline affects the academic achievement of learners. One of the reasons is the fact that self-disciplined learners do well on their time. ...
Article
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The study sought to examine the level of classroom management skills and teaching effectiveness of indigenous peoples teachers. Classroom management skills were limited to self-discipline approach, instructional approach and desist approach. Teaching effectiveness included instructional delivery, teaching strategy and pedagogical content knowledge. It also ascertained the relationship and influence of the level of classroom management skills on teaching effectiveness. Elementary indigenous peoples teachers of Kidapawan City Division for School Year 2020-2021 were the respondents of the study. The study made use of the quantitative design, particularly descriptive-correlational. Descriptive method was used to describe the level of teachers' teachers' classroom management skills and teaching effectiveness. The correlational method was used to determine the relationship and influence of the level of classroom management skills and teaching effectiveness. Findings showed that indigenous peoples teachers' classroom management skills in terms of self-discipline approach, instructional approach, desist approach were managed. Indigenous peoples teachers were effective in terms of instructional delivery, teaching strategy and pedagogical content knowledge. Teachers' classroom management skills had significant relationship with teaching effectiveness. Classroom management skills in terms of self-discipline approach had significant relationship with teaching strategy and pedagogical content knowledge, while classroom management skills in terms of instructional approach had significant influence with instructional delivery. Teachers' classroom management skills significantly influenced teaching effectiveness. Classroom management skills in terms of instructional approach had signi ficant influence on instructional delivery; while self-discipline was a significant predictor of teaching strategy and pedagogical content knowledge.
... Education is not without hard times and annoying complications, hence teachers must take proper approaches to make students tough and buoyant in the face of such challenges creating a sense of determination and strength that ultimately produce high academic performance (Keegan, 2017). Additionally, grit-development orientation in education can bring about favorable outcomes like continuous energy, motivation, self-control, self-discipline, and perseverance in learners as well (Duckworth and Seligman, 2005;Duckworth and Gross, 2014). ...
Article
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The role of teachers in developing positive traits in EFL students has been widely endorsed in the literature. Two such traits that have pivotal roles in language teaching and learning are grit and academic engagement. Despite the proliferation of correlational studies on these constructs, theoretical and systematic review studies on the role of EFL teachers’ approaches in strengthening and enhancing these variables are scant. To fill this wide gap, the present study aimed to review the theoretical and empirical underpinnings of students’ grit and engagement and their teachability. In so doing, the definitions, conceptualizations, and dimensions of the two variables were presented. Moreover, a number of practical teaching approaches were suggested to EFL teachers in various contexts. Finally, implications, research gaps, and future directions of this research strand are provided to enhance EFL stakeholders’ knowledge of teachability of grit, engagement, and many other positive psychological traits.
... In addition to individual differences in reward sensitivity, which is increased by frequent video game use, decreased cognitive control appears to be a major factor in the development of addictive video game use. Decreased cognitive control is associated with both poorer academic and cognitive performance (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005;Mischel, Shoda, & Peake, 1988;Shoda, Mischel, & Peake, 1990) and more excessive media use (Blinka et al., 2015;Khang et al., 2013;Koo & Kwon, 2014). Students who cannot control their own gaming and internet behavior spend more time online and playing video games. ...
... Studies in the general population have shown that successful self-regulation early in life can be predictive of higher academic achievements [20,21], IQ [22], pro-social behaviors [23], as well as the ability to sustain a job, earn and save money [24]. Overall, self-regulation includes behavioral and emotional regulation, which requires the individual to coordinate multiple aspects of top-down control, such as inhibitory control, attention, and working memory, which are components of EF [25], as well as make use of internal tools to regulate emotional perceptions and expressions [10], aiming at specific goals or outcomes. ...
Article
Objectives: This study examined the composition of self-regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) through the relationship between executive functions, emotion processing and family environmental factors. Methods: 58 participants (36 PBD patients and 22 controls), ages 12-17, were assessed using the Barret Impulsivity Scale (BIS), Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II), Wisconsin Sorting Cards Test (WCST), Facial Emotion Recognition test (PENNCP ER-40) and Adjective Checklist questionnaire (ACL). Results: Adolescents with PBD displayed significant deficits in all three spheres, when compared to the control group. Emotion processing was negatively correlated with inhibition, attention, and positively correlated with mental flexibility/working memory. Family environmental factors were negatively correlated with mental flexibility/working memory and emotion processing, and positively correlated with attention and inhibition. These correlations indicate that better inhibitory control, attention, mental flexibility/working memory are associated with greater emotional processing and a fitter family environment. Conclusion: This study is the first to investigate all of the components of self-regulation deficits simultaneously in PBD patients. Results suggest that understanding self-regulation is essential for a comprehensive perspective of PBD and should be assessed in an integrative and multifaceted way. Comprehending that self-regulation is impacted by the abovementioned factors should influence treatment and improve daily functional impairments observed in this population.
... Capacities for self-control and emotional regulation have far-reaching influences on human lives, affecting social relationships, achievement, and propensity to anxiety and depression (de Ridder et al. 2012;Joormann and Gotlib 2010;Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone 2004), and predicting academic performance better than IQ (Duckworth and Seligman 2005). Higher-level controls on impulses also make it possible to delay gratification over considerable timescales, for example saving money today for a pension many decades in the future. ...
Chapter
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In Hidden Depths, Professor Penny Spikins explores how our emotional connections have shaped human ancestry. Focusing on three key transitions in human origins, Professor Spikins explains how the emotional capacities of our early ancestors evolved in response to ecological changes, much like similar changes in other social mammals. For each transition, dedicated chapters examine evolutionary pressures, responses in changes in human emotional capacities and the archaeological evidence for human social behaviours. Starting from our earliest origins, in Part One, Professor Spikins explores how after two million years ago, movement of human ancestors into a new ecological niche drove new types of collaboration, including care for vulnerable members of the group. Emotional adaptations lead to cognitive changes, as new connections based on compassion, generosity, trust and inclusion also changed our relationship to material things. Part Two explores a later key transition in human emotional capacities occurring after 300,000 years ago. At this time changes in social tolerance allowed ancestors of our own species to further reach out beyond their local group and care about distant allies, making human communities resilient to environmental changes. An increasingly close relationship to animals, and even to cherished possessions, appeared at this time, and can be explained through new human vulnerabilities and ways of seeking comfort and belonging. Lastly, Part Three focuses on the contrasts in emotional dispositions arising between ourselves and our close cousins, the Neanderthals. Neanderthals are revealed as equally caring yet emotionally different humans, who might, if things had been different, have been in our place today. This new narrative breaks away from traditional views of human evolution as exceptional or as a linear progression towards a more perfect form. Instead, our evolutionary history is situated within similar processes occurring in other mammals, and explained as one in which emotions, rather than ‘intellect’, were key to our evolutionary journey. Moreover, changes in emotional capacities and dispositions are seen as part of differing pathways each bringing strengths, weaknesses and compromises. These hidden depths provide an explanation for many of the emotional sensitivities and vulnerabilities which continue to influence our world today.
... Data from the students' official academic transcripts from each of the participating schools were utilized to calculate the GPA. While GPA may have notable validity and reliability limitations as a measure of academic performance due to inconsistencies in grading policies between schools, it is still used frequently to assess performance in school (Allen, 2005;Dickinson & Adelson, 2016;Duckworth & Seligman, 2005). Fourth marking period GPA from the intervention year (i.e., at post-treatment) was used in the current study. ...
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Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk of experiencing academic difficulties due to organizational deficits. Impairment can be exacerbated through poor sleep hygiene and excessive daytime sleepiness, prevalent sleep challenges for adolescents with ADHD. Given established relationships among sleep, memory consolidation, and executive functioning, sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness may affect academic and organizational treatment outcomes. The current study examined the influence of pre-treatment daytime sleepiness and sleep hygiene on academic and organizational treatment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent intervention for 171 high school students with ADHD. Participants were assigned to either the treatment group (n = 85, Mage = 15.0, SD = 0.8, 80% male, 71% White/Non-Hispanic) or the control group (n = 86, Mage = 15.1, SD = 0.9, 78% male, 87% White/Non-Hispanic). Multiple regression analyses with an interaction term were conducted, finding significant main effects for poor pre-treatment sleep hygiene and excessive daytime sleepiness predicting worse post-treatment GPA, organizational skills, academic problems, and homework problems. A significant moderation effect was found such that greater pre-treatment daytime sleepiness was associated with more post-treatment homework problems, but only for the control group. Incorporating efforts to improve sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness in interventions for adolescents with ADHD may enhance treatment-induced improvements. Future studies should utilize objective sleep measures to gain greater understanding of sleep’s impact on adolescents’ response to psychosocial treatment.
... Both agreeableness and emotional stability are positively associated with academic performance, the results being consistent with the research found in the literature [47]. Students with increased agreeableness are cooperative, supportive people able to work efficiently with others, which will lead to increased academic performance [48][49][50]. Moreover, students with high emotional stability dimension are calm, relaxed, and can focus in stressful situations, which will lead to better academic results than those who are anxious and have doubts about their knowledge [51]. ...
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The academic and health system requirements are constantly growing due to the continuous development of this sector. Therefore, it is important to investigate the structural factors that improve performance in the medical system. The aim of our pilot study is to analyze if there are associations or correlations between personality and motivation and the results obtained for the National Residency Exam of Romanian medical graduates. We conducted a prospective pilot study on 179 medical students from George Emil Palade University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science, and Technology of Targu Mures, Romania between February 2021 and December 2021, who were evaluated by the DECAS, IM, and SPM scale. Our results showed that all the dimensions of personality according to the Big Five Model, which include openness (OR = 0.392, p = 0.01), extraversion (OR = 0.512, p = 0.03), conscientiousness (OR = 3.671, p = 0.004), agreeableness (OR = 2.791, p = 0.07), and emotional stability (OR = 4.863, p = 0.0003), are statistically associated with the result obtained. Motivation also plays an important role in academic achievements, through motivational persistence and motivational involvement which correlates with the conscientiousness dimension and the result obtained. This study confirms that both personality structure and motivation are associated or correlated with the academic results of medical students and represent a starting point for future research.
... Psychologists related to subdisciplines such as sports psychology, music psychology, educational psychology, and labor psychology have for decades linked measured levels of favorable personality traits to achievement in a variety of occupational and educational contexts. They have consistently found that the personality trait conscientiousness, among which one of its six facets or sub-traits is achievement striving, leads to greater outcomes in a variety of occupations (e.g., Salgado 1997;Poropat 2009;Duckworth and Seligman 2005;John and Srivastava 1999;McCrae and Costa 2008). Assertiveness, related to the extraversion trait of the Big Five Factor Model, is important in a variety of vocational settings (Salgado 1997). ...
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This article does partly extend Duckworth's achievement model and the significance of beauty, which appears to be linked to celebrity achievement. It presents a revised version of the grit model with an added attractiveness feature, labelled CAM (Celebrity Achievement Model), which may be useful when measuring, predicting, or explaining celebrity achievement, including both 'macro-celebrities' and 'micro-celebrities'. Then, the results of a survey study on celebrity attractiveness (N = 183 respondents on 10 celebrities) and another similar study (N = 121 respondents on 55 celebrities) are highlighted. The findings suggest that beauty is moderately linked to higher achievement among celebrities and that rather different celebrities have higher-than-average levels of attractiveness. Celebrity net worth and Instagram following are highly intercorrelated.
... The average grade is also one of the best predictors of the performance of students, which is crystallized in their GPA (Wolfe and Johnson, 1995;McKenzie and Schweitzer, 2001). Besides a person's intelligence (Duckworth and Seligman, 2005), GPA is also associated with the personality traits like conscientiousness or openness to experience (Mammadov, 2022). Student motivation has a moderating effect on the relationship of openness to experience and conscientiousness with the GPA (Komarraju et al., 2009;Hazrati-Viari et al., 2012). ...
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Objective: Mindfulness-based interventions are increasingly used in health, economic and educational systems. There are numerous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in the educational sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary). This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the current state of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on the academic performance of students as measured by their grade point average (GPA). Methods: Literature search was conducted in Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, and Google Scholar through March 2022. The inclusion criteria were: (1) the use of GPA as a measure of students’ academic performance, (2) a sample that was subjected to a mindfulness-based intervention without medical indication, (3) the student status of the subjects. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random effects model with the generic inverse variance method. Results: The search included a total of 759 studies, of which six randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. In these trials, significant group differences for GPA were found with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.16–1.62 yielding a significant overall effect of d = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.15–0.69) and a low magnitude of heterogeneity of I ² = 37%. Discussion: In conclusion, the first results of this emerging research field seem promising. However, the exact mechanisms of action are still unclear.
... Öz düzenlemesi gelişmiş olan çocuklar ise ilerleyen yıllarda akademik ve sosyal yaşamlarında daha başarılı olmaktadırlar [34,35]. Duygularını ve davranışlarını düzenleyebilme becerileri gelişen okul öncesi dönem çocukların olumlu benlik algıları da gelişmektedir. ...
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zet: Araştırmada 3-6 yaş çocuklarına yönelik olarak yayımlanan resimli öykü kitaplarında yer alan ana/yan karakterlerin sergiledikleri prososyal davranışların incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Betimsel araştırma modelinin kullanıldığı bu araştırmada veriler, doküman analizi yöntemi ile elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın veri kaynaklarını İstanbul ilinde, ulaşılabilen, alışveriş merkezlerindeki büyük kitapçılarda, 3-6 yaş grubuna hitap eden ve içeriğinde prososyal davranışları bulunduran 105 kitap oluşturmuştur. Dört araştırmacı tarafından oluşturulan "Kitap İnceleme Formu" ile kitaplar; künye bilgileri, fiziksel özellikler, içerik ve yardımlaşma, iş birliği, empati, paylaşma, teselli etme, kibarlık, dayanışma kategorilerinde yer alan prososyal davranışlar açısından incelenmiştir. Araştırmacılar arasındaki güvenirliği belirlemek için 10 kitaptan oluşan bir pilot çalışma yapılmış ve araştırmacılar arası güvenirlik değeri 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Bu değer, Miles ve Huberman (1994) tarafından önerilmiş olan güvenirlik formülü (Güvenirlik = Görüş Birliği / (Görüş Birliği + Görüş Ayrılığı)) ile hesaplanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler frekans analizi ve ki-kare testi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda; Türkçe yazılan kitaplar ile kibarlık davranışı arasında istatistiksel açıdan pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmuştur (x²= 7,367, p<0,05). 2000 yılı ve sonrasında yazılan kitaplar ile iş birliği (%97,7) davranışı arasında istatistiksel açıdan pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu (x²=7,636, p<0,05) ve 2000 yılı ve sonrasında yazılan kitaplar ile yardımlaşma (%92,3) davranışı arasında istatistiksel açıdan pozitif yönde anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu (x²=4,699, p<0,05). Yazarların cinsiyeti ile kitaplarda yer alan prososyal davranışlar arasında ise istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı bir ilişki olmadığı görülmüştür (p>0,05). Kitaplarda en çok kibarlık davranışının, en az dayanışma davranışının prososyal davranış olarak işlendiği görülmüştür. Prososyal davranışlar, en çok insan karakterler yoluyla ele alınmıştır. Karakterlerin cinsiyetine göre işlenen prososyal davranışlara bakıldığında; yardımlaşma, empati, iş birliği, paylaşma ve dayanışma davranışlarının en çok "cinsiyetsiz" karakterler yoluyla işlendiği görülürken, teselli etme davranışının en çok "erkek" karakterler, kibarlık davranışının ise en çok "kadın" karakterler yoluyla işlendiği görülmüştür. Anahtar Sözcükler: Prososyal davranışlar, Okul öncesi dönemi, Resimli çocuk kitapları, 3-6 yaş Abstract: This study aimed to examine the prosocial behaviours of the main and side characters in children's books for ages of 3-6. Data collected with document analysis method for this descriptive research. Data resource of the research consists from 105 books which can be accessed in large bookstores in shopping centers in the city of İstanbul, appeal to the ages of 3-6 and contain prosocial behaviours. Books were examined with the "Book Review Form" which was prepared by four researchers in terms of imprint information, physical properties, content and prosocial behaviours within the categories of cooperation, empathy, solacement and kindness. A pilot study consisting of 10 books was conducted to determine the reliability among researchers, and the inter-researcher reliability value was found to be 0,89. This value was calculated with the reliability formula (Reliability = Consensus / (Agreement + Disagreement)) suggested by Miles and Huberman (1994). The data were analysed by frequency analysis and chi-square test on the SPSS program. According to findings of the research; there is a * Sorumlu Yazar, Arş. Gör.
... Öz düzenlemesi gelişmiş olan çocuklar ise ilerleyen yıllarda akademik ve sosyal yaşamlarında daha başarılı olmaktadırlar [34,35]. Duygularını ve davranışlarını düzenleyebilme becerileri gelişen okul öncesi dönem çocukların olumlu benlik algıları da gelişmektedir. ...
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Araştırma okul öncesi eğitime devam eden 60-72 aylık çocukların öz düzenleme becerileri ile zorbalıkla baş etme stratejilerinin incelenmesi amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini İstanbul İli Anadolu Yakasında yer alan ilçelerde "okul öncesi eğitim kurumunda eğitimine devam eden 60-72 aylık çocuklar ve öğretmenleri" oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini kolay örnekleme yöntemi ile seçilen İstanbul İli Beykoz, Üsküdar, Ümraniye ilçelerinde yer alan "okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarına devam eden 60-72 aylık 85 çocuk ve öğretmenleri" oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada "Demografik Bilgi Formu", "4-6 Yaş Çocuklarına Yönelik Öz-Düzenleme Ölçeği Öğretmen Formu", "Zorbalıkla Baş Etme Stratejileri Problem Hikayeler Formu" kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada karma yöntem kullanılmıştır. Nicel veriler "bağımsız örneklem t testi" ve "tek yönlü varyans analizi" ile nitel veriler içerik analizi ile analiz edilmiştir. Çocukların öz düzenleme becerilerinin çocuğun yaşına, okul öncesi eğitim alma süresine, yaşadıkları ilçeye, anne yaşına, anne çalışma durumuna, anne mesleğine, sınıftaki çocuk sayısına göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği bulunmuştur. Araştırmamızda kızların zorbalıkla baş etmede daha çok aktif ve problem odaklı; erkeklerin ise daha çok kaçınmacı ve duygu odaklı stratejiler kullandıkları bulunmuştur. Araştırmamıza katılan öz düzenleme becerisi yüksek çocukların zorbalıkla baş etmede daha çok aktif ve karma stratejileri; öz düzenleme becerisi düşük çocukların ise daha çok kaçınmacı ve duygu odaklı stratejiler kullandıkları bulunmuştur.
... En fait, la FE exerce des influences envahissantes sur la cognition au fur et à mesure que les enfants apprennent à réguler leurs comportements de façon spécifique au contexte ou de façon générale à un domaine. Par exemple, il a été montré que les mesures en FE sont solidement prédictives du développement du langage (Im-Bolter, Johnson & Pascual-Leone, 2006 ;McEvoy, Rogers & Pennington, 1993) et des habiletés mathématiques (Bull & Scerif, 2001 ;Clark, Pritchard & Woodward, 2010 ;Mazzocco & Kover, 2007), aussi bien que des mesures du fonctionnement cognitif général, y compris l'intelligence fluide (Blair & Razza, 2007), l'état de préparation à la lecture (Morrison, Ponitz & McClelland, 2010), le niveau de formation (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005), la fin d'études secondaires (Vitaro et al., 2005) La théorie de l'esprit (ToM) est un domaine du développement cognitif qui a été largement étudié dans son rapport à la FE. La ToM renvoie à l'attribution d'états mentaux, à soi-même et à autrui. ...
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Nous présentons ici la traduction d’un texte sur les aspects développementaux de la fonction exécutive chez les enfants typiques et atypiques. Il s’agit d’une synthèse, assez unique en son genre. En effet, s’appuyant sur l’expérience clinique et la recherche (plus de 400 références expérimentales), elle privilégie une approche qui intègre la multiplicité des niveaux d’analyse en abordant notamment les phénomènes de la plasticité cérébrale et les influences multiples intervenant dans le développement des fonctions exécutives. Les auteurs abordent également les influences dynamiques réciproques des processus et des contextes (notamment familial et scolaire), sans oublier les implications possibles dans le domaine de l’éducation. Ce chapitre, rédigé par des chercheurs de pointe en psychologie du développement, présente donc un intérêt majeur pour les professionnels de l’enfance, pédopsychiatres, pédiatres, psychologues et neuropsychologues, rééducateurs (psychomotriciens, orthophonistes, ergothérapeutes ou thérapeutes occupationnels), infirmiers, éducateurs et enseignants (voire les parents informés). Mais ces aspects de la trajectoire développementale jettent un éclairage singulier sur la psychopathologie adulte, ce qui n’est pas sans intérêt pour la psychiatrie. Comme le rappelait encore tout récemment Adele Diamond (2016), les fonctions exécutives sont des facteurs clés qui prédisent la réussite à l’école et la réussite professionnelle, bien mieux que le QI : la prise en compte de la trajectoire développementale des composantes de la fonction exécutive d’un individu permettra de spécifier et d’optimiser les thérapeutiques, de favoriser une prévention optimale des troubles psychosociaux psychiatriques et développementaux, d’assurer une meilleure qualité des apprentissages réalisés par les enfants. Par ailleurs, de plus en plus d’équipes oeuvrent au développement de techniques et de programmes de remédiation cognitive, susceptibles de promouvoir le rétablissement (Franck, 2016 ; Giraud-Barod & Roussel, 2012) des patients en souffrance psychique. Ces programmes validés ne sont pas des procédures standard d’application indifférenciée mais doivent s’accorder avec les attentes, les points forts et les faiblesses du sujet qui s’y engage et vis-à-vis du contexte dans lequel il vit. Il s’agit de rendre au patient la capacité d’agir, d’être et de trouver un équilibre physique et mental dans son milieu. « Les techniques de remédiation cognitive ont pris une place centrale, incontournable au sein des techniques classiques de réhabilitation psychosociale » (Giraud-Baro & Roussel, 2012). Elles visent des processus neuropsychologiques extrêmement subtils et notamment les fonctions exécutives, indispensables à la réalisation des comportements adaptés aux situations nouvelles. Elles sous-tendent la capacité de se reconnaître être humain à part entière parmi les autres, doté et responsable d’un réel pouvoir de compréhension, de décision, d’action et d’échange. Un des premiers programmes est le CRT, pour Cognitive Remediation Therapy ou thérapie par remédiation cognitive, dont les versions initiales australiennes cherchaient à lutter contre les conséquences délétères des lésions cérébrales chez l’enfant (Frontal/executive program, Delahunty et al., 1993). Développé par T. Wykes et C. Reeder en Grande-Bretagne dans le domaine de la schizophrénie (2002), il a été traduit et validé en français par l’équipe du Professeur Nicolas Franck (2009). Depuis, l’alliance de cliniciens et de chercheurs permet d’adapter ou d’utiliser ce programme (et bien d’autres), de type crayon-papier, avec des enfants ou des adolescents présentant un TSA, un TDA/H, un trouble des apprentissages non verbaux, du contrôle de soi, des troubles des conduites ou une anorexie (i.e., Doyen, 20127 ; Doyen et al., 2015 ; Lapasset et al., 2013). De nouveaux programmes sont en cours de développement, y compris dans le cadre d’une déficience intellectuelle et peuvent combiner les approches informatisée et crayon papier (Cognitus et moi, Demily et al., 2016), mais tous tirent profit de l’affinement des connaissances sur la nature et le rôle des fonctions exécutives, y compris dans le domaine des relations sociales et affectives. Bien qu’il y ait un intérêt considérable pour ces dernières et de nombreuses recherches, nous ne disposions d’aucune synthèse complète en langue française, notamment sur le développement du fonctionnement exécutif et les facteurs qui l’influencent. Nous remercions donc le professeur Nicolas Franck de nous avoir permis de collaborer pour réviser la première traduction de Jérôme Alain Lapasset (psychomotricien en pédopsychiatrie après l’avoir été en psychiatrie, et praticien en remédiation cognitive) du chapitre des professeurs Stephanie Carlson, Philip David Zelazo et Susan Faja. Au fur et à mesure, nous est apparue la portée de l’enjeu. Comprendre le développement (typique et atypique) des fonctions exécutives depuis les stades les plus primaires, où elles ne sont encore qu’un concept unitaire, à l’adolescence, en suivant leurs différenciations et leurs spécifications, ouvre bien des perspectives quant à la prévention et la réhabilitation des troubles psychiatriques et autres conditions singulières. Tout homme, et le sens de soi, étant le fruit de ses expériences, de ses capacités d’adaptation et d’intégration, il est heureux que nous commencions à disposer d’éléments fiables susceptibles de déboucher sur de nouveaux modèles de la santé et de soins, liant la réhabilitation avec les dispositifs médicaux sociaux psychiatriques dont la pédopsychiatrie. En conséquence, nous mettons à la disposition de nos collègues francophones, et des étudiants, une traduction de cette synthèse remarquable.
... [36] examined the influence of self-control on academic achievement in two investigations. Both researchers emphasised the need for self-discipline and self-control in accomplishing bigger objectives, as well as the capacity to reject misrepresentations [35]. In daily life, students must learn self-discipline in order to resist their natural emotions and focus on the intended goal. ...
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COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound effect on campuses, compelling learning systems to shift away from face-to-face engagement and toward online instruction. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of remote learning in the event of a COVID-19 pandemic. To obtain responses, a self-administered online survey was used. After data screening, 315 data were proceeded to the next analysis. Additionally, the data were devoid of missing cases and outliers. The measuring model was evaluated for indicator and internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. Meanwhile, the structural model was evaluated by SmartPLS version 3.2.9 utilising the bootstrapping approach. Findings revealed self-discipline and flexibility were significant towards effectiveness of online learning among students at the UiTM Kelantan, Kota Bharu Campus. The findings argue that, in the modern era, internet technologies have increased the flexibility of post secondary education in a variety of ways. Institutions should make strategic use of these new flexibility, concentrating on chances to engage students more deeply in learning that results in practical outcomes.
... Self-control refers to the ability of individuals to consciously restrict and manage their own cognition, emotions and behaviors in accordance with social standards or their own wishes without external supervision and external restrictions (Xie, 2009). Duckworth and Seligman (2010) and other scholars have studied the influence of discipline on academic performance, Self-control has a positive effect on the performance of eighth-grade students in the United States. Dai (2013) conducted related research on the relationship between self-control, emotional stability, and academic performance in junior high school students and found that there was a significant positive correlation between the self-control of high school students and their academic performance. ...
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Increasing numbers of students around the world are suffering from mathematics anxiety. The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender, grade, career choices, and academic achievement in Grade 10, 11, and 12 students. This study used the Revised Version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale to survey 1,548 high school students (570 males and 978 females) from high schools in Vietnam. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used to analyze data. The results show that there are significant differences in the influence of grade, academic achievement, and students’ career choices on mathematics anxiety. Academic coping strategies, gender, grade, and career choices are significant predictors of mathematics anxiety. Grade 12 students have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. Students with high average mathematics scores (9.0–10.0) have higher levels of mathematics anxiety than students with lower scores. Besides, students choosing finance and economics or industrial engineering to pursue into higher education also experienced higher levels of mathematics anxiety than others. This study contributes to the general discussion about the nature of mathematics anxiety and the relationship between mathematics anxiety and academic achievement.
... They may protect their only child from "normal" challenges, weakening the willpower of the child. Moreover, self-control predicts academic performance at all levels of schooling 45 , including middle school 46,47 . It improves homework completion and classroom conduct 48 . ...
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This paper estimates the causal effect of only-child status on educational performance among junior high school students from only-child and two-child families in China. It uses the dataset of the China Education Panel Survey 2013–14. The results show that the only children's educational outcomes are significantly low than students from two-child families. Only children's willpower and extraversion are weaker than children's from two-child families. The scale economies effect is strong and the resource dilution effect is weak when sibling size is small.
... In general population, high levels of impulsivity have been linked to worse life outcomes, such as lower levels of academic achievement (Duckworth & Seligman, 2005) and, nowadays, the key role of impulsivity in the onset, course and outcome of many psychopathological disorders is well known. Impulsivity is a core dimension in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), being considered both as a predictor of remission and a risk factor for suicide, and playing a fundamental role in either self-directed or outwardly directed aggressive behaviours (Mungo et al., 2020). ...
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Psychological research is increasingly concerned with the interactions between the use of digital games and the development of intelligence in children and adolescents. This paper integrates the findings of neurocognitive research on effects of gaming on attentional processes and executive functions as well as the findings of clinical psychological studies on cognitive consequences of addictive gaming. For specific cognitive abilities such as processing speed, attentional control, and spatial cognition, positive effects of video games are well documented. Media multitasking, on the other hand, is associated with weaker executive functions and impairs performance in tasks performed in parallel. Frequent gaming leads to structural changes in the mesolimbic reward system that are similar to those found in people with addicted video game use. Such brain structural changes are associated with sensitization of the reward system and maintenance of addictive computer game behavior, which is associated with developmental decline and reduced academic performance. To integrate findings from the fields of cognition and addiction, we present a model of the reciprocal influence of intelligence and media use in which attentional control, reward sensitivity, and a decision-making process that weighs expected positive against possible negative behavioral consequences are postulated as mediating factors. We hypothesize that high reward sensitivity and low attentional control represent risk factors for adverse media use behaviors that include unproductive media multitasking, excessive gaming and addictive video game use, and performance decrements due to neglect of other life domains (school, college, work). On the other hand, moderate reward sensitivity and a high ability to control attention represent protective factors that favor the controlled and purposeful use of digital media. We assume that intelligence plays an important role in the individual pattern of media use and its consequences.
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Reclassification can be an important juncture in the academic experience of English Learners (ELs). Literature has explored the potential for reclassification to influence academic outcomes like achievement, yet its impact on social-emotional learning (SEL) skills, which are as malleable and important to long-term success, remains unclear. Using a regression discontinuity design, we examine the causal effect of reclassification on SEL skills (self-efficacy, growth mindset, self-management, and social awareness) among 4th to 8th graders. In the districts studied, reclassification improved academic self-efficacy by 0.2 standard deviations for students near the threshold. Results are robust to alternative specifications and analyses. Given this evidence, we discuss ways districts might establish practices that instill more positive academic beliefs among ELs.
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Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation suggests that depressed individuals are more likely to behave in ways that bring about greater exposure to negative life events. More recent research suggests that adolescents with other types of psychological vulnerabilities, including those more likely to make impulsive choices, may also be predisposed to experience greater increases in stress over time. The current study examined whether delay discounting (DD), defined as the tendency to prefer smaller but immediately available rewards relative to larger, delayed rewards, predicts the generation of negative life events across adolescence and whether this is due to the association between DD and depressive symptoms. Participants (n = 213, Mage = 15, range 12-17) completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and negative life events, as well as a behavioral measure assessing DD annually over four years. Results of latent growth models suggest that both independent and dependent negative life events increased across adolescence. Consistent with a stress generation framework, DD predicted the growth in dependent, but not independent, negative life events over this time period, controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms. Further exploratory analyses suggest that DD was associated with increases in depressive symptomology across adolescence, but that the relation between DD and changes in independent negative life events was not better accounted for by increases in depressive symptoms over time. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of DD in predicting youths' exposure to dependent negative life events and point to potential avenues for clinical intervention.
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The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between self-control capacity, and self-regulation with happiness. The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in the 2011-2012 academic year, which among them a sample of 187 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed emotional self-regulation strategies questionnaire (Salehi Morkani,1385), Tangney’s self-control scale (2004), and Oxford happiness scale (Argyle, 1989). The results showed there were significant positive correlations between happiness total score and subscale of positive experience and positive sensation with self-control capacity and self-regulation strategies (consist of cognitive, behavioral and, focusing on change affect and increasing positive affect). Results of regression analysis revealed that self-control capacity and increasing positive affects can explain 17 percent of the variance of students’ happiness. There were significant differences between happiness and it’s subscales in married and unmarried students. According to these results using self-control and self-regulation can leads to happiness.
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Factors unrelated to skill are known to contribute to cognitive performance (Revelle, 1993). Specifically, cognitive effort during performance is required for success at many important tasks. Disengagement of effort during cognitive tasks may relate to impulsivity, as self-control may be needed to stay on task and persist in the face of difficulty (Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). Impulsivity is a broad construct, and Lack of Perseverance is a component most clearly aligned with effort disengagement during task performance. However, it is unknown whether cognitive effort disengagement is related to trait-level Lack of Perseverance, or to other components of impulsivity. We tested these associations in two samples using the Cognitive Effort and DisEngagement task, or CEDE, which includes the option to skip trials without penalty, indexing effort disengagement (Fortgang et al., 2020). We found in both samples that skipped trials on the CEDE significantly correlated with self-reported trait level Lack of Perseverance, but not with other, theoretically unrelated aspects of self-reported or task-based impulsivity. Lack of Perseverance – a component of impulsivity – may contribute to disengagement of cognitive effort during task performance. This has implications for cognitive testing and measurement, as well as for our understanding of impulsivity and cognitive effort.
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Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p < .05). The results lend external validity to the delay-discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.
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Total SAT score, average grade earned in high school, and 32 personality variables are examined via forward multiple regression analyses to identify the best combination for predicting GPA in a sample of 201 psychology students. Average grade earned in high school enters first, accounting for 19% of the variance in GPA. Self-control enters second, and SAT third; these account for 9% and 5% of the variance, respectively. No other predictors accounted for substantial portions of variance. This pattern of results converges with findings reported by other investigators using other measures of personality. It was recommended that the global trait of self-control or conscientiousness be systematically assessed and used in college admissions decisions.
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The study of “metacognition” has become vigorous in recent years, with extensive research exploring the development of children’s knowledge of effective strategies in attention, comprehension, and memory (e.g., Brown, 1980; Flavell & Wellman, 1977). In contrast, the child’s developing understanding of essential strategies for self-regulation — a core aspect of human functioning, basic to virtually all conceptions of personality — has been neglected. Perhaps this neglect reflects the fact that until recently there were few objective criteria against which one could assess the relative efficacy of various strategies for self-control. Studies of the conditions that enhance or impede successful delay of gratification in children (e.g., Miller & Karniol, 1976a, 1976b; Mischel, 1974, 1981b; Toner, 1981; Toner & Smith, 1977; Yates, Lippett, & Yates, 1981) now provide a basis for assessing the child’s developing understanding against objective criteria of efficacy.
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Variations of the self-imposed delay-of-gratification situation in preschool were compared to determine when individual differences in this situation may predict aspects of cognitive and self-regulatory competence and coping in adolescence. Preschool children from a university community participated in experiments that varied features of the self-imposed delay situation. Experimental analyses of the cognitive–attentional processes that affect waiting in this situation helped identify conditions in which delay behavior would be most likely to reflect relevant cognitive and attentional competencies. As hypothesized, in those conditions, coherent patterns of statistically significant correlations were found between seconds of delay time in such conditions in preschool and cognitive and academic competence and ability to cope with frustration and stress in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Provides simple but accurate methods for comparing correlation coefficients between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables. The methods are simple extensions of O. J. Dunn and V. A. Clark's (1969) work using the Fisher z transformation and include a test and confidence interval for comparing 2 correlated correlations, a test for heterogeneity, and a test and confidence interval for a contrast among k (>2) correlated correlations. Also briefly discussed is why the traditional Hotelling's t test for comparing correlations is generally not appropriate in practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Administered the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) to 54 male undergraduates who had been elected to Phi Beta Kappa, 67 undergraduates of approximately equal intellectual ability who had not been elected, and 87 unselected undergraduates. Significant differences were found between groups on all comparisons except one. Phi Beta Kappa Ss had higher scores for responsibility, socialization, and self-control compared with the 2 other groups. The non-Phi Beta Kappa high achievers were characterized by conscientiousness, industry, and dependability. Phi Beta Kappa Ss were not particularly interested in ideas or cultural pursuits, not particularly tolerant or empathic, but were stable, pragmatic, and task-oriented; these Ss' scores on a creativity regression equation suggest that the sources of originality, innovation, and change may lie elsewere (i.e., in the unselected sample). (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A total of 1505 children (633 boys and 872 girls) completed the I6 Impulsiveness Questionnaire. Reliabilities, scale intercorrelations and means and standard deviations are given after slight modifications were made to the original scoring key on the basis of factor analyses. Age means for both sexes are also given.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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Conducted 2 studies to develop a Self-Control Rating Scale (SCRS) for children. The 33-item SCRS showed high internal consistency (0.98) and test–retest reliability (0.84). In a validational study of 110 normal 3rd–6th graders, the SCRS correlated significantly with latency and error scores from the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the Q score from the Porteus mazes, and behavioral observations. These correlations remained significant when both MA and CA were partialed out. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by a very low and nonsignificant correlation with IQ and MA. An orthogonal factor analysis resulted in 1 major factor, which was labeled Cognitive-Behavioral Self-Control. The relationship of SCRS scores to age, the differences across grade levels, and the differences between boys and girls were also examined. The 2nd study compared 32 children referred for self-control training with 32 nonreferred children matched on age (127.13 and 126.73 mo, respectively), sex, and IQ. Significant differences were found on the SCRS, Matching Familiar Figures Test latencies, and behavioral observations. (26 ref)
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Delay of gratification, assessed in a series of experiments when the subjects were in preschool, was related to parental personality ratings obtained a decade later for 95 of these children in adolescence. Clear and consistent patterns of correlations between self-imposed delay time in preschool and later ratings were found for both sexes over this time span. Delay behavior predicted a set of cognitive and social competencies and stress tolerance consistent with experimental analyses of the process underlying effective delay in the preschool delay situation. Specifically, children who were able to wait longer at age 4 or 5 became adolescents whose parents rated them as more academically and socially competent, verbally fluent, rational, attentive, planful, and able to deal well with frustration and stress. Comparisons with related longitudinal research using other delay situations help to clarify the important features of the situations and person variables involved in different aspects of delay of gratification.
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A multimethod, multisource assessment of impulsivity was conducted in a sample of more than 400 boys who were members of a longitudinal study of the development of antisocial behavior. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 11 different impulsivity measures revealed two impulsivity factors: Cognitive and Behavioral. Cognitive and behavioral impulsivity had similar correlations with socioeconomic status. Cognitive impulsivity was more strongly related to IQ than was behavioral impulsivity. Behavioral impulsivity was more strongly related to delinquency at ages 10 and 12-13 than was cognitive impulsivity. Consistent with theoretical prediction, our results also indicate that behavioral impulsivity was especially related to serious delinquency that is stable over time.
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To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P < 0.001), but alcoholics did not (P = 0.44). Abstinence was associated with lower rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.
Article
What good is self-control? We incorporated a new measure of individual differences in self-control into two large investigations of a broad spectrum of behaviors. The new scale showed good internal consistency and retest reliability. Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses. Tests for curvilinearity failed to indicate any drawbacks of so-called overcontrol, and the positive effects remained after controlling for social desirability. Low self-control is thus a significant risk factor for a broad range of personal and interpersonal problems.
Self control and achievement motivation in young and old subjects
  • R F Mcclure
McClure, R.F. (1986). Self control and achievement motivation in young and old subjects. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 23(1), 20-22.
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) technical manual Predicting adolescent cognitive and self-regulatory competencies from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions
  • A S Otis
  • R T Lennon
Otis, A.S., & Lennon, R.T. (1997). Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) technical manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement. Shoda, Y., Mischel, W., & Peake, P.K. (1990). Predicting adolescent cognitive and self-regulatory competencies from preschool delay of gratification: Identifying diagnostic conditions. Developmental Psychology, 26, 978–986.
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) technical manual
  • A S Otis
  • R T Lennon
Otis, A.S., & Lennon, R.T. (1997). Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT) technical manual. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement.