Health Disparities and Toxicant Exposure of Akwesasne Mohawk Young Adults: A Partnership Approach to Research

Department of Epidemiology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 01/2006; 113(12):1826-32. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7914
Source: PubMed


In this article we describe a research partnership between the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation and scientists at the University at Albany, State University of New York, initiated to address community and scientific concerns regarding environmental contamination and its health consequences (thyroid hormone function, social adjustment, and school functioning). The investigation focuses on cultural inputs into health disparities. It employs a risk-focusing model of biocultural interaction: behaviors expressing cultural identity and values allocate or focus risk, in this instance the risk of toxicant exposure, which alters health status through the effects of toxicants. As culturally based behaviors and activities fulfill a key role in the model, accurate assessment of subtle cultural and behavioral variables is required and best accomplished through integration of local expert knowledge from the community. As a partnership project, the investigation recognizes the cultural and socioeconomic impacts of research in small communities beyond the production of scientific knowledge. The components of sustainable partnerships are discussed, including strategies that helped promote equity between the partners such as hiring community members as key personnel, integrating local expertise into research design, and developing a local Community Outreach and Education Program. Although challenges arose during the design and implementation of the research project, a collaborative approach has benefited the community and facilitated research.

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    • "The CBPR model has been utilized for nearly 25 years and has served as an important tool to advance environmental health sciences in the United States (Arcury et al., 2001; Brody et al., 2005; Brugge and Cole, 2003; Cook, 2008; Cummins et al., 2010; Downs et al., 2010; Horn et al., 2008; Israel et al., 2001; Kegler et al., 1998; Latowsky, 2003; Levy et al., 2006; Minkler et al., 2006; Parker et al., 2003; Petersen et al., 2006; Schell et al., 2005; Schulz et al., 2001; Wier et al., 2009). More recently, the CBPR model proved a useful approach in children's environmental health and disease prevention research (Israel et al., 2005; Kegler et al., 2000; Moodie et al., 2010; Parker et al., 2008; Petersen et al., 2007; Schetzina et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based participatory research principles have been successfully applied to public health research in U.S. settings. While there is a long history of collaboration between government and communities in China, to date, community-based participatory research has not been used in children's environmental health studies. This article describes how community-based participatory research principles were applied by an international research group to the China Jintan Child Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of malnutrition and lead exposure on cognitive and neurobehavioral development. Challenges emerged and lessons learned from implementing the study were discussed and recommendations were presented. We conclude that the community-based participatory research model can be applied in conducting and promoting environmental health research in China and researchers should be prepared for special challenges and cultural constraints in the implementation of the research in regards to human subject regulations, information dissemination, and culture.
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    • "The term authentic refers to the degree to which a project reflects not only community concerns - which we did quite well (see Methods/CBPR) - but also how well it literally 'wears the face of the community', with representatives of affected residents as full partners [24,48] - something we did not do well. Schell et al. [49] describe the use of CBPR to understand health disparities and toxics' exposures among Akwesasne Mohawk young adults in upstate New York. Hiring community members as key personnel, involving the local community in research design and implementation, and developing a community education and outreach program all helped build a more equitable partnership. "
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    • "Further, there are places where participatory research has been more successful, and these examples also indicate the importance of being inclusive. This approach has been particularly useful in the area of exposure and risk assessment for the Yupik people (Carpenter et al., 2005), the Inupiat (Johnston, 2007), the Mohawks (Fitzgerald et al., 1999; Schell et al., 2005)), as well as other Native Americans (DeCaprio et al., 2005). These and other projects indicate a growing trend for inclusion of Native Americans , Alaskan Natives, and other ethnic groups in environmental assessments, exposure assessments and formal risk assessments that affect their health, culture and lifestyle. "
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