Trypanocidal Activity of Oleoresin and Terpenoids Isolated from Pinus oocarpa

ArticleinZeitschrift fur Naturforschung C 60(9-10):711-6 · September 2005with 55 Reads
Abstract
Fractionation with n-hexane/ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) by open column chromatography of the oleoresin from Pinus oocarpa Schiede yielded two diterpenes, pimaric acid (1) and dehydroabietic acid (5), the sesquiterpene longifolene (3) and a diterpenic mixture containing pimaric acid (1), isopimaric acid (4) and dehydroabietic acid (5). Subsequently, the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1, 4 and 5, the oleoresin and the dehydroabietic acid methyl ester (2), were tested in vitro against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The most active compounds were 1, 3 and the oleoresin, being as active as nifurtimox, a drug effective in the treatment of acute infection by American trypanosomiasis and used in this work as positive control.
Ad

Do you want to read the rest of this article?

Request full-text
Request Full-text Paper PDF
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection typically spread by triatomine bugs, affects millions of people throughout Latin America. Current chemotherapy based on the nitroaromatic compounds, benznidazole and nifurtimox provides unsatisfactory results and suffers from considerable side effects and low efficacy. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new drugs to treat this neglected disease. Over the last two decades, new advances and understanding in the biology and the biochemistry of Trypanosoma cruzi has allowed the identification of multiple targets for Chagas disease chemotherapy. This review summarizes antichagasic agents obtained based on i) target metabolic biochemical pathways or parasite specific enzymes, ii) natural products and its derivatives, iii) design and synthesis of lead compounds. Related patents filed and issued from 2000 to early 2006 are also discussed. Most of them claimed inhibitors on specific parasite targets such as cysteine proteinase, sterol biosynthesis, protein farnesyltransferase, etc. Particularly, those related to cysteine proteinase inhibitors were the most represented. Natural products also displayed many anti-T cruzi lead compounds. In addition, a few patents claiming natural or synthetic compounds with antichagasic activity, disclosed no specific target. However, only a small proportion of all these patents displayed specific data of biological trypanocidal activity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Chagas disease must be treated in all its stages: acute, indeterminate, chronic, and initial and middle determinant chronic, due to the fact that DNA of the parasite can be demonstrated by PCR in chronic cases, where optical microscopy does not detect parasites. Nifurtimox (NF) and benznidazole (BNZ) are the drugs accepted to treat humans based upon ethical considerations and efficiency. However, both the drugs produce secondary effects in 30% of the cases, and the treatment must be given for at least 30-60 days. Other useful drugs are itraconazole and posaconazole. The latter may be the drug to treat Chagas disease in the future when all the investigations related to it are finished. At present, there is no criterion of cure for chronic cases since in the majority, the serology remains positive, although it may decrease. In acute cases, 70% cure with NF and 75% with BNZ is achieved. In congenital cases, 100% cure is obtained if the treatment is performed during the first year of life. In chronic acquired cases, 20% cure and 50% improvement of the electrocardiographic changes are obtained with itraconazole.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    1. Studies were conducted with tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) to determine their effect on broiler chicken performance and ileal microbiota. TOFA, a product originating from coniferous trees and recovered by fractional distillation of side-streams from pulp production, mainly comprises free long-chain fatty acids (~90%) and resin acids (~8%). Conjugated linolenic acids and pinolenic acid are characteristic fatty acid components of TOFA. 2. TOFA products at 750 mg/kg feed were tested in two 35-day broiler chicken trials, each using a wheat soya-based diet and with 12 replicate pens per treatment. In both trials, TOFA improved body weight gain at all time points (P<0.001) and feed conversion efficiency during the first 21 days (P<0.01). Two different dry TOFA formulations (silica carrier, palm oil coating) were tested and showed performance effects similar to liquid TOFA. 3. Ileal digesta of the broiler chickens was analysed for total eubacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens on days 14 and 35. TOFA significantly increased total eubacteria and Lactobacilli spp. density on day 14 (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between these bacterial groups and broiler body weight on day 14 (P<0.01). 4. A numerical reduction in C. perfringens was observed. In vitro growth inhibition studies showed that C. perfringens was strongly inhibited by 10 mg/l TOFA (P<0.001), while common Lactobacilli spp. were resistant to >250 mg/l. The in vitro results were thus in line with in vivo observations. 5. The mechanisms behind the bacterial shifts and their role in performance improvement are unknown. Further purification of TOFA components is needed to identify the effective agents.
  • Article
    Five diterpenoids and 14 known diterpenoids were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of Pinus massoniana resin. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated using the MTT method. The results showed that three of the less polar diterpenoids had strong cytotoxicity against A431 and A549 cancer cells, whereas those of high polarity had none.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A physicochemical characterization of natural raw resin material was evaluated and reported. The studied material is a natural resin, a natural product from pinus halepensis trees which is collected from the forests of Chalkidiki region of North Greece. The plurality of this product combined with its special property of removing water from commercial liquid fuels commands the detailed physicochemical characterization of this material. In particular, various techniques, such as water adsorption at 22 °C, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, were used in order to evaluate the structural and surface properties of the material. The water adsorption isotherm was also measured and fitted using the Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer model in order to correlate the water activity characteristics. In addition, the kinetics of the adsorption was also fitted with good accuracy using the exponential Chapman model. Furthermore, as the results show, the natural resin presents good thermal characteristics. Finally, the studied material presents efficient water adsorption properties, up to 246.8 mmol/g, and it can be proposed as a promising dehydration material.
  • Article
    Resin acids extracted from coniferous trees are known for their antimicrobial and antifungal effects. This trial investigated the effect of a natural resin acid-enriched composition (RAC) on the gastrointestinal microbiota and productive performance of broiler chicken. The results demonstrated that at or above 5 mg/l, RAC prevented the growth of a pure culture of Clostridium perfringens, a causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry. Next, the effects of RAC on the microbial community were studied in a fermentation model with both the microbial inoculum and substrate for the microbes isolated from the ileum of broiler chickens. RAC was included at 0, 0.1 and 1 g/kg digesta, and supplementation decreased the relative proportion of lactic acid and increased that of acetic acid produced during the fermentation in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 g/kg inclusion, RAC decreased the density of lactobacilli. The final part of the experiment investigated the influence of RAC on the performance and intestinal microbiota of necrotic enteritis (NE)-challenged broiler chickens. A wheat and soy -based diet was supplemented with RAC at 0, 0.5, 1 and 3 g/kg. The chickens were challenged with Eimeria maxima oocysts on day 11, and a pure culture of C. perfringens on day 14. On day 17, the final day of the trial, RAC inclusion at 1 and 3 g/kg of feed significantly increased body weight. At 3 g/kg RAC numerically decreased the daily mortality seen during the challenge period. In the ileum, RAC at 1 g/kg reduced the NE-associated peak of microbial lactic acid production. Overall, the data suggested that the dietary ingredient RAC has the potential to act as a performance-enhancer and microbial modulator in broiler chickens.
  • Article
    This is the first comprehensive study of the genetic analysis of the majority of oleoresin components of slash pine (Pinus elliottii). Pine oleoresin, the resin secreted from the pine tree, is a raw material widely used in industrial products. The objective of this study was to explore the genetic variation and correlation between the major oleoresin components of 50 open pollinated families of slash pine. The individual narrow-sense heritability of the 23 oleoresin components and genetic correlations between them were estimated using the residual maximum likelihood in the flexible mixed modeling program, ASReml-R. A high heritability of 0.424 was observed for β-pinene. Moderate levels of heritability were estimated for β-phellandrene, methyl abietate, estragole, 15-hydroxy-dehydroabietic acid, and isopimaric acid methyl ester at 0.303, 0.294, 0.27, 0.258, and 0.2, respectively. The heritabilities for pimaric acid methyl ester, abieta-8, 13-diene-18-oic acid methyl ester, sandaracopimaric acid, methyl ester, and camphene were relatively low and ranged from 0.11 to 0.17. Many negative genetic correlations were observed as unfavorable while the corresponding phenotypic correlations presented no significant relationships or positive phenotypic correlations. However, the heritabilities and genetic correlations showed that single or multiple component selections and improvement, directly or indirectly, were effective. We postulate that genetic parameters estimated in this study will work as a reference in breeding programs of oleoresin components, especially in slash pine.
  • Article
    Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs. For this, databases were searched using specific search terms. Among the 2338 collected reports, a total of 181 articles were included in this review. Of them, 148 dealt with investigations using single organisms, and 33 used multiple organisms. No mechanisms of action were reported in the case of 164 reports. A total of 93.92% were related to nonclinical studies, and 4.42% and 1.66% dealt with preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. The review displays that many diterpenes are effective upon Chagas disease, chikungunya, echinococcosis, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. Indeed, diterpenes are amazing drug candidates against NTDs.
  • Article
    Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs. For this, databases were searched using specific search terms. Among the 2338 collected reports, a total of 181 articles were included in this review. Of them, 148 dealt with investigations using single organisms, and 33 used multiple organisms. No mechanisms of action were reported in the case of 164 reports. A total of 93.92% were related to nonclinical studies, and 4.42% and 1.66% dealt with preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. The review displays that many diterpenes are effective upon Chagas disease, chikungunya, echinococcosis, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. Indeed, diterpenes are amazing drug candidates against NTDs. Copyright
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The aim of this study was to determine the pollen content of propolis elaborated by Apis mellifera L. in four samples collected over the course of one year and correlate the information with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Candida albicans (yeast). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained by the microdilutrion method followed by colony-forming unit (CFU) assay. The analysis resulted in two main groups: one corresponding to the dry seasons and the other to the wet seasons. The first group was palynologically represented by Eucalyptus sp, Fraxinus sp, Salix sp. and Asteraceae pollen types and it had an inhibitory effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The second group was palynologically represented by Eucalyptus sp, Pinus sp, Casuarina sp. and Poaceae pollen types and it inhibited Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. It can be concluded that the propolis of this region has variable antimicrobial activity over the course of the year, depending on the quality and availability of the botanical sources.
  • Article
    Nowadays, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are reported to be present everywhere. Poor and developing areas in the world have received great attention to NTDs. Drug resistance, safety profile, and various challenges stimulate the search for alternative medications. Plant-based drugs are viewed with great interest, as they are believed to be devoid of side effects. Diterpenes, a family of essential oils, have showed attractive biological effects. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize available evidences of diterpenes against NTDs. For this, databases were searched using specific search terms. Among the 2338 collected reports, a total of 181 articles were included in this review. Of them, 148 dealt with investigations using single organisms, and 33 used multiple organisms. No mechanisms of action were reported in the case of 164 reports. A total of 93.92% were related to nonclinical studies, and 4.42% and 1.66% dealt with preclinical and clinical studies, respectively. The review displays that many diterpenes are effective upon Chagas disease, chikungunya, echinococcosis, dengue, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and tuberculosis. Indeed, diterpenes are amazing drug candidates against NTDs.
  • Article
    A set of 48 derivatives of the tricyclic sesquiterpenol alcohol isolongifolol was synthesized. The set comprised homochiral and diastereomeric alcohols, amines, chlorohydrins, as well as carboxylic acids, phosphonic acids, and their corresponding esters. The absolute configuration of the epimeric compounds was assigned by 2D NMR experiments [gradient heteronuclear single quantum correlation (gHSQC) and gradient nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (gNOESY)] in agreement with crystallographic data. The tricyclic derivatives were assessed as inhibitors of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7. The phenyl-substituted secondary alcohol 26b was the best inhibitor in this series and its competitive inhibition constant was 18 nM. Compound 26b was not glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and other hepatic UGT enzymes, presumably due to the high steric hindrance exerted by its bulky phenyl substituent. Its inhibitory activity toward 14 other UGT isoforms of subfamily 1A and 2B was determined, and the data indicated that the tricyclic secondary alcohol 26b was highly selective for UGT2B7 (true selectivity >1000).
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Infections with protozoan parasites are a major cause of disease and mortality in many tropical countries of the world. Diseases caused by species of the genera Trypanosoma (Human African Trypanosomiasis and Chagas Disease) and Leishmania (various forms of Leishmaniasis) are among the seventeen "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) defined as such by WHO due to the neglect of financial investment into research and development of new drugs by a large part of pharmaceutical industry and neglect of public awareness in high income countries. Another major tropical protozoan disease is malaria (caused by various Plasmodium species), which -although not mentioned currently by the WHO as a neglected disease- still represents a major problem, especially to people living under poor circumstances in tropical countries. Malaria causes by far the highest number of deaths of all protozoan infections and is often (as in this review) included in the NTDs. The mentioned diseases threaten many millions of lives world-wide and they are mostly associated with poor socioeconomic and hygienic environment. Existing therapies suffer from various shortcomings, namely, a high degree of toxicity and unwanted effects, lack of availability and/or problematic application under the life conditions of affected populations. Development of new, safe and affordable drugs is therefore an urgent need. Nature has provided an innumerable number of drugs for the treatment of many serious diseases. Among the natural sources for new bioactive chemicals, plants are still predominant. Their secondary metabolism yields an immeasurable wealth of chemical structures which has been and will continue to be a source of new drugs, directly in their native form and after optimization by synthetic medicinal chemistry. The current review, published in two parts, attempts to give an overview on the potential of such plant-derived natural products as antiprotozoal leads and/or drugs in the fight against NTDs.
  • Article
    Chagas' disease is endemic in Central and South American countries. Specific chemotherapy with nifurtimox or benznidazole has been recommended for treatment of recent infection but they have limited efficacy. The natural products veraguensin (1) and grandisin (2) have shown potent in vitro activity against trypomastigote parasite (Y strain) with IC(50) 2.3 microM (1) and 3.7 microM (2). We report herein the synthesis and in vitro trypanocidal evaluation of symmetrical and unsymmetrical 1,4-diaryl-1,4-diol derivatives as potential trypanocidal analogs of natural compounds 1 and 2. Among the synthesized products, compounds 1,4-bis-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-butanediol (6a) and 1,4-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-butanediol (6b) showed better activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes with IC(50) 100 and 105 microM (Y strain), respectively, and 110 microM (Bolivia strain) for both compounds. However, the most active compound of this series was 1,4-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)butane-1,4-dione (7b) with IC(50) 10 and 200 microM against Y and Bolivia strains, respectively.
  • Article
    Five structurally related pimarane diterpenes isolated from the roots of Viguiera arenaria and a further compound obtained by chemical derivatization were evaluated in vitro against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. The natural compound ent-15-pimarene-8 beta,19-diol and the derivative ent-8(14),15-pimaradiene-3beta-acetoxy showed the highest trypanocidal activity, displaying IC(50) values of 116.5 +/- 1.21 and 149.3 +/- 1.07 microM, respectively, while the positive control, violet gentian, showed an IC(50) of 76 microM. Based on the results, it can be concluded that minor structural differences among the tested diterpenes influence significantly the trypanocidal activity, thus bringing new perspectives to the establishment of structure-activity relationships among this type of metabolites to the treatment of Chagas' disease.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The title compound, pimaric acid, C(20)H(30)O(2), was isolated from a mixture of resin acids. There are three rings in the structure. The two cyclo-hexane rings have classical chair conformations with trans-fused ring junctions. The cyclo-hexene ring appears as a semi-chair.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Efficient drugs against Chagas' disease must have an effect on the amastigote forms or intracellular reproduction elements of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Trypomastigote and epimastigote forms derive from the former and their response to medications is less marked. The only drugs used in humans are nifurtimox (NF) and benznidazole (BNZ). Other useful medications are allopurinol and itraconazole. NF acts producing free radicals and BNZ inhibits the synthesis of macromolecules. There is consensus that Chagas' disease must be treated in all its periods, since T.cruzi DNA is detected by polymerase chain reaction in chronic cases, even when microscopy is negative. The pharmacological treatment modifies the natural evolution of the disease. It also helps to solve a public health problem, considering that there is a high number of subjects with Chagas' disease. Subjects with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy with terminal heart failure are the only cases without indication for treatment. Due to the digestive and skin secondary effects of the drugs, treated patients must be controlled clinically and with complete blood counts and hepatic proiles before, during and after the therapy. Approximately 30% of patients will experience secondary effects. Children have a better tolerance to the drugs. Congenital or acquired acute, intermediate and chronic cases should be treated.
  • Article
    The amide derivatives were synthesized from isopimaric acid and characterized by spectroscopy. These amides were examined in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against four cancer cell lines. The majority of the screened compounds displayed better inhibitory activity than isopimaric acid, and many amides displayed promising cytotoxic activity against hepatocarcinoma (HepG-2), breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231), and prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3). It was found that the substituent type, number, and position in the benzene and heterocyclic rings have an important influence on cytotoxicity against the three tested cancer cell lines. © 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Infections with protozoan parasites are a major cause of disease and mortality in many tropical countries of the world. Diseases caused by species of the genera Trypanosoma (Human African Trypanosomiasis and Chagas Disease) and Leishmania (various forms of Leishmaniasis) are among the seventeen "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) defined by the WHO. Furthermore, malaria (caused by various Plasmodium species) can be considered a neglected disease in certain countries and with regard to availability and affordability of the antimalarials. Living organisms, especially plants, provide an innumerable number of molecules with potential for the treatment of many serious diseases. The current review attempts to give an overview on the potential of such plant-derived natural products as antiprotozoal leads and/or drugs in the fight against NTDs. In part I, a general description of the diseases, the current state of therapy and need for new therapeuticals, assay methods and strategies applied in the search for new plant derived natural products against these diseases and an overview on natural products of terpenoid origin with antiprotozoal potential were given. The present part II compiles the current knowledge on natural products with antiprotozoal activity that are derived from the shikimate pathway (lignans, coumarins, caffeic acid derivatives), quinones of various structural classes, compounds formed via the polyketide pathways (flavonoids and related compounds, chromenes and related benzopyrans and benzofurans, xanthones, acetogenins from Annonaceae and polyacetylenes) as well as the diverse classes of alkaloids. In total, both parts compile the literature on almost 900 different plant-derived natural products and their activity data, taken from over 800 references. These data, as the result of enormous efforts of numerous research groups world-wide, illustrate that plant secondary metabolites represent an immensely rich source of chemical diversity with an extremely high potential to yield a wealth of lead structures towards new therapies for NTDs. Only a small percentage, however, of the roughly 200,000 plant species on earth have been studied chemically and only a small percentage of these plants or their constituents has been investigated for antiprotozoal activity. The repository of plant-derived natural products hence deserves to be investigated even more intensely than it has been up to present.
  • Article
    The schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid (PA) and two derivatives, obtained by fungal transformation in the presence of Aspergillus ochraceus, were investigated. PA was the only compound with antischistosomal activity among the three diterpenes studied, with the ability to significantly reduce the viability of the parasites at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 μM. PA also promoted morphological alterations of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni, separated all the worm couples, and affected the production and development of eggs. Moreover, this compound was devoid of toxicity toward human fibroblasts. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, PA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly diminished the number of parasites in infected Balb/c mice. Taken together, these results show that PA may be potentially employed in the discovery of novel schistosomicidal agents, and that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis.
  • Article
    Abstract Background Volatile aroma compounds are important characteristics determining essential oil quality. The heartwood of sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. deposits the sandalwood oil with enormous therapeutic potentials. The majority of the biological activities are attributed to the sesquiterpenoid alcohols i.e. santalols and hence, there is the need to explore the presence of other volatile bioactive constituents from heartwood. Methods We used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method employing an ion trap quadrupole (ITQ) mass analyzer to identify and quantify volatiles from solvent extracted heartwood oil of the East Indian sandalwood tree, S.album L. Results A total of 46 constituents composed of a great variety of n-alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, aldehydes, naphthalene derivatives, methyl esters, alcohols, carotenoid degradation products, and acetates were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, i.e., Z-α-santalol and epi-β-santalol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the major constituents in the extracted oil. Conclusion Results indicate that GC–ITQ–MS is a robust tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents of the heartwood of sandalwood tree. Furthermore, the constituents reported may lead to the discovery of novel phytopharmaceuticals from sandalwood tree.
  • Article
    Chloroform and ethanol crude extracts of the underground parts of Aspilia platyphylla (Baker) Blake (Asteraccae - Heliantheae) were submitted to phytochemical investigations and trypanocidal assay. Both extracts were subjected to a partition process with organic solvents. Using a GC analysis method, it was possible to identify the tritepernes beta-amyrin, alpha-amyrin, beta-friedelanol, and friedelin, as well as the phytosterol stigmasterol, directly in the n-hexane soluble fraction obtained from the CHCl, crude extract. Through chromatographic methods and spectroscopic techniques, it was possible to isolate and identify ent-pimara-8(14), 15-dien-19-oic acid; 7-keto-ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid; 6-acethyl-8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylehromene; 7 beta-hydroxy-ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid; ethyl 6,7-dihydroxycinammate, and rutin in the CH2Cl2 and AcOEt soluble fractions obtained from the CHCl3 and EtOH crude extracts. The CH2Cl2 soluble fractions obtained from the CHCL3 and EtOH crude extracts are active in vitro against the trypomastigote forms of Trypanossoma cruzi (Y strain).
  • Article
    Full-text available
    We recently engineered Aspergillus nidulans to produce a pimarane-type diterpene, ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene. Here, we describe methods for its isolation and purification from the engineered A. nidulans production strain and extend these findings with structural confirmation for the diterpene from this fungal source. The extraction protocol was optimized using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with three varying parameters: solvent composition, pressure, and temperature. This ASE method using 100% ethyl acetate at 90 degrees C with 12.07 MPa was more efficient and faster compared to ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Using both analytical and preparative C18 columns at isocratic elution of acetonitrile developed an HPLC separation; and, the diterpene was well separated within 28 min and 35 min, respectively. Also, TLC of the fungal culture extracts was performed with visualization using rhodamine. The reproduction and efficiency of the purification methods were evaluated by GC-MS; and, the structure of the compound was verified by NMR. The method enabled the isolation of this very lipophilic diterpene in pure form, allowing its testing in a number of bioactivity assays. Notably, we demonstrate for the first time the antioxidant activity for ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Efficient drugs against Chagas' disease must have an effect on the amastigote forms or intracellular reproduction elements of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Trypomastigote and epimastigote forms derive from the former and their response to medications is less marked. The only drugs used in humans are nifurtimox (NF) and benznidazole (BNZ). Other useful medications are allopurinol and itraconazole. NF acts producing free radicals and BNZ inhibits the synthesis of macromolecules. There is consensus that Chagas' disease must be treated in all its periods, since T.cruzi DNA is detected by polymerase chain reaction in chronic cases, even when microscopy is negative. The pharmacological treatment modifies the natural evolution of the disease. It also helps to solve a public health problem, considering that there is a high number of subjects with Chagas' disease. Subjects with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy with terminal heart failure are the only cases without indication for treatment. Due to the digestive and skin secondary effects of the drugs, treated patients must be controlled clinically and with complete blood counts and hepatic proiles before, during and after the therapy. Approximately 30% of patients will experience secondary effects. Children have a better tolerance to the drugs. Congenital or acquired acute, intermediate and chronic cases should be treated.
  • Article
    Pimaradienoic acid (1) is a pimarane diterpene (ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) extracted at high amounts from various plants including Vigueira arenaria Baker. Compound 1 inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, which are its only known anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the analgesic effects of 1. Oral administration of 1 (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing. This was also observed at 10 mg/kg via sc and ip routes. Both phases of the formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced paw flinch and time spent licking the paw were inhibited by 1. Compound 1 inhibited carrageenan-, CFA-, and PGE2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Treatment with 1 inhibited carrageenan-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-33, and IL-10 and nuclear factor κB activation. Pharmacological inhibitors also demonstrated that the analgesic effects of 1 depend on activation of the NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway. Compound 1 did not alter plasma levels of AST, ALT, or myeloperoxidase activity in the stomach. These results demonstrate that 1 causes analgesic effects associated with the inhibition of NF-κB activation, reduction of cytokine production, and activation of the NO-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G-ATP-sensitive potassium channel signaling pathway.
  • Article
    American trypanosomiasis is a widespread protozoal infection that affects the poorest and the most disadvantaged populations in the developing world. There is a lack of effective, affordable, and safe medicines for its treatment, mainly due to the low investment in R&D by the pharmaceutical industry. One alternative approach for the development of new drugs is the identification of bioactive natural compounds, which are particularly important for their structural diversity and their potential as novel pharmacophores. In this chapter, an overview of the investigations concerning the trypanocidal activity of plants, published over the period (2000-2010), will be presented. Either medicinal plants or isolated compounds will be considered. Data will be discussed under a critical point of view in relation with the challenge that implicates a drug discovery process from natural sources. The review will be focused on analyzing those published data dealing with the identification of new lead structures aimed at "bringing a drug to market."
  • Article
    Several members of the genus Copaifera are present in Latin America, mainly in the Amazon region. These plants produce oleoresins that are used by indigenous people for medicinal purposes, with no distinction among species. Their medicinal properties include the treatment of cutaneous ulcerations associated with leishmaniasis and wounds caused by insect bites. However, to date, no comparative studies of the antiparasitic activity of copaiba oleoresins from different species against Trypanosoma cruzi have been published. In the present study, copaiba oleoresins from eight species were evaluated for activity against T. cruzi, including observations of cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells and parasite cells. All of the copaiba oleoresins exerted effects on all parasite life stages, especially against the replicative forms. C. martii and C. officinalis exhibited the best activity. For intracellular amastigotes, the IC50 values varied from less than 5.0 µg/mL to 10.0 µg/mL. For epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, the maximum inhibition was obtained with IC50 values of 17.0 µg/mL and 97.0 µg/mL, respectively. Oleoresins showed moderate cytotoxicity to nucleated cells, 17.5 to 32.5 µg/mL being the concentration range needed to reduce the monolayer integrity by 50 %. Toxicity to erythrocytes was observed by a hemolytic effect of 50 % above 500 µg/mL for half of the oleoresins from different species. Different oleoresins caused lipid peroxidation, increased cell-membrane permeability and changed the mitochondrial potential. Ultrastructural changes were observed after the treatment of the intracellular amastigote forms of the parasite. The toxic potential differed among oleoresins from distinct copaiba species, which can influence medicinal efficacy. This is especially relevant for people who live far from medical assistance and depend on medicinal plants.
  • Article
    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane rootbark extract of Entada abyssinica (Leguminosae), a plant used by traditional healers in Uganda for the treatment of sleeping sickness, led to the isolation of a diastereoisomer of the clerodane type diterpene kolavenol. This is the first report on this compound. It showed a trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value of 2.5 microg/ml (8.6 microM) against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the causing agent of the acute form of human African trypanosomiasis.
  • Article
    Further investigation of the aerial parts of Alomia myriadenia revealed an halimane diterpene identified as ent-8S,12S-epoxy-7R,16-dihydroxyhalima-5(10),13-dien-15,16-olide along with the known ent-16-hydroxylabda-7,13-dien-15,16-olide, ent-12R-hydroxylabda-7,13-dien-15,16-olide, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin (ayapin), and kaempferol-7-methylether (rhamnocitrin). Evaluated in a panel of human cancer cell lines, the 16-hydroxylabade diterpene was the most active, showing an ED(50) value of 0.3 mug/ml against Lu1 (human lung cancer) cells. Tested in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi in infected murine blood, this compound caused lysis of 100% of the parasites at 250 mug/ml.
  • Article
    Several compounds, structurally related to the insect-growth regulator Fenoxycarb (1), were designed and synthesized. These compounds were tested as growth inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi cells (epimastigotes). Compounds 6, 16, 18, and 22 were very active against T. cruzi making them promising good candidates either for blood-bank sterilization of Chagas'-disease surveillance, while compounds 11, 12, 13, and 19 showed a moderate degree of activity.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Medicinal plants are essential in the medical systems of the Mixe and Zapotec. In this study ethno-ecological strategies, employed by the two neighboring Indian groups in Mexico, for obtaining medicinal plants are analyzed. The indigenous classification of the environment is notably different from the Western one and distinguishes six dissimilar principal 'zones' or land use types. Most ethnomedically important species are cultivated in the 'house garden' or gathered in the community or its immediate surroundings. The house garden, for example, contributes 31.8% and 26.2% of all medical taxa for the Mixe and Zapotec, respectively. These ethnobotanical data on the indigenous uses indicate that anthropogenic types of vegetation yield the largest percentage of medicinal taxa.
  • Article
    A number of chelating agents and some of their derivatives are as effective as, or superior to, benznidazole, the compound currently in clinical use, in the suppression of the reproduction of epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoa that causes Chagas' disease. All compounds were examined at a culture concentration of 5 μg/mL. The most effective compounds included N, N, N′, N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine, sodium diethylamine-N-carbodithioate, piperidine-N-carbodithioate and several of its analogs, a number of other carbodithioates with two nonpolar groups on the nitrogen, and tetraethylthiuram disulfide, a prodrug of sodium diethylamine-N-carbodithioate and widely used in the treatment of alcoholism. The introduction of additional ionic or nonionic polar groups on the chelating molecule generally results in a loss of tyrpanocidal activity. Common commercially available chelating agents which exhibited no activity included d-penicillamine, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, and triethylenetetramine tetrahydrochloride. Dose-response data on the culture indicated that some of these compounds exhibited inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes at concentrations as low as 0.625 μg/mL. It is proposed that the mechanism of action of these compounds is based on their ability to interface with the essential metal metabolism at intracellular sites of the epimastigote involving iron, copper, or zinc. The results also indicate that a certain degree of hydrophobicity may be necessary for the groups attached to the literal metal-bonding structure if the compounds are to successfully inhibit the epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. The development of antiprotozoal drugs which are chelating agents specifically designed to selectively disrupt the essential metal metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi should furnish a new generation of drugs which can be used in the treatment of Chagas' disease.
  • Article
    Several novel semicarbazone derivatives were prepared from 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde or 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and semicarbazides bearing a spermidine-mimetic moiety. All derivatives presented the E-configuration, as determined by NMR-NOE experiments. These compounds were tested in vitro as potential antitrypanosomal agents, and some of them, together with the parent compounds, 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde and 5-nitrothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde semicarbazone derivatives, were also evaluated in vivo using infected mice. Structure–activity relationship studies were carried out using voltammetric response and lipophilic–hydrophilic balance as parameters. Two of the compounds (1 and 3) displayed the highest in vivo activity. A correlation was found between lipophilic–hydrophilic properties and trypanocidal activity, high RM values being associated with low in vivo effects.
  • Article
    Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed from cultures of peripheral lymphocytes in 2 groups of chagasic children, before and after treatment with nifurtimox. The mean incidence of chromosomal aberrations increased from control values of 1.75 +/- 1.39 (8 patients) to 23.55 +/- 9.55 (6 patients) at a significance of P less than 0.0001. G-banding analysis of chromosomal aberration sites revealed that treated patients present coincidence in the chromosome regions affected: 1p11, 1q11-12, 9q11-13, 17q11-21, 2p21, 2q23, 2q31, 2q33, 6p21, 6p21, 7q32, 13q14, 13q22, 15q22. These data indicate a non-random distribution of chromosomal aberrations induced by nifurtimox therapeutic treatment.
  • Article
    Chromosomal aberrations and induction of micronuclei were analyzed from cultures of peripheral lymphocytes in 2 groups of chagasic children, before and after treatment with benznidazole. The median incidence of micronucleated interphase lymphocytes (20 patients) and chromosomal aberrations (10 patients) increased from control values of 5/1000 and 3% to 11.5/1000 and 6%, respectively, at a significance of P = 0.05.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The diterpene ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1) was identified as the trypanocidal component of the ethanolic extract from Mikania obtusata D. C. (Asteraceae). This compound presents an IC50 of 0.5 mg/ml (1.66 mM) against the trypomastigote blood form of the Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis).
  • Article
    Eight novel analogues of Nifurtimox, 4-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-3-methylthiomorpholine-1,1-dioxide, containing alpha-beta unsaturated amides, were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activity against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Four derivatives bearing a nitro group at the 5-position of the furan ring were the most active in inhibiting culture growth and provoking cell death, showing trypanocidal activity more than threefold the potency of Nifurtimox, our positive control. Two derivatives lacking a nitro group were less potent than the positive control. Active nitro derivatives very efficiently caused epimastigote death, which suggests a nitro reduction mechanism of action.
  • Article
    Leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) pose substantial therapeutic challenges. In most situations, stibogluconate sodium and meglumine antimoniate, both pentavalent antimonials, remain the treatment of choice for leishmaniasis. However, reports of treatment failures are increasing as a result of both antimony resistance and infections in AIDS patients. Dosage recommendations have recently been increased. Amphotericin B and pentamidine are the standard alternatives, but are toxic. Recent clinical studies have focused on the efficacy of recombinant human interferon-[gamma] used with a pentavalent antimonial, allopurinol, ketoconazole, and itraconazole. New experimental approaches designed to target drugs specifically to macrophages by complexing the drug with lipids, as in the case of amphotericin B, or with other moieties offer promise for the future.There have been no recent major advances in the treatment of Chagas' disease. A particularly important development in the treatment of West African sleeping sickness is eflomithine, which is safe and effective even for patients with advanced central nervous system infection. Unfortunately, the drug is not as effective in treating East African sleeping sickness and the search for more effective and safer drugs continues. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The diterpenes ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, ent-kaur-9(11),16(17)-dien-19-oic acid and 3 alpha-angeloiloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid were identified as trypanosomicidal compounds of the ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa D.C. (Asteraceae), showing activity up to the lowest dose of 0.68 mg/mL in the in vitro assay against trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis). The other isolates, friedelan-3 beta-ol, ent-kaur-16 alpha-ol-19-oic acid, beta-amyrin acetate and (22-E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3 beta-ol, were inactive. This is the first report on the trypanosomicidal activity of ent-kaur-9(11),16(17)-dien-19-oic acid and 3 alpha-angeloiloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acids; this effect was already known for ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid.
  • Article
    The syntheses of a new series of derivatives of 1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide, benzo[1,2-c]1,2,5-oxadiazole N-oxide, and quinoxaline di-N-oxide are described. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of these compounds was tested against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. For the most effective drugs, derivatives IIIe and IIIf, the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) was determined as well as their cytotoxicity against mammalian fibroblasts. Electrochemical studies and ESR spectroscopy show that the highest activities observed are associated with the facile monoelectronation of the N-oxide moiety. Lipophilic-hydrophilic balance of the compounds could also play an important role in their effectiveness as antichagasic drugs.
  • Article
    Dichloromethane extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Cedrela dugessi afforded a photogedunin epimeric mixture, gedunin and cedrelanolide. These compounds and the photogedunin epimeric acetates 3 and 4 at the 23-OH position were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Toosendanin, isolated from Melia azedarach, was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice bioassays, gedunin, photogedunin epimeric mixture, and photogedunin acetates mixture caused significant larval mortality with LC(50) of 39.0, 10.0, and 8.0 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. All the compounds tested inhibited larval growth, compared to the control, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it was possible to observe significant reduced pupal weights and adult emergence. All the tested compounds except cedrelanolide showed comparable activity to that of toosendanin.
  • Article
    From the aerial parts of Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae), four oxyflavones were isolated, namely 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-3,6,8,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (1); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxyflavone (2); 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8,5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3); 5,2'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (4), and an ent-clerodane, bacchabolivic acid (5). Compounds 1-5, the synthetic methyl ester (6), n-hexane and MeOH extracts were evaluated against the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Gedunin, a known insect growth regulator isolated from Cedrela spp. was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice artificial diet bioassay, flavone (1), clerodane (5), its methyl ester (6), MeOH and n-hexane extracts caused significant larval mortality with MC50 of 3.9, 10.7, 3.46, 7.95 and 7.5 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. They also increased the development time of surviving larvae and a significant delay in time to pupation and adult emergence. Acute toxicity against adults of S. frugiperda was also found, 5, 6, gedunin and n-hexane extract had the most potent activity with LD50 value of 6.59, 15.05, 10.78, and 12.79 ppm, respectively. In addition, MeOH, n-hexane extracts, 5, 6 and gedunin caused acetylcholinesterase inhibition with 93.7, 100, 90.2, 62.0 and 100% at 50.0 ppm, respectively; whereas 1-4 exhibited only moderate inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 showed inhibitory activities comparable with gedunin. These compounds could be responsible of the insect growth inhibitory activity of this plant.
  • Article
    Chagas' disease is a major parasitic problem in developing countries in Central and South America. Chemotherapy for such disease is still insufficient and not effective in its chronic part. Many efforts have been made in recent years to know more about possible new biochemical targets to design new selective drugs. This paper reviews old therapeutic approaches -Nifurtimox, Benznidazole and related compounds- and the latest rationally developed drugs that prove to be active against different parasitic forms.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Two new icetexane diterpenes, cyclocoulterone (1) and komaroviquinone (2), and a novel 20-norabietane diterpene, dracocephalone A (3), were isolated from Dracocephalum komarovi. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectral data. Komaroviquinone (2) showed strong trypanocidal activity against epmastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis, with a minimum lethal concentration of 0.4 micro M.
  • Article
    With the aim of determining the actual target(s) of nitro-group bearing compounds considered as possible leads for the development of drugs against Chagas' disease, we studied in parallel nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles. We investigated nine representative compounds for the following properties: efficacy on different Trypanosoma cruzi strains, redox cyclers, inhibition of respiration, production of corresponding nitroso derivatives and intracellular thiol scavengers. Our results indicate that nifurtimox and related compounds act as redox cyclers, whereas the most active in the series, the 5-nitroimidazole megazol essentially acts as thiol scavenger particularly for trypanothione, the cofactor for trypanothione reductase, an essential enzyme in the detoxification process.
  • Article
    The methanol extract from the bark of Yucca periculosa F. Baker afforded 4,4'-dihydroxstilbene, resveratrol and 3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxystilbene and had growth regulatory activity against the Fall Army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) an insect pest of corn. The most active compound was 3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxystilbene which had significant effects at 3 microg/g in diets. In addition to the inhibitory activity on bleaching of crocin induced by alkoxyl radicals, these compounds also demonstrated scavenging properties toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in TLC autographic and spectrophotometric assays. Our results indicate that these compounds could be involved in interference of sclerotization and moulting. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of the insect. The results were fully comparable to known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and Cedrela extracts and have had a possible role as natural insecticidal agents.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The methanol extract from the aerial parts of Roldana barba-johannis (Asteraceae) afforded sargachromenol, sargahydroquinoic acid, and sargaquinoic acid. These natural products and their corresponding acetylated and methylated derivatives showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activities against the Fall Armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn. The most active compounds were sargachromenol and its acetylated derivative; sargahydroquinoic acid and its acetylated derivative; and a mixture of sargachromenol, sargahydroquinoic acid, and sargaquinoic acid (6:3:1) and the acetylated form of this mixture. All these compounds and mixtures had significant inhibitory effects between 5.0 and 20.0 ppm in diets. Most compounds were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 20 and 35 ppm. In addition, these substances also demonstrated scavenging properties toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical in TLC autographic and spectrophotometric assays. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of the insect. The results from these compounds were fully comparable in activity to those known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. These substances may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.
  • Article
    The dichloromethane extract of the tuberous roots of Viguiera aspillioides was tested in vitro against T. cruzi and then investigated in order to identify its active compounds, which were the known diterpenes (-)-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, (-)-trachyloban-19-oic acid, and (-)-kauran-16alpha-ol. Synthetic derivatives of the acidic compounds were obtained and tested; one of them, (-)-kaur-16-en-19-ol, was also active. Their IC50 are given.