Concussion in Professional Football: Comparison with Boxing Head Impacts—Part 10

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Committee, National Football League, New York, New York, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.62). 01/2006; 57(6):1154-72; discussion 1154-72. DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000187541.87937.D9
Source: PubMed


This study addresses impact biomechanics from boxing punches causing translational and rotational head acceleration. Olympic boxers threw four different punches at an instrumented Hybrid III dummy and responses were compared with laboratory-reconstructed NFL concussions.
Eleven Olympic boxers weighing 51 to 130 kg (112-285 lb) delivered 78 blows to the head of the Hybrid III dummy, including hooks, uppercuts and straight punches to the forehead and jaw. Instrumentation included translational and rotational head acceleration and neck loads in the dummy. Biaxial acceleration was measured in the boxer's hand to determine punch force. High-speed video recorded each blow. Hybrid III head responses and finite element (FE) brain modeling were compared to similarly determined responses from reconstructed NFL concussions.
The hook produced the highest change in hand velocity (11.0 +/- 3.4 m/s) and greatest punch force (4405 +/- 2318 N) with average neck load of 855 +/- 537 N. It caused head translational and rotational accelerations of 71.2 +/- 32.2 g and 9306 +/- 4485 r/s. These levels are consistent with those causing concussion in NFL impacts. However, the head injury criterion (HIC) for boxing punches was lower than for NFL concussions because of shorter duration acceleration. Boxers deliver punches with proportionately more rotational than translational acceleration than in football concussion. Boxing punches have a 65 mm effective radius from the head cg, which is almost double the 34 mm in football. A smaller radius in football prevents the helmets from sliding off each other in a tackle.
Olympic boxers deliver punches with high impact velocity but lower HIC and translational acceleration than in football impacts because of a lower effective punch mass. They cause proportionately more rotational acceleration than in football. Modeling shows that the greatest strain is in the midbrain late in the exposure, after the primary impact acceleration in boxing and football.

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    ABSTRACT: Forensic investigations have been reported regarding the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrests resulting from direct mandible impact. However, the mechanisms by which the forces are transferred to the skull through direct mandible impact remain unclear. We conducted a study regarding direct mandible impact on the level of energy required to create a mandible fracture and on the energy dispersion phenomenon to the skull and to the brain. This study combines an experimental and numerical approach. Mandible strike was studied using experimental trials performed on post-mortem human subjects. A finite element model of the head and face of a male was also developed based on tomodensitometry scans. The model was validated with literature data and experimental trials. A parametric study was then performed to study the effect of diverse variables such as the dentition integrity, cortical bone thickness, etc. The forces measured on our reference model were 3000N on the chin, 1800N at the condyles, and 970N in the occiput. Of all the results, we observed a decrease of approximately one-third of the efforts from the chin to the base of the skull and a lower half of the still forces at the occiput, except in the edentulous and for the lateral and frontal impact where the force is transmitted directly to the skull base area. This study allowed us to create a 3D model of the mandible and face bones to better understand the force transfer mechanisms into and from the mandible. The parameters of the model may be modified to suit the individual characteristics for forensic investigations and legal matters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    • "Similarly, a comprehensive study has been conducted by Newman et al. (2005) to understand better the mechanics of the impacts associated with concussion in American football, involving a sequence of techniques to analyze and reconstruct many different head impact scenarios. Impact biomechanics from boxing punches causing translational and rotational head acceleration was experimentally studied in Viano et al. (2005). Olympic boxers threw four different punches at an instrumented Hybrid III dummy and responses were compared with laboratoryreconstructed NFL concussions. "
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