Article

# Application of electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique for evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase

Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan
(Impact Factor: 2.22). 03/2006; 349(1):16-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2005.11.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique coupled with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes is one of the most specific methods for nitric oxide (NO) detection. In this study, we applied this method for the evaluation of the substrate and the inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS). A three-line ESR signal was detected from the mixture of inducible NOS (iNOS), l-arginine (Arg), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), tetrahydrobiopterin, dithiothreitol, and Fe(2+)-N-(dithiocarboxy) sarcosine (DTCS-Fe), and the signal intensity increased time-dependently. The signal was not observed by excluding either Arg or NADPH, and it was decreased by the addition of hemoglobin, which is an NO scavenger, and N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME), and aminoguanidine (AG), which are NOS inhibitors, depending on the concentration. In comparison with l-NAME and AG, l-NMMA strongly inhibited iNOS activity. By using this method, the K(m) value of Arg and the K(i) value of l-NMMA for iNOS were determined to be 12.6 and 6.1muM, respectively. These values are consistent with the reported values measured by the oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. These results suggest that the ESR spin-trapping technique coupled with the iron-dithiocarbamate complex can be applied for the evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of NOS, and it would be a powerful tool due to its simplicity and high specificity to NO.

0 Followers
·
• ##### Article: Quasi-simultaneous determination of antioxidative activities against superoxide anion and nitric oxide by a combination of sequential injection analysis and flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A method that combines sequential injection analysis (SIA), flow injection analysis and chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the quasi-simultaneous determination of antioxidative activities against superoxide anion $${\left( {{\text{O}}^{ - }_{2} } \right)}$$ and nitric oxide (NO). The antioxidative activity was expressed as the decrease in luminol CL intensity caused by the quenching of $${\text{O}}^{ - }_{2}$$ or NO by an antioxidant. The SIA system consisted of two syringe pumps, two selection valves, two holding coils, an HPLC pump to deliver luminol solution, and a CL detector. Operation of the syringe pumps and multiport valves was controlled automatically using a personal computer with appropriate software. A hypoxanthine (HX)-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system was used for the generation of $${\text{O}}^{ - }_{2}$$, and (±)-(E)-4-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexenamide (NOR1) was employed as NO donor agent. The repeatability of the method was evaluated with 35.2 μg ml−1L-ascorbic acid, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the antioxidative activities were less than 3.8%. The quasi-simultaneous determination of the antioxidative activities in one sample was completed within 2.0 min. The antioxidative activities of some antioxidants and commercially available supplements containing certain antioxidants were successfully determined using this system. The proposed system is rapid and reproducible, and thus may be useful for the screening of functional foods, supplements and pharmaceutical formulations that exhibit antioxidative activity. Figure The system that utilizes a combination of SIA and FIA with CL for the quasi-simultaneous determination of antioxidative activity against a NO and b $${\text{O}}_{{{\text{2}}^{ - } }}$$. SP1, 2: syringe pump, HC1, 2: holding coil, MV1, 2: multi-port valve, P: pump, D: chemiluminescence detector, I: integrator, M1, 2: mixing tee, NOR1: (±)-(E)-4-methyl-2-[(E)- hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexenamide, HX: hypoxanthine, XOD: xanthine oxidase.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
• Source
##### Article: Applications of Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometry for Reactive Oxygen Species and Reactive Nitrogen Species Research
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been widely applied in the research of biological free radicals for quantitative and qualitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The ESR spin-trapping method was developed in the early 1970s and enabled the analysis of short-lived free radicals. This method is now widely used as one of the most powerful tools for free radical studies. In this report, some of the studies that applied ESR for the measurement of ROS and RNS during oxidative stress are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
• Source
##### Article: Interaction between Connexin 43 and nitric oxide synthase in mice heart mitochondria
[Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Connexin 43 (Cx43), which is highly expressed in the heart and especially in cardiomyocytes, interferes with the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. Conversely, Cx43 gene expression is down-regulated by nitric oxide derived from the inducible NOS. Thus, a complex interplay between Cx43 and NOS expression appears to exist. As cardiac mitochondria are supposed to contain a NOS, we now investigated the expression of NOS isoforms and the nitric oxide production rate in isolated mitochondria of wild-type and Cx43-deficient (Cx43(Cre-ER(T)/fl) ) mice hearts. Mitochondria were isolated from hearts using differential centrifugation and purified via Percoll gradient ultracentrifugation. Isolated mitochondria were stained with an antibody against the mitochondrial marker protein adenine-nucleotide-translocator (ANT) in combination with either a neuronal NOS (nNOS) or an inducible NOS (iNOS) antibody and analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The nitric oxide formation was quantified in purified mitochondria using the oxyhaemoglobin assay. Co-localization of predominantly nNOS (nNOS: 93 ± 4.1%; iNOS: 24.6 ± 7.5%) with ANT was detected in isolated mitochondria of wild-type mice. In contrast, iNOS expression was increased in Cx43(Cre-ER(T)/fl) mitochondria (iNOS: 90.7 ± 3.2%; nNOS: 53.8 ± 17.5%). The mitochondrial nitric oxide formation was reduced in Cx43(Cre-ER(T)/fl) mitochondria (0.14 ± 0.02 nmol/min./mg protein) in comparison to wild-type mitochondria (0.24 ± 0.02 nmol/min./mg). These are the first data demonstrating, that a reduced mitochondrial Cx43 content is associated with a switch of the mitochondrial NOS isoform and the respective mitochondrial rate of nitric oxide formation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine