Two-step cross-linking method for Identification of NF-k B gene network by chromatin immunoprecipitation

The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555-1060, USA.
BioTechniques (Impact Factor: 2.95). 12/2005; 39(5):715-25.
Source: PubMed


The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay has recently been exploited as a powerful and versatile technique for probing protein-DNA interactions within the chromatin environment. In this method, intact cells are fixed with a reversible DNA-protein cross-linking agent (formaldehyde), and associated DNA is enriched by immunoprecipitating a target DNA binding protein. The bound DNA in the immune complexes is then used to identify that specific DNA binding protein's endogenous genomic targets. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a highly inducible transcription factor that controls genetic networks important for pathogen- or cytokine-induced inflammation, immune response, and cellular survival. In our studies of the genetic network under control of the inducible NF-kappaB transcription factor, we found that the conventional ChIP technique using a single formaldehyde cross-linking step did not reproducibly cross-link it to DNA. As a result, we have developed a novel ChIP assay using a two-step cross-linking procedure, incorporating N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester-mediated protein-protein cross-linking prior to conventional DNA-protein cross-linking. We demonstrate that this technique is highly efficient, cross-linking virtually all NF-kappaB/Rel A into covalent complexes, resulting in quantitative and robust identification of inducible NF-kappaB family binding to a variety of validated NF-kappaB-dependent genomic targets. To demonstrate the general utility of this two-step cross-linking procedure, we performed enhanced capture of cytokine-inducible signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) binding to one of its known target genes. Our method represents a significant improvement in the efficiency of ChIP analysis in the study of endogenous targets for rare transcription factors.

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Available from: Bing Tian, Mar 27, 2014
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    • "ChIP assay was performed in HuH7 cells treated with vehicle or 40 ng/ml TNFa for 6 h. The same anti-p65 antibody was used for ChIP analysis following a two-step cross-linking method as described [19]. See Supplementary Table for the EMSA and ChIP primer sequences. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammatory liver diseases are associated with estrogen excess and feminization in men, which is thought to be due to compromised liver function to breakdown estrogens. The goal of this study is to determine whether the inflammatory induction of steroid sulfatase (STS), which converts inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens, may have contributed to the estrogen excess in chronic liver disease. We performed bioinformatic analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and UPLC/MS-MS to analyze hepatic STS expression and serum estrogen levels in patients with chronic liver diseases. The crosstalk between NF-κB pathway and STS-regulated estrogen signaling was investigated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, luciferase assay and gene knockdown experiments in human hepatocytes. Hepatic STS was induced in patients with chronic inflammatory liver diseases, which was accompanied by increased circulating estrogen levels. The human STS gene, but not the mouse Sts gene, was induced by inflammatory stimuli in hepatic cells. Mechanistically, STS was established as a novel NF-κB target gene, whose induction facilitated the conversion of inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens, and consequently attenuated the inflammatory response. In contrast, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of STS or a direct blockade of estrogen signaling sensitized liver cells to the transcriptional activation of NF-κB and inflammatory response, possibly through the inhibition of IκB kinase (IKK) activation. Our results suggest a negative feedback loop in chronic inflammatory liver diseases, in which the inflammatory activation of NF-κB induces STS gene expression. The induced STS facilitates the conversion of inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens, which in return attenuates the NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Hepatology
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    • "However, formaldehyde has a short crosslinking spacer arm and is not efficient to examine the proteins indirectly associated with DNA, such as PERs and CRYs. Dual cross-linking using a protein–protein cross-linker and formaldehyde works better in these cases (Koike et al., 2012; Nowak, Tian, & Brasier, 2005; Zeng, Vakoc, Chen, Blobel, & Berger, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide analyses have revolutionized our ability to study the transcriptional regulation of circadian rhythms. The advent of next-generation sequencing methods has facilitated the use of two such technologies, ChIP-seq and RNA-seq. In this chapter, we describe detailed methods and protocols for these two techniques, with emphasis on their usage in circadian rhythm experiments in the mouse liver, a major target organ of the circadian clock system. Critical factors for these methods are highlighted and issues arising with time series samples for ChIP-seq and RNA-seq are discussed. Finally, detailed protocols for library preparation suitable for Illumina sequencing platforms are presented. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Methods in enzymology
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    • "Two-step cross-link chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed as described previously (17). Briefly, A549 cells were washed twice with PBS and incubated with disuccinimidyl glutarate (2 mM for 45 min) for protein–protein cross-linking. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-like kinase family, is a master regulator of the double strand DNA break-repair pathway after genotoxic stress. Here, we found ATM serves as an essential regulator of TNF-induced NF-kB pathway. We observed that TNF exposure of cells rapidly induced DNA double strand breaks and activates ATM. TNF-induced ROS promote nuclear IKKγ association with ubiquitin and its complex formation with ATM for nuclear export. Activated cytoplasmic ATM is involved in the selective recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP to phospho-IκBα proteosomal degradation. Importantly, ATM binds and activates the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), ribosmal S6 kinase that controls RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. In ATM knockdown cells, TNF-induced RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation is significantly decreased. We further observed decreased binding and recruitment of the transcriptional elongation complex containing cyclin dependent kinase-9 (CDK9; a kinase necessary for triggering transcriptional elongation) to promoters of NF-κB-dependent immediate-early cytokine genes, in ATM knockdown cells. We conclude that ATM is a nuclear damage-response signal modulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation that plays a key scaffolding role in IκBα degradation and RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation of decreased innate immune response associated with A-T mutation.
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