The influence of caffeine on nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, and reinforcing effects
Caffeine may acutely alter the discriminative stimulus and subjective effects of nicotine, perhaps explaining the association of coffee intake with smoking status. In this study, smokers were initially trained to discriminate 20 microg/kg nicotine by nasal spray from placebo (0). Then, generalization of nicotine discrimination was tested, using both 2- and 3-choice ("novel" option) procedures, across a range of doses (0-20 microg/kg) following pretreatment with 0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg caffeine p.o. Nicotine reinforcement was assessed after the end of generalization testing using a choice procedure. Caffeine pretreatment did not alter nicotine discrimination and self-administration. Caffeine and nicotine influenced some subjective and cardiovascular responses, but there were no interaction effects except for diastolic blood pressure. These results do not support the notion that caffeine acutely alters nicotine's discriminative stimulus, subjective, or reinforcing effects.
Available from: Courtney Stewart
- "administering behavior. The lack of effect of caffeine on nicotine self-administration is consistent with human studies that showed that pretreatment with caffeine up to 5 mg/kg did not change the subjective effects and self-administration of nicotine (Perkins et al. 2005). Second, caffeine in rats trained without presession caffeine administration failed to reinstate nicotine-seeking behavior. "
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ABSTRACT: Caffeine and nicotine are the most commonly co-used psychostimulants. However, it is still unclear whether caffeine exposure enhances nicotine-seeking behavior.
The present study examined the effects of caffeine on nicotine-seeking in rats trained to self-administer nicotine with and without presession administration of caffeine.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, freebase) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement and associate a stimulus cue with each nicotine administration. Five minutes before the sessions, the rats received an intraperitoneal administration of caffeine (5 mg/kg). Extinction tests were conducted under four conditions: presession caffeine administration, response-contingent presentation of nicotine cues, neither condition, or both conditions. Reinstatement tests were conducted after responding was extinguished by withholding presession caffeine, nicotine, and its cues. A separate group of rats trained without presession caffeine exposure was also subjected to the reinstatement tests.
In the rats trained with presession caffeine exposure, continued caffeine administration sustained nicotine-seeking responses and interacted with nicotine cues to significantly delay the extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior. Readministration of caffeine after extinction effectively reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior. In caffeine-naive rats, caffeine administration did not reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior but significantly potentiated the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking.
These data demonstrate that caffeine administration sustained and reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior, possibly via its acquired discriminative-stimulus properties predictive of nicotine availability. These findings suggest that smokers who attempt to quit may benefit from stopping caffeine consumption.
Available from: Nicola Simola
- "However, differences between the subjective effects of caffeine and nicotine have also been reported (Garrett and Griffiths 2001). Further, potentiation of nicotinereinforcing effects by caffeine has not been always observed (Perkins et al. 2005; Blank et al. 2007) [Fig. 1]. "
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ABSTRACT: This chapter examines the psychostimulant actions of methylxanthines, with a focus on the consequences of their excessive
use. Consumption of methylxanthines is pervasive and their use is often associated with that of substances known to produce
dependence and to have abuse potential. Therefore, the consequences of this combined use are taken into consideration in order
to evaluate whether, and to what extent, methylxanthines could influence dependence on or abuse of other centrally active
substances, leading to either amplification or attenuation of their effects. Since the methylxanthine that mostly influences
mental processes and readily induces psychostimulation is caffeine, this review mainly focuses on caffeine as a prototype
of methylxanthine-produced dependence, examining, at the same time, the risks related to caffeine use.
Available from: Christopher G Ahnallen
- "Smoking induces the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1A2, which metabolizes caffeine, so that smokers require more caffeine than non-smokers to obtain the desired effects of caffeine (de Leon et al., 2003, 2004). Furthermore, caffeine enhances the stimulating and reinforcing effects of nicotine in preclinical animal models (Shoaib et al., 1999; Tanda and Goldberg, 2000) and controlled human laboratory studies (Duka et al., 1998; Jones and Griffiths, 2003; Perkins et al., 1994), albeit not consistently (e.g., Chait and Griffiths, 1983; Perkins et al., 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking and caffeine use are established and problematic drug-use behaviors in people with schizophrenia. Associative links between drugs of abuse may occur but the relationship between caffeine use and cigarette smoking has received little attention in schizophrenia. In this cross-cue reactivity laboratory study, we examined the effects of neutral and smoking cues on craving for caffeinated beverages in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SS; n=15) and non-psychiatric controls (CS; n=18) all of whom were heavy smokers and daily caffeine users. Participants were tested under non-abstinent and 5-hour abstinent conditions. SS tended to report greater daily levels of caffeine use than CS. Although this difference was not significant, that may be due to the small sample sizes as the size of this effect was large. Daily caffeine intake was significantly correlated with daily smoking rate in SS but not CS. A significant interaction between group and cue type after controlling for caffeine intake indicated that exposure to smoking cues increased urge for caffeinated beverages in SS but not CS. These results indicate support for associative connections between cigarette smoking cues and craving for caffeine in smokers with schizophrenia.
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