Fichtner-Feigl, S, Strober, W, Kawakami, K, Puri, RK and Kitani, A. IL-13 signaling through the IL-13alpha2 receptor is involved in induction of TGF-beta1 production and fibrosis. Nat Med 12: 99-106

Mucosal Immunity Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10-CRC 5W3864, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Nature Medicine (Impact Factor: 27.36). 02/2006; 12(1):99-106. DOI: 10.1038/nm1332
Source: PubMed


Interleukin (IL)-13 is a major inducer of fibrosis in many chronic infectious and autoimmune diseases. In studies of the mechanisms underlying such induction, we found that IL-13 induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in macrophages through a two-stage process involving, first, the induction of a receptor formerly considered to function only as a decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha(2). Such induction requires IL-13 (or IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Second, it involves IL-13 signaling through IL-13Ralpha(2) to activate an AP-1 variant containing c-jun and Fra-2, which then activates the TGFB1 promoter. In vivo, we found that prevention of IL-13Ralpha(2) expression reduced production of TGF-beta(1) in oxazolone-induced colitis and that prevention of IL-13Ralpha(2) expression, Il13ra2 gene silencing or blockade of IL-13Ralpha(2) signaling led to marked downregulation of TGF-beta(1) production and collagen deposition in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. These data suggest that IL-13Ralpha(2) signaling during prolonged inflammation is an important therapeutic target for the prevention of TGF-beta(1)-mediated fibrosis.

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Available from: Raj Puri
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    • "Engagement of IL-4/IL-13 to the receptors triggers cell signalling via JAK/STAT6 dependent mechanisms [25]. A second receptor, IL-13R␣2, binds IL-13 with high affinity and is thought to be a decoy receptor sequestering IL-13 [24], although some studies suggest an uncharacterised signalling activity [26]. Previously, Ahlers et al. [27] demonstrated that soluble IL-13R␣2- Fc decoy receptor together with GM-CSF and CD40L as molecular adjuvants can enhance magnitude HIV Env-specific CD8+ CTL peptide vaccine response. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have established that the efficacy of a heterologous poxvirus vectored HIV vaccine, fowlpox virus (FPV)-HIV gag/pol prime followed by attenuated vaccinia virus (VV)-HIV gag/pol booster immunisation, is strongly influenced by the cytokine milieu at the priming vaccination site, with endogenous IL-13 detrimental to the quality of the HIV specific CD8+ T cell response induced. We have now developed a novel HIV vaccine that co-expresses a C-terminal deletion mutant of the mouse IL-4, deleted for the essential tyrosine (Y119) required for signalling. In our vaccine system, the mutant IL-4C118 can bind to IL-4 type I and II receptors with high affinity, and transiently prevent the signalling of both IL-4 and IL-13 at the vaccination site. When this IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccine was used in an intranasal rFPV/intramuscular rVV prime-boost immunisation strategy, greatly enhanced mucosal/systemic HIV specific CD8+ T cells with higher functional avidity, expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and greater protective efficacy were detected. Surprisingly, the IL-4C118 adjuvanted vaccines also induced robust long-lived HIV gag-specific serum antibody responses, specifically IgG1 and IgG2a. The p55-gag IgG2a responses induced were of a higher magnitude relative to the IL-13Rα2 adjuvant vaccine. More interestingly, our recently tested IL-13Rα2 adjuvanted vaccine which only inhibited IL-13 activity, even though induced excellent high avidity HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, had a detrimental impact on the induction of gag-specific IgG2a antibody immunity. Our observations suggest that (i) IL-4 cell-signalling in the absence of IL-13 retarded gag-specific antibody isotype class switching, or (ii) IL-13Rα2 signalling was involved in inducing good gag-specific B cell immunity. Thus, we believe our novel IL-4R antagonist adjuvant strategy offers great promise not only for HIV-1 vaccines, but also against a range of chronic infections where sustained high quality mucosal and systemic T and B cell immunity are required for protection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Vaccine
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    • "However, all of these studies used the B-D13 antibody to evaluate protein induction, and thus may have inadvertently mis-identified the induction of IL13Rα2 protein following cytokine stimulation. It should be noted, however, that qPCR and knockdown studies do support IL13Rα2 induction in some cell types [13]. In fact, consistent with previous reports [13], we find that THP-1 cells show induction of IL13Rα2 mRNA 13 to 15-fold after overnight treatment with TNF and IL-13 or IL-4, although the level of IL13Rα2 expression was more than 13.6-fold lower than that expressed by the U251T glioma cell line and not at sufficient levels to be detected by flow cytometry using the IL13Rα2-specfic AF146 antibody. "
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    ABSTRACT: The interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 (IL13Rα2) is a cell surface receptor that is over-expressed by a subset of high-grade gliomas, but not expressed at significant levels by normal brain tissue. For both malignant and non-malignant cells, IL13Rα2 surface expression is reported to be induced by various cytokines such as IL-4 or IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Our group has developed a therapeutic platform to target IL13Rα2-positive brain tumors by engineering human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to express the IL13-zetakine chimeric antigen receptor. We therefore sought to investigate the potential of cytokine stimulation to induce IL13Rα2 cell surface expression, and thereby increase susceptibility to IL13Rα2-specific T cell killing. In the course of these experiments, we unexpectedly found that the commercially available putative IL13Rα2-specific monoclonal antibody B-D13 recognizes cytokine-induced VCAM-1 on glioblastoma. We provide evidence that the induced receptor is not IL13Rα2, because its expression does not consistently correlate with IL13Rα2 mRNA levels, it does not bind IL-13, and it is not recognized by IL13-zetakine CTL. Instead we demonstrate by immunoprecipitation experiments and mass spectrometry that the antigen recognized by the B-D13 antibody following cytokine stimulation is VCAM-1, and that VCAM-1, but not IL13Rα2, is induced on glioma cells by TNF alone or in combination with IL-13 or IL-4. Further evaluation of several commercial B-D13 antibodies revealed that B-D13 is bi-specific, recognizing both IL13Rα2 and VCAM-1. This binding is non-overlapping based on soluble receptor competition experiments, and mass spectrometry identifies two distinct heavy and light chain species, providing evidence that the B-D13 reagent is di-clonal. PE-conjugation of the B-D13 antibody appears to disrupt IL13Rα2 recognition, while maintaining VCAM-1 specificity. While this work calls into question previous studies that have used the B-D13 antibody to assess IL13Rα2 expression, it also suggests that TNF may have significant effects on glioma biology by up-regulating VCAM-1.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Both of these cell types are found in increased numbers in IPF [15,16]. In vivo mouse models have shown a pro-fibrotic role for IL-13Rα2 [17], classically thought of as a decoy receptor for IL-13. However, the relevance of this to human disease still needs to be determined. "
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    ABSTRACT: Repairing damaged tissues is an essential homeostatic mechanism that enables clearance of dead or damaged cells after injury, and the maintenance of tissue integrity. However, exaggeration of this process in the lung can lead to the development of fibrotic scar tissue. This is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as fibronectin, proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and interstitial collagens. After tissue injury, or a breakdown of tissue integrity, a cascade of events unfolds to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. Inflammatory mediators are released from injured epithelium, leading to both platelet activation and inflammatory cell migration. Inflammatory cells are capable of releasing multiple pro-inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators such as transforming growth factor (TGF)beta and interleukin (IL)-13, which can trigger myofibroblast proliferation and recruitment. The myofibroblast population is also expanded as a result of epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and of the activation of resident fibroblasts, leading to ECM deposition and tissue remodeling. In the healthy lung, wound healing then proceeds to restore the normal architecture of the lung; however, fibrosis can develop when the wound is severe, the tissue injury persists, or the repair process becomes dysregulated. Understanding the processes regulating aberrant wound healing and the matrix in the chronic fibrotic lung disease idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is key to identifying new treatments for this chronic debilitating disease. This review focuses primarily on the emerging role of enzymes in the lungs of patients with IPF. Elevated expression of a number of enzymes that can directly modulate the ECM has been reported, and recent data indicates that modulating the activity of these enzymes can have a downstream effect on fibrotic tissue remodeling.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair
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