We conducted a case-control study to examine the impact of coronal heart disease (CHD) risk factors on calcium oxalate (CaOX) stone formation.
Variables included body mass index (BMI), current alcohol use, smoking habit, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and hyperuricemia. Data suf fi cient for analysis were obtained for 181 CaOX stone formers and 187 controls.
Seven of 181 stone formers (3.9%) had a history of CHD compared with none of 187 control subjects (P = 0.007). In univariate logistic regression analysis, smoking habit (OR 4.41, 95% CI 2.85-6.84, P < 0.0001), hypertension (OR 4.24, 95% CI 2.61-6.91, P < 0.0001), hypercholesterolemia (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.77-5.20, P < 0.0001) and BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17, P = 0.007) reached statistical signi fi cance. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, smoking habit (OR 4.29, 95% CI 2.68-6.86, P < 0.0001), hypertension (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.11-6.07, P < 0.0001), and hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.51-5.00, P = 0.001) reached statistical signi fi cance, while BMI (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.12, P = 0.09) did not.
CaOX stone formers are signi fi cantly associated with several CHD risk factors, including smoking habit, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity.
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"Thus obesity is considered an important risk factor for stone formation. It is also associated with other diseases like CHD, hypertension and debates mellitus (Taylor et al., 2005; Hamano et al., 2005). Lack of drinking water intake plays a vital role in kidney stone formation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Aim
The main objective of the study was to determine the urinary risk factors involved in kidney stone formation.
In this study total number of 101 patients (64 male and 37 female) between the age group 2-70 years were selected. Personal characteristics like age, family history, clinical sign and symptoms, education, monthly income, living style, smoking or tobacco chewing habit, dietary intake and daily amount of drinking water were recorded.
The study showed that the risk for developing kidney stone formation was high in median age group (16-25 years) both in male and female population. The most important factors associated with this were lack of drinking clean water, over weight and obesity as well as family history (37.5% and 27.02% in men and women respectively).
Our study has confirmed that lack of drinking sufficient amount of water, increasing weight and obesity and family history are some major factors contributing to the increased risk of kidney stone formation. Therefore it is very important to live a healthy life, drink clean water and control weight to prevent such diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
"Studies with small samples have occasionally been performed to assess the relationship between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease [34, 35]; however, until recently (Table 3), systemic epidemiological studies have been lacking. A recent population based cross-sectional study from Olmsted County, MI, USA showed that stone formers were at significantly greater risk for coronary artery disease  and myocardial infarction  than non-stone formers . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have provided the evidence for association between nephrolithiasis and a number of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome. Many of the co-morbidities may not only lead to stone disease but also be triggered by it. Nephrolithiasis is a risk factor for development of hypertension and have higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and some hypertensive and diabetic patients are at greater risk for stone formation. An analysis of the association between stone disease and other simultaneously appearing disorders, as well as factors involved in their pathogenesis, may provide an insight into stone formation and improved therapies for stone recurrence and prevention. It is our hypothesis that association between stone formation and development of co-morbidities is a result of certain common pathological features. Review of the recent literature indicates that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress (OS) may be such a common pathway. OS is a common feature of all cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarct. There is increasing evidence that ROS are also produced during idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. Both tissue culture and animal model studies demonstrate that ROS are produced during interaction between CaOx/calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals and renal epithelial cells. Clinical studies have also provided evidence for the development of oxidative stress in the kidneys of stone forming patients. Renal disorders which lead to OS appear to be a continuum. Stress produced by one disorder may trigger the other under the right circumstances.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Urological Research
"This in contrast to previous studies. (Ramey, et al, 2004,Hamano, et al, 2005,Cappuccio, et al, 1990) On the other hand, our data on incident kidney stone disease-related hospitalizations showed a positive association with hypertension, similar to some(Borghi, et al, 1999) but not all(Madore, et al, 1998b,Madore, et al, 1998a) prospective studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To identify correlates of kidney stone disease in white and African American men and women in a population-based longitudinal study starting in four US communities, and to assess differences in correlates across racial groups.
Between 1993 and 1995, 12,161 middle-aged participants of the ARIC Study provided information on history of kidney stone disease. Information on incident kidney stone-related hospitalizations was obtained from ICD codes on hospital discharge records.
Kidney stone disease was reported by 12.0% of men and 4.8% of women. After multivariable adjustment, prevalent kidney stone disease was significantly (p<0.05) associated with male gender (PR=2.50), increased serum triglycerides (PR=1.07 per SD increase), diabetes (PR=1.27), gallstone disease (PR=1.54), white race (PR=1.67), and region of residence. Male gender (HR=1.70), diabetes (HR=1.98), and hypertension (HR=1.69) were significantly associated (p<0.05) with incident kidney stone-related hospitalizations (n=94). Race-stratified analyses showed stronger associations of prevalent kidney stone disease with increased triglycerides, older age, and gallstone disease in African Americans compared to whites, whereas male gender showed stronger association in whites (all p-interaction<0.05).
We identified novel correlates of kidney stone disease (triglycerides, gallstone disease) and risk factor interactions by race (age, male gender, triglycerides, gallstone disease).
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Preventive Medicine