Deng, W. et al. Organization of the Caenorhabditis elegans small non-coding transcriptome: genomic features, biogenesis, and expression. Genome Res. 16, 20-29

Chinese National Human Genome Center, Peping, Beijing, China
Genome Research (Impact Factor: 14.63). 02/2006; 16(1):20-9. DOI: 10.1101/gr.4139206
Source: PubMed


Recent evidence points to considerable transcription occurring in non-protein-coding regions of eukaryote genomes. However, their lack of conservation and demonstrated function have created controversy over whether these transcripts are functional. Applying a novel cloning strategy, we have cloned 100 novel and 61 known or predicted Caenorhabditis elegans full-length ncRNAs. Studying the genomic environment and transcriptional characteristics have shown that two-thirds of all ncRNAs, including many intronic snoRNAs, are independently transcribed under the control of ncRNA-specific upstream promoter elements. Furthermore, the transcription levels of at least 60% of the ncRNAs vary with developmental stages. We identified two new classes of ncRNAs, stem-bulge RNAs (sbRNAs) and snRNA-like RNAs (snlRNAs), both featuring distinct internal motifs, secondary structures, upstream elements, and high and developmentally variable expression. Most of the novel ncRNAs are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae, but only one homolog was found outside the nematodes. Preliminary estimates indicate that the C. elegans transcriptome contains approximately 2700 small non-coding RNAs, potentially acting as regulatory elements in nematode development.

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Available from: Shiwei Sun, Mar 18, 2014
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    • "As described by Deng et al. [41], we collected small RNAs (embryo, L1, L2, L3, L4, and young adult) and mRNAs (L1-L4) at different stages. Total RNA was extracted from each of the six different developmental stages using the Trizol protocol. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background In metazoans, Piwi-related Argonaute proteins play important roles in maintaining germline integrity and fertility and have been linked to a class of germline-enriched small RNAs termed piRNAs. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes two Piwi family proteins called PRG-1 and PRG-2, and PRG-1 interacts with the C. elegans piRNAs (21U-RNAs). Previous studies found that mutation of prg-1 causes a marked reduction in the expression of 21U-RNAs, temperature-sensitive defects in fertility and other phenotypic defects. Results In this study, we wanted to systematically demonstrate the function of PRG-1 in the regulation of small RNAs and their targets. By analyzing small RNAs and mRNAs with and without a mutation in prg-1 during C. elegans development, we demonstrated that (1) mutation of prg-1 leads to a decrease in the expression of 21U-RNAs, and causes 35 ~ 40% of miRNAs to be down-regulated; (2) in C. elegans, approximately 3% (6% in L4) of protein-coding genes are differentially expressed after mutating prg-1, and 60 ~ 70% of these substantially altered protein-coding genes are up-regulated; (3) the target genes of the down-regulated miRNAs and the candidate target genes of the down-regulated 21U-RNAs are enriched in the up-regulated protein-coding genes; and (4) PRG-1 regulates protein-coding genes by down-regulating small RNAs (miRNAs and 21U-RNAs) that target genes that participate in the development of C. elegans. Conclusions In prg-1-mutated C. elegans, the expression of miRNAs and 21U-RNAs was reduced, and the protein-coding targets, which were associated with the development of C. elegans, were up-regulated. This may be the mechanism underlying PRG-1 function. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-321) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Genomics
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    • "Moreover, other novel classes of small RNA are being revealed, including cis-acting siRNA (casiRNA), trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), natural antisense transcript siRNA (natsiRNA), exogenous siRNA (exo-siRNA) and endogenous siRNA (endo-siRNA) [8]. Besides, there are also a number of small RNA classes, such as heterochromatic siRNA (hc-siRNA) [9], stem bulge RNA (sbRNA) [10], vault RNA (vtRNA) [11], small scan RNA (scnRNA) [12], Y RNA [13] and DSB-induced small RNA (diRNA) [14]. However, many small RNAs obtained from high-throughput sequencing are not in the known classes [15], [16], [17], suggesting there are still some unknown classes of small RNAs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Small non-coding RNAs constitute a large family of regulatory molecules with diverse functions. Notably, some small non-coding RNAs matched to rDNA have been identified as qiRNAs and small guide RNAs involved in various biological processes. However, a large number of small rDNA-derived RNAs (srRNAs) are usually neglected and yet to be investigated. We systematically investigated srRNAs using small RNA datasets generated by high-throughput sequencing, and found srRNAs are mainly mapped to rRNA coding regions in sense direction. The datasets from immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing demonstrate that srRNAs are co-immunoprecipitated with Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Furthermore, the srRNA expression profile in mouse liver is affected by diabetes. Overexpression or inhibition of srRNAs in cultured cells shows that srRNAs are involved in various signaling pathways. This study presents a global view of srRNAs in total small RNA and AGO protein complex from different species, and demonstrates that srRNAs are correlated with diabetes, and involved in some biological processes. These findings provide new insights into srRNAs and their functions in various physiological and pathological processes.
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    • "For these loci, we frequently observed a peak in sequencing density around 40 bp upstream of the annotated TSS. This is reminiscent of previous observations [24], [25] showing that certain subgroups of is-ncRNAs are processed from primary transcripts whose TSSs are located upstream of the 5′terminus (i.e., annotated TSS) of the mature transcript. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background A network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms functions coordinately to maintain genome integrity and prevent disease. The Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway is known to function in the response to UV-induced DNA damage. Although numbers of coding genes and miRNAs have been identified and reported to participate in UV-induced DNA damage response (UV-DDR), the precise role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in UV-DDR remains largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to discover intermediate-size (70–500 nt) ncRNAs (is-ncRNAs) in C. elegans, using the strains of L4 larvae of wild-type (N2), UV-irradiated (N2/UV100) and NER-deficient mutant (xpa-1), and 450 novel non-coding transcripts were initially identified. A customized microarray assay was then applied to examine the expression profiles of both novel transcripts and known is-ncRNAs, and 57 UV-DDR-related is-ncRNA candidates showed expression variations at different levels between UV irradiated strains and non- irradiated strains. The top ranked is-ncRNA candidates with expression differences were further validated by qRT-PCR analysis, of them, 8 novel is-ncRNAs were significantly up-regulated after UV irradiation. Knockdown of two novel is-ncRNAs, ncRNA317 and ncRNA415, by RNA interference, resulted in higher UV sensitivity and significantly decreased expression of NER-related genes in C. elegans. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of above two novel is-ncRNAs in this study indicated the functional roles of is-ncRNAs in the regulation of UV-DDR network, and aided our understanding of the significance of ncRNA involvement in the UV-induced DNA damage response.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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