A phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with solid tumors
This dose escalation study aimed to determine the recommended doses, toxicity and pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine given on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. This schedule may maximize dose intensity of both drugs with acceptable or reduced toxicity.
Eligible patients had solid malignancies, no more than two prior courses of chemotherapy, ECOG performance status 0-2, neurotoxicity < or = NCI-CTC grade 1 and adequate organ function. Dose escalation commenced at oxaliplatin 40 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 750 mg/m(2), both given on days 1 and 8 every 21 days, and reached oxaliplatin 80 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m(2). The two highest dose levels were each expanded to six patients to gain additional toxicity data.
There were no dose limiting toxicities related to treatment and an MTD was not reached. Five patients (24%) had grade 3 neutropenia, without associated infection, and seven patients (33%) had grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. Neurotoxicity was mild and no worse than grade 1. Two patients with mesothelioma (10%) had partial responses and 11 patients (52%) had disease stabilization. No pharmacokinetic interaction between oxaliplatin and gemcitabine was detected. Dose intensity was maximal at level 4 (oxaliplatin 70 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2)).
This schedule allows oxaliplatin and gemcitabine to be delivered at the full dose intensity of each drug with excellent tolerability and predictable pharmacokinetics. The recommended doses for phase II studies are oxaliplatin 70 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days.
Available from: Giuseppe Badalamenti
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ABSTRACT: Biliary tract cancers are uncommon tumors with a poor prognosis and most patients present with invasive and inoperable disease at diagnosis. Chemotherapy represents a palliative treatment, with poor response rates and a median survival of less than 6 months. Oxaliplatin and gemcitabine have shown an interesting activity as single agents in this group of patients.
We carried out a multicenter phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined oxaliplatin and gemcitabine in locally advanced and metastatic biliary tract carcinoma. The schedule of chemotherapy included oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8, every 21 days.
All the 24 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. According to RECIST criteria we observed one complete response and 11 partial responses for an overall response rate of 50%. Overall survival for all the patients on study was 12 months (range 2-30). According to WHO criteria, three patients (12.5%) suffered grade 3 neutropenia and three patients (12.5%) grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Only two patients (8%) suffered grade 3 neuropathy.
Oxaliplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy seems to be effective with a favorable safety profile in first-line chemotherapy of advanced biliary tract cancers.
Available from: Periklis Pappas
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors. Ten patients with advanced stage solid tumors were treated with gemcitabine (1500 mg/m) as a 30-min intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8, followed by oxaliplatin (130 mg/m) as a 4-h intravenous infusion, on day 8 every 21 days. Pharmacokinetic data for 24 h after dosing were obtained for both day 1 (gemcitabine without oxaliplatin coadministration) and day 8 (gemcitabine with oxaliplatin) during the first cycle of treatment. Gemcitabine levels in plasma were quantified using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection, and total and ultrafiltrated platinum levels by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry with deuterium correction. All pharmacokinetic parameters of gemcitabine seemed to be unchanged when coadministered with oxaliplatin (day 8) compared with pharmacokinetic data of gemcitabine given as a single agent (day 1). The mean (maximum) concentration of gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 was 13.57 (+/-7.42) and 10.23 (+/-5.21) mg/l, respectively (P=0.28), and the mean half-life was 0.32 and 0.44 h, respectively (P=0.40). Similarly, the P-values for AUC0-24 and the observed clearance were 0.61 and 0.30, respectively. Plasma total and free platinum levels were in agreement with other published data. Gemcitabine disposition appeared to be unaffected by oxaliplatin coadministration because no significant changes in pharmacokinetics between day 1 (gemcitabine without oxaliplatin coadministration) and day 8 (gemcitabine with oxaliplatin) were observed.
Available from: Robin Stuart-Harris
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ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin have shown single-agent activity in relapsed ovarian cancer. This combination was used to determine response rates, time-to-event efficacy measures, and toxicity in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Patients with prior platinum-based chemotherapy who had measurable lesions and/or elevated CA-125 levels were identified as group A (platinum-refractory/platinum-resistant patients) and group B (platinum-sensitive patients). All patients received gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on day 8 every 21 days for up to eight cycles. Seventy-five patients (21 in group A and 54 in group B), with a median age of 58 years (range, 37-78), were enrolled. A median of six cycles (range, 1-8) was administered. By intent-to-treat analysis, 15 patients with measurable disease achieved partial response for an overall best response rate of 20.0% (9.5% in group A and 24.1% in group B). CA-125 response was observed in 48.4% patients (30.0% in group A and 57.1% in group B). Median time to progressive disease was 7.1 months (95% CI, 5.6-9.0 months) with 5.0 months in group A and 8.3 months in group B. Median overall survival was 17.8 months (95% CI, 12.9-21.3 months) with 9.2 months for group A and 20.0 months for group B. Major grade 3/4 toxicities were neutropenia (61.3%), leukopenia (24.0%), nausea (16.0%), and vomiting (22.7%). We conclude that the combination of oxaliplatin and gemcitabine is active in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, but the regimen is unsatisfactory for further study due to modest response and relatively high toxicity.
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