International Journal of Urology
Blackwell Science, LtdOxford, UKIJUInternational Journal of Urology0919-81722005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty LtdSeptember 2005129859863Original Article
Kidney stone disease and risk factors for coronary heart diseaseS Hamano
Correspondence: Satoshi Hamano
Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba 260-0001, Japan. Email:
Received 26 August 2004; accepted 15 March 2005.
, 1-55-8 Miyako-cho,
Kidney stone disease and risk factors for
coronary heart disease
SATOSHI HAMANO, HIROOMI NAKATSU, NORIYUKI SUZUKI, SUSUMU TOMIOKA,
MASASHI TANAKA AND SHINO MURAKAMI
Department of Urology, Asahi General Hospital, Asahi-city, Chiba, Japan
(CHD) risk factors on calcium oxalate (CaOX) stone formation.
: Variables included body mass index (BMI), current alcohol use, smoking habit, hyperten-
sion, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and hyperuricemia. Data sufficient for analysis were
obtained for 181 CaOX stone formers and 187 controls.
: Seven of 181 stone formers (3.9%) had a history of CHD compared with none of 187
control subjects (
0.007). In univariate logistic regression analysis, smoking habit (OR 4.41, 95%
0.0001), hypertension (OR 4.24, 95% CI 2.61–6.91,
olemia (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.77–5.20,
0.0001) and BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17,
reached statistical significance. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, smoking habit (OR
4.29, 95% CI 2.68–6.86,
0.0001), hypertension (OR 3.57, 95% CI 2.11–6.07,
hypercholesterolemia (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.51–5.00,
BMI (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99–1.12,
0.09) did not.
: CaOX stone formers are significantly associated with several CHD risk factors,
including smoking habit, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity.
: We conducted a case-control study to examine the impact of coronal heart disease
0.001) reached statistical significance, while
calcium oxalate stone, coronary heart disease, nephrolithiasis, risk factor.
Nephrolithiasis is a common painful condition of mul-
(CaOX) is the commonest component of upper urinary
tract calculi in economically developed countries,
including North America, Europe, Australia, and
Many epidemiological factors, including age,
sex, heredity, occupation, body size, social class,
affluence, geographic location, climate, and diet and
fluid intake, have been identified as playing roles in
kidney stone disease.
Our clinical impression was that CaOX stone formers
were at increased risk of experiencing coronary heart
disease (CHD). However, only few attempts have been
and calcium oxalate
made to investigate the associations among urinary
stone disease and CHD.
In October 2000 a 57-year-old man with a previous
history of recurrent CaOX stone disease experienced
acute myocardial infarct. That event prompted the initi-
ation of the present study concerning the risk factors for
CHD among CaOX stone formers. We conducted a
case–control study to assess the impact of the several
CHD risk factors on CaOX stone formation.
Subjects and methods
Cases were 200 patients (137 men, 63 women, M/F 2.2;
aged 40–65 years) who were diagnosed as having upper
urinary stones chiefly composed of CaOX (80% or
more) between January 2001 and March 2003 at our
Subjects without a medical history of nephrolithiasis
or suspected renal colic were sampled randomly from