Bisphosphonate-mediated gene vector delivery from the metal surfaces of stents. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA

Division of Cardiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Chemical, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 02/2006; 103(1):159-64. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0502945102
Source: PubMed


The clinical use of metallic expandable intravascular stents has resulted in improved therapeutic outcomes for coronary artery disease. However, arterial reobstruction after stenting, in-stent restenosis, remains an important problem. Gene therapy to treat in-stent restenosis by using gene vector delivery from the metallic stent surfaces has never been demonstrated. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that metal-bisphosphonate binding can enable site-specific gene vector delivery from metal surfaces. Polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP) was synthesized by using Michael addition methodology. Exposure to aqueous solutions of PAA-BP resulted in the formation of a monomolecular bisphosphonate layer on metal alloy surfaces (steel, nitinol, and cobalt-chromium), as demonstrated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface-bound PAA-BP enabled adenoviral (Ad) tethering due to covalent thiol-binding of either anti-Ad antibody or a recombinant Ad-receptor protein, D1. In arterial smooth muscle cell cultures, alloy samples configured with surface-tethered Ad were demonstrated to achieve site-specific transduction with a reporter gene, (GFP). Rat carotid stent angioplasties using metal stents exposed to aqueous PAA-BP and derivatized with anti-knob antibody or D1 resulted in extensive localized Ad-GFP expression in the arterial wall. In a separate study with a model therapeutic vector, Ad-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) attached to the bisphosphonate-treated metal stent surface via D1, significant inhibition of restenosis was demonstrated (neointimal/media ratio 1.68 +/- 0.27 and 3.4 +/- 0.35; Ad-iNOS vs. control, P < 0.01). It is concluded that effective gene vector delivery from metallic stent surfaces can be achieved by using this approach.

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Available from: Ilia Fishbein
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    • "Despite the encouraging results obtained with the bulk immobilization of gene vectors on polymer stent coatings, several studies have opted instead for a vector-tethering strategy to exclude the need for a polymer coating 123,125,127,182. Fishbein et al. 125 and Wang et al. 182 demonstrated effective gene delivery from BMS surfaces pretreated with polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP) and conjugated to anti-pDNA or anti-adenoviral antibodies or recombinant D1 proteins via covalent cross-linking with N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP) 125,182. "
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common revascularization procedure for coronary artery disease. The use of stents has reduced the rate of restenosis by preventing elastic recoil and negative remodeling. However, in-stent restenosis remains one of the major drawbacks of this procedure. Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have proven to be effective in reducing the risk of late restenosis, but the use of currently marketed DESs presents safety concerns, including the non-specificity of therapeutics, incomplete endothelialization leading to late thrombosis, the need for long-term anti-platelet agents, and local hypersensitivity to polymer delivery matrices. In addition, the current DESs lack the capacity for adjustment of the drug dose and release kinetics appropriate to the disease status of the treated vessel. The development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit restenosis after PCI is critical for the treatment of coronary artery disease. The administration of drugs using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles as carriers has generated immense interest due to their excellent biocompatibility and ability to facilitate prolonged drug release. Despite the potential benefits of nanoparticles as smart drug delivery and diagnostic systems, much research is still required to evaluate potential toxicity issues related to the chemical properties of nanoparticle materials, as well as to their size and shape. This review describes the molecular mechanism of coronary restenosis, the use of DESs, and progress in nanoparticle drug- or gene-eluting stents for the prevention and treatment of coronary restenosis.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Theranostics
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    • "This " coatless " method of vector immobilization distinguishes our approach from other studies employing multi-micron polymer coatings of the stent struts to incorporate gene vectors in the bulk of the polymer. Both, our affinity binding [26] and HC tethering [27] Ad immobilization strategies have demonstrated effective local transduction of vascular tissue and inhibition of restenosis in stented arterial segments using stents configured with Ad vectors encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (Ad-iNOS). Since the immobilization scheme realized using cleavable (hydrolyzable) cross-linkers[27] allowed for better control of vector loading and release, it was chosen for further development of stent-based gene delivery. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of arterial stents and other medical implants as a delivery platform for surface immobilized gene vectors allows for safe and efficient localized expression of therapeutic transgenes. In this study we investigate the use of hydrolyzable cross-linkers with distinct kinetics of hydrolysis for delivery of gene vectors from polyallylamine bisphosphonate-modified metal surfaces. Three cross-linkers with the estimated t1/2 of ester bonds hydrolysis of 5, 12 and 50 days demonstrated a cumulative 20%, 39% and 45% vector release, respectively, after 30 days exposure to physiological buffer at 37 °C. Transgene expression in endothelial and smooth muscles cells transduced with substrate immobilized adenovirus resulted in significantly different expression profiles for each individual cross-linker. Furthermore, immobilization of adenoviral vectors effectively extended their transduction effectiveness beyond the initial phase of release. Transgene expression driven by adenovirus-tethered stents in rat carotid arteries demonstrated that a faster rate of cross-linker hydrolysis resulted in higher expression levels at day 1, which declined by day 8 after stent implantation, while inversely, slower hydrolysis was associated with increased arterial expression at day 8 in comparison with day 1. In conclusion, adjustable release of transduction-competent adenoviral vectors from metallic surfaces can be achieved, both in vitro and in vivo, through surface immobilization of adenoviral vectors using hydrolyzable cross-linkers with structure-specific release kinetics.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biomaterials
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    • "The use of a technology that does not need a polymer layer may simplify the complex device coating formulation. For example, Fishbein et al has investigated alternatives to polymer coatings.10,11 They reported that pretreatment of metal alloy surfaces with an aqueous bisphosphonate solution, polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP), enables adenoviral expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase vectors binding to bare metal, which showed effective gene vector delivery and resulted in significant inhibition of restenosis in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the anchoring of plasmid DNA/anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid tri-complex (DAC micelles) onto bisphosphonate-modified 316 L coronary stents for cardiovascular site-specific gene delivery. Stents were first modified with polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP), thereby enabling the retention of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer that permits the anchoring (via vector-binding molecules) of DAC micelles. DAC micelles were then chemically linked onto the PAA-BP-modified stents by using N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)-propionate (SPDP) as a crosslinker. Rhodamine-labeled DNA was used to assess the anchoring of DAC micelles, and radioactive-labeled antibody was used to evaluate binding capacity and stability. DAC micelles (encoding green fluorescent protein) were tethered onto the PAA-BP-modified stents, which were assessed in cell culture. The presence of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer on the steel surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope analysis. The anchoring of DAC micelles was generally uniform and devoid of large-scale patches of defects. Isotopic quantification confirmed that the amount of antibody chemically linked on the stents was 17-fold higher than that of the physical adsorbed control stents and its retention time was also significantly longer. In cell culture, numerous green fluorescent protein-positive cells were found on the PAA-BP modified stents, which demonstrated high localization and efficiency of gene delivery. The DAC micelle-immobilized PAA-BP-modified stents were successful as a gene delivery system. Gene delivery using DAC micelle-tethered stent-based PAA-BP functionalization should be suitable for a wide array of single or multiple therapeutic gene strategies, and could be used on cardiovascular metallic implants for achieving efficient gene therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · International Journal of Nanomedicine
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