Autologous myoblast transplantation after myocardial infarction increases the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias

Unité Inserm U1077, Caen, Lower Normandy, France
Cardiovascular Research (Impact Factor: 5.94). 03/2006; 69(2):348-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.10.003
Source: PubMed


Small scale clinical trials suggested the feasibility and the efficacy of autologous myoblast transplantation to improve ventricular function after myocardial infarction. However, these trials were hampered by unexpected episodes of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). We investigated cardiac electrical stability after myoblast transplantation to the myocardium.
Seven days after coronary ligation, Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: a control group receiving no further treatment, a vehicle group injected with culture medium into the infarcted myocardium, and a myoblast group injected with autologous myoblasts. Holter monitoring did not discriminate the myoblast from the vehicle groups. Programmed Electrical Stimulation (PES) was performed to evaluate further a cardiac substrate for arrhythmia susceptibility. The occurrence of sustained VT during PES was similar in control and vehicle groups (5/17 and 4/19 rats, respectively; p=0.50). In contrast, 13/20 rats (65%) from the myoblast group showed at least one episode of sustained VT during PES (p<0.05 and p<0.005 versus control and vehicle groups). As a further control group, rats injected with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells into the infarcted myocardium did not show increased susceptibility to PES.
In an infarcted rat model, myoblast transplantation but not bone marrow mononuclear cells or myocardial injection per se induces electrical ventricular instability. Because ventricular arrhythmias are life-threatening disorders, we suggest that such preclinical evaluation should be conducted for any new source of cells to be injected into the myocardium.

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Available from: Patricia Lemarchand, Dec 25, 2013
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    • "Seven days after MI induction, BM-MNCs were quickly thawed and labeled immediately before injection using a green intracellular fluorescent dye, Carboxy Fluorescein diacetate Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE, Molecular Probes Invitrogen, Cergy Pontoise, France) [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early randomized clinical trials of autologous bone marrow cardiac stem cell therapy have reported contradictory results highlighting the need for a better evaluation of protocol designs. This study was designed to quantify and compare whole body and heart cell distribution after intracoronary or peripheral intravenous injection of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells in a porcine acute myocardial infarction model with late reperfusion. Myocardial infarction was induced using balloon inflation in the left coronary artery in domestic pigs. At seven days post-myocardial infarction, 1 x 10(8) autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells were labeled with fluorescent marker and/or 99mTc radiotracer, and delivered using intracoronary or peripheral intravenous injection (leg vein). Scintigraphic analyses and Upsilon-emission radioactivity counting of harvested organs showed a significant cell fraction retained within the heart after intracoronary injection (6 +/- 1.7% of injected radioactivity at 24 hours), whereas following peripheral intravenous cell injection, no cardiac homing was observed at 24 hours and cells were mainly detected within the lungs. Importantly, no difference was observed in the percentage of retained cells within the myocardium in the presence or absence of myocardial infarction. Histological evaluation did not show arterial occlusion in both animal groups and confirmed the presence of bone marrow mononuclear cells within the injected myocardium area. Intravenous bone marrow mononuclear cell injection was ineffective to target myocardium. Myocardial cell distribution following intracoronary injection did not depend on myocardial infarction presence, a factor that could be useful for cardiac cell therapy in patients with chronic heart failure of non-ischemic origin or with ischemic myocardium without myocardial infarction.
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    • "In addition, obtaining the therapeutic quantity of these cells requires general anesthesia and hospitalization. A study using autologous skeletal myocytes showed clear benefit, but also showed concerns of arrhythmia.21-23 "
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell transplantation is expected to have good effects in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). We tested the effect of the transplantation of human adipose-derived cells (ASCs) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with myocardial infarctions. ASCs were isolated from the waste of elective abdominal surgery. The MI model was set up in SD rats by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. One week after MI, either 1 x 10(6) ASCs or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the infarct zone. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after treatment. Four weeks after transplantation, immunohistochemistry was performed. Left ventricular function, including fractional shortening (FS), and ejection fraction (EF) showed a significant improvement in the ASCs transplantation group compared to the PBS group 4 weeks after treatment (p < 0.05). The anterior wall thickness of the left ventricle was significantly thicker in the ASCs transplantation group compared to the PBS group (p < 0.01). Multiple troponin T staining, and irregular, small amounts of connexin 43 expression also was observed in the ASCs transplantation group. Infarcted myocardium showed higher capillary density in the ASCs transplantation group than in the PBS injected group (p < 0.01). This study provides encouraging evidence that transplantation of ASCs can improve cardiac function of infarct myocardium in rat models with a limitation of cardiac remodeling, improved wall thickness, and increased neovascularization.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Yonsei medical journal
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    • "The two episodes of spontaneous ventricular tachycardia were detected in the early period after transplant, a finding which is consistent with recent studies [41]. It is possible that SkM transplant may increase the susceptibility to arrhythmia, as has been recently suggested using Programmed Electric Stimulation [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare the efficacy of surgical versus percutaneous administration of skeletal myoblasts (SkM) in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction and to determine the mechanism(s) involved in their beneficial effect. Two months after induction of myocardial infarction (MI), Goettingen miniature pigs underwent autologous SkM transplant either by direct surgical injection (n=6) or percutaneous access and intramyocardial delivery under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic guidance (n=6). Control animals received media alone (n=4). Functional analysis was performed by 2D echocardiography. Myoblast engraftment, in vivo cell differentiation, vessel formation, fibrosis, and the ratio between collagen type I/III deposition were analyzed in the infarct (IA) and non-infarct area (NIA) by immunohistochemistry. Animals received a median of 407.55+/-115x10(6) BrdU-labeled autologous SkM. Myoblast transplant was associated with a statistically significant increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.01), increased vasculogenesis and decreased fibrosis (p<0.05), and reduced collagen type I/III ratio in the IA and NIA areas as compared with control animals. No differences were found between groups receiving SkM by percutaneous or surgical access. Our results indicate that increased vasculogenesis and changes in matrix remodeling with decreased fibrosis are associated with the beneficial effect of SkM transplant in chronic MI. The equivalent benefit observed from surgical and percutaneous delivery has important clinical implications.
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