Article

Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes with fipronil

Department of Animal Biology, Vegetal Biology and Ecology, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
Journal of Helminthology (Impact Factor: 1.42). 01/2006; 79(4):333-7. DOI: 10.1079/JOH2005294
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The survival and infectivity of infective juveniles (IJs) of three species of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, S. arenarium (Artyukhovsky) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), were determined after exposure to different concentrations (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) of fipronil, an insecticide acting on the GABA receptors to block the chloride channel. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was very tolerant to all concentrations of fipronil, with the highest mortality of 17% being observed at 2000 ppm of fipronil after 72 h exposure. Steinernema carpocapsae showed a similar response, with the highest mortality of 11.25% of IJs being observed after 72 h exposure to 2000 ppm of fipronil. Steinernema arenarium was, however, more sensitive to fipronil, and at 2000 ppm mortality rates of 94.6% and 100% were observed after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Fipronil had negligible effects on the infectivity of the three nematode species tested. The IJs which survive exposure to all concentrations of fipronil tested can infect and reproduce in Galleria larvae. The moderate effects on entomopathogenic nematodes of a lower fipronil concentration (250 ppm) and the field rates (12-60 ppm) of fipronil used as insecticide, suggest that direct mixing of entomopathogenic nematodes and fipronil at field rates is a viable integrated pest management option.

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Available from: Fernando Garcia del Pino, Oct 31, 2014
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    • "Similar SSDs for fipronil were also found between cladocerans and other aquatic organisms (Hayasaka et al. 2012c). In contrast with the high toxicity of this insecticide to arthropods, fipronil has minimal effects on nematode species even at a concentration of 250,000 lg L -1 (Pino and Jove 2005). From the results of SSD analysis, it is clear that the extirpation concentration (HC99) for L. humile established around Kobe may simultaneously cause the local extinction of ground arthropod communities (Fig. 2). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "Similar SSDs for fipronil were also found between cladocerans and other aquatic organisms (Hayasaka et al. 2012c). In contrast with the high toxicity of this insecticide to arthropods, fipronil has minimal effects on nematode species even at a concentration of 250,000 lg L -1 (Pino and Jove 2005). From the results of SSD analysis, it is clear that the extirpation concentration (HC99) for L. humile established around Kobe may simultaneously cause the local extinction of ground arthropod communities (Fig. 2). "
    Dataset: E15

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "Biotic adversaries in the soil that reduce applied EPN numbers include a variety of organisms, such as protozoans, predacious mites, bacteria, nematophagous fungi, and other free-living and competitor nematodes (Kaya, 2002; Duncan et al., 2007; Campos-Herrera et al., 2011a; 2011b). When using EPNs in an IPM scheme, it is important to determine the compatibility and interactions of the EPNs with agrochemicals such as pesticides (García del Pino & Jové, 2005; Gutiérrez et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: In South Africa, the most common method of mealybug control has been the use of chemical insecticides. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the of the families Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae potentially can be used within an integrated pest management scheme to control Planococcus ficus, the vine mealybug, which occurs on all parts of grapevine, including the roots. When Steinernema yirgalemense was applied to the soil of two vineyards with P. ficus, contained in pierced Eppendorf tubes, buried at a depth of 15 cm in the soil, mortalities of up to 50% were obtained after 48 h. The persistence of S. yirgalemense, measured using codling moth larval mortality was found to be zero in one vineyard, while in the other it was 70%, 12 weeks after application. Tests were conducted to establish the production of scavenger deterrent factors by H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense. Of the cadavers that were presented six days after nematode infection, 49% of the H. zealandica- and 60% of the S. yirgalemense-infected cadavers were left intact. Olfactometry tests indicated a significant difference concerning the number of S. yirgalemense infective juveniles (IJs) that were attracted to damaged Vitis vinifera roots and P. ficus, indicating active movement of the IJs and the attractive ability of organic compounds produced by the roots. This study shows that EPNs, and specifically S. yirgalemense, have promising potential as biological control agents for the control of P. ficus soil populations, and investigates some influential factors affecting EPNs as biocontrol agents in the agro-ecosystem.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
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