Exploration of global gene expression in human liver steatosis by high-density oligonucleotide microarray

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States
Laboratory Investigation (Impact Factor: 3.68). 03/2006; 86(2):154-65. DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.3700374
Source: PubMed


Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying fatty liver disease (FLD) in humans is of major importance. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (22.3 K) to assess the mechanisms responsible for the development of human liver steatosis. We compared global gene expression in normal (n=9) and steatotic (n=9) livers without histological signs of inflammation or fibrosis. A total of 34 additional human samples including normal (n=11), steatosis (n=11), HCV-related steatosis (n=4) or steatohepatitis associated with alcohol consumption (n=4) or obesity (n=4) were used for immunohistochemistry or quantitative real-time PCR studies. With unsupervised classification (no gene selection), all steatotic liver samples clustered together. Using step-down maxT multiple testing procedure for controlling the Family-Wise Error-Rate at level 5%, 110 cDNAs (100 over- and 10 underexpressed) were found to be differentially expressed in steatotic and normal livers. Of them were genes involved in mitochondrial phosphorylative and oxidative metabolism. The mean ratio of mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA content was higher in liver steatosis compared to normal liver biopsies (1.12+/-0.14 vs 0.67+/-0.10; P=0.01). An increased expression of genes involved in inflammation (IL-1R family, TGFB) was also observed and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR or immunochemistry. In steatohepatitis, an increase of the protein expression of mitochondrial antigens, IL-1R1, IGF2 and TGFB1 was also observed, interleukin 1 receptor being always strongly expressed in steatohepatitis linked to alcohol or obesity. In conclusion, mitochondrial alterations play a major role in the development of steatosis per se. Activation of inflammatory pathways is present at a very early stage of steatosis, even if no morphological sign of inflammation is observed.

Download full-text


Available from: Marie-Charlotte Domart, Mar 24, 2014
  • Source
    • "Increased expression of IL-1β and TNF-α receptors in MO offspring suggest that maternal developmental programming induces a predisposition to hepatic inflammatory responses which may contribute to long term risk of hepatic IR, steatosis and fibrosis. Notably, a recent study by Chiappini et al. demonstrated the importance of IL-1R1 overexpression in response to early development of obesity-induced NAFLD [64]. Furthermore, in other studies, IL1-R1 and IL-1β knockout mice display attenuated hepatic steatosis and inflammation when exposed to alcohol and high cholesterol diet [65], [66]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may ameliorate the adverse effects observed in offspring following a maternal obesogenic diet but these effects are dependent upon prior maternal nutritional background.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Chiappini et al. [166] studied global gene expression in human liver steatosis. They find that mitochondrial alterations play a major role in the development of steatosis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clustering of insulin resistance and dysmetabolism with obesity is attributed to pathologic adipose tissue. The morphologic hallmarks of this pathology are adipocye hypertrophy and heightened inflammation. However, it's underlying molecular mechanisms remains unknown. Study of gene function in metabolically active tissues like adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver is a promising strategy. Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large number of genes in an array. This technique has several potential applications in understanding pathologic adipose tissue. They are: (1) transcriptomic differences between various depots of adipose tissue, adipose tissue from obese versus lean individuals, high insulin resistant versus low insulin resistance, brown versus white adipose tissue, (2) transcriptomic profiles of various stages of adipogenesis, (3) effect of diet, cytokines, adipokines, hormones, environmental toxins and drugs on transcriptomic profiles, (4) influence of adipokines on transcriptomic profiles in skeletal muscle, hepatocyte, adipose tissue etc., and (5) genetics of gene expression. The microarray evidences of molecular basis of obesity and insulin resistance are presented here. Despite the limitations, microarray has potential clinical applications in finding new molecular targets for treatment of insulin resistance and classification of adipose tissue based on future risk of insulin resistance syndrome.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of obesity
  • Source
    • "Recently, RBP4 levels have been reported to be elevated in insulin resistant subjects as well as in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) [4]. These diseases involve liver and kidney disorders in late stages [5,6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) - the carrier protein for Vitamin A in plasma - are tightly regulated under healthy circumstances. The kidney, the main site of RBP4 catabolism, contributes to an elevation of RBP4 levels during chronic kidney disease (CKD) whereas during chronic liver disease (CLD) RBP4 levels decrease. Little is known about RBP4 isoforms including apo-RBP4, holo-RBP4 as well as RBP4 truncated at the C-terminus (RBP4-L and RBP4-LL) except that RBP4 isoforms have been reported to be increased in hemodialysis patients. Since it is not known whether CLD influence RBP4 isoforms, we investigated RBP4 levels, apo- and holo-RBP4 as well as RBP4-L and RBP4-LL in plasma of 36 patients suffering from CKD, in 55 CLD patients and in 50 control subjects. RBP4 was determined by ELISA and apo- and holo-RBP4 by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). RBP4-L and RBP4-LL were analyzed after immunoprecipitation by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). RBP4 isoforms and levels were highly increased in CKD patients compared to controls (P < 0.05) whereas in CLD patients RBP4 isoforms were not different from controls. In addition, in hepatic dysfunction RBP4 levels were decreased whereas the amount of isoforms was not affected. The occurrence of RBP4 isoforms is not influenced by liver function but seems to be strongly related to kidney function and may therefore be important in investigating kidney function and related disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Lipids in Health and Disease
Show more