Voluntary Training in Mice and Submandibular Lymphocyte Response to Acute Exercise

Department of Health Studies and Gerontology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 01/2006; 37(12):2038-45. DOI: 10.1249/01.mss.0000179097.29670.d4
Source: PubMed


Submandibular lymph nodes (SLN) are important for immune responses to antigens in the eye and oral mucosa. Athletes and exercise participants may be at increased risk of ocular, oral, and upper respiratory tract infections.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of voluntary training on the distribution, number, and apoptotic status of SLN lymphocytes in response to an acute bout of strenuous exercise.
Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to voluntary wheel-running (WR) exercise (N=20) or were sedentary (N=10) for 16 wk. SLN lymphocytes were examined immediately (EX+Imm) or 24 h (EX+24 h) following strenuous treadmill exercise, or exposure to treadmill conditions without running (NonEX). Intracellular glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell viability (propidium iodide uptake, PI), surface phosphatidylserine (Annexin V), T-lymphocyte (CD3, CD4, CD8), and B-lymphocyte (CD19) phenotype distribution and number were assessed.
The WR mice had a higher number and percent CD8 SLN lymphocytes, higher MMP, and lower Annexin V/PI SLN lymphocytes than controls. Regardless of training status, an acute bout of strenuous exercise decreased the total and phenotype specific (CD3, CD4, CD8) number of cells, MMP, and GSH levels immediately after exercise.
WR in mice improved some aspects of cell viability in SLN lymphocytes compared with controls, but did not prevent the transient cell loss after acute treadmill exercise. Given the depletion in intracellular GSH levels, oxidative stress may account for the decline in SLN lymphocyte numbers following acute exercise. Loss of SLN lymphocytes may have consequences for ocular, oral, and upper respiratory tract health in some exercise participants and athletes during periods of overtraining.

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    • "On the other hand, a single session of acute exercise has been shown to display suppressive effects on SIgA production in saliva (in humans, Bishop and Gleeson, 2009; in rats, Kimura et al., 2008) and on cytokine levels in the upper respiratory pathways (Kohut et al., 2001). Furthermore, there are various reports that moderate exercise training can attenuate the deleterious effects of acute stress (Boudreau et al., 2005; Davidson and Hoffman-Goetz , 2006; Fu et al., 2003; Hoffman-Goetz et al., 2010). There is, however, scarce evidence in the literature about the effects of strenuous exercise on the pIgR-mediated transport and production of SIgA in the small intestine, and even less evidence on the relation between moderate exercise training followed by strenuous exercise in relation to these same parameters. "
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    • "Upregulation of glutathione concentration in T lymphocytes occurs in older C57BL/6 mice presumably to combat the effects of free radical accumulation (Kim and Nel 2005). In our present study, the intracellular concentration of glutathione was higher in all groups of older mice compared with earlier results obtained with younger mice (Boudreau et al. 2005). Whether the lack of SLN lymphocyte response to the oxidant stress of exercise in older mice reflects the onset of age-related changes in signal transduction pathways remains to be determined experimentally. "
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