Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in a total population of children: Clinical assessment and background

Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Acta Paediatrica (Impact Factor: 1.67). 12/2005; 94(11):1608-14. DOI: 10.1080/08035250510043879
Source: PubMed


To describe the symptoms, onset, heredity, pre-/perinatal events and socio-economic status in Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders.
From a total population of 4479 children, 25 (0.6%) with TS, 58 (1.3%) with chronic motor/vocal tics (CMVT) and 214 (4.8%) with transient tics (TT) in the last year were found. A three-stage procedure was used: tic screening, telephone interview and clinical assessment. The TS group was compared with 25 children with TT and 25 controls without tics.
The mean age of the first symptoms of TS was significantly lower than the onset of CMVT. All except one with TS had contact with medical services. The tics of children with TS were significantly more severe than the tics of others. Younger age of onset of TS indicated more severe tics. Parents and siblings of children with TS had an increased prevalence of tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive behaviour (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Eighty per cent had a first-degree relative with a psychiatric disorder. A non-significant increase with regards to reduced optimality score in the pre-, peri- or neonatal periods was found in children with TS compared to controls. No differences were found concerning socio-economic status.
Almost all children from a total population with TS have sought help from medical services. An increased prevalence of tics, OCD, depression or ADHD was found in the parents/siblings of children with TS, which draws attention to the importance of thorough investigation of family members.

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Available from: Anne-Liis von Knorring, Oct 05, 2014
    • "Tics generally appear during childhood with an average onset around 5 years, but tic onset can occur in the first years (Khalifa and Von Knorring, 2005; Bloch and Leckman, 2009). There is evidence that, on average, tic onset is earlier in severe TS than in less severe TS or in CT (Khalifa and Von Knorring, 2005). However, few studies have directly examined the characteristics associated with an early onset of chronic tic disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: In chronic tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), tics often appear between 4 and 8 years but they can also appear in early childhood, a period in which symptom expression may be affected by early brain development. The present study examined whether symptom expression in early-onset TS was distinct from that observed in TS with a later onset. We compared the clinical characteristics in children with TS who developed tics before age 4 or after age 6. Early-onset TS was significantly associated with an increased rate of stuttering and other speech disfluencies as well as an increased rate of oppositional defiant disorder, symptoms that often appear before age 4. Early-onset TS was also linked to maternal transmission of tics. Early-onset TS was not significantly associated with tic severity, obsessive-compulsive behavior or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results suggest that an early onset affects symptom expression in tic disorders.
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    • "In Table  2, the majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of TS comorbidity such as ADHD [11,13,14,17,20]. There was only one small study (25 cases and 25 controls) in which the mother’s age in the group with TS was significantly younger than the control group (20 ± 1.4 versus 23 ± 3.4, "
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette Syndrome (TS) appears to be an inherited disorder, although genetic abnormalities have been identified in less than 1 % of patients, and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. Many studies have investigated environmental factors that might contribute to the onset and severity of tics and associated comorbidities such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and qualitative analysis were performed to provide a broad view of the association between pre- and perinatal factors and TS. The Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched using terms specific to Tourette's syndrome and keywords such as "pregnancy", "prenatal", "perinatal", "birth" and "neonatal". Studies were limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French through October 2012. 22 studies were included. Studies were of limited methodological quality, with most samples derived from specialty clinics, and most exposures ascertained retrospectively. The majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of comorbidity. Many factors were reported to be significantly associated with the onset of TS, the presence of comorbidity and symptom severity, but the most consistently reported factors were maternal smoking and low birth weight. There are few studies evaluating the relationship between pre and perinatal events and TS, and existing studies have major limitations, including the use of clinic rather than epidemiologically derived samples, retrospective data collection on pre and perinatal events and multiple hypothesis testing without appropriate statistical correction. The mechanism by which prenatal and perinatal adversities could lead to TS onset or symptom severity is unknown, but may be related to changes in the dopaminergic system as a result of early brain injury.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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    • "These problems include ticrelated symptoms (ranging from socially inappropriate statements to actual self-harm) and co-morbid psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [4] [5]. Large studies conducted both in clinical populations [2] [6] and in the community [7] have consistently found that only about 10% of individuals with GTS do not present with behavioural co-morbidities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by multiple motor and phonic tics and associated behavioural problems, carrying a significant burden on patients' lives. Although the term health related-quality of life (HR-QOL) has only been used in recent years, several studies have long addressed the impact of GTS on physical, psychological and social aspects of wellbeing of both children and adults with GTS. We set out to answer the question "Is HR-QOL affected by GTS and, if so, in what domains?" by conducting a systematic literature review of published original studies addressing HR-QOL in both children and adult patients with GTS. This review focuses on the current evidence on the impact of GTS on patients' lives, mainly informed by studies using generic functional impairment and HR-QOL measures from the last decade, and expands on the new opportunities introduced by the recently developed GTS-specific HR-QOL scales (GTS-QOL and GTS-QOL-C&A). Analysis of the first decade of studies specifically addressing HR-QOL in GTS suggests that co-morbid conditions are key factors in determining HR-QOL in young patients, whilst the picture is more complex in adults with GTS. These findings offer some general directions for both current clinical practice and future research.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Behavioural neurology
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