Characterization of Ross River Virus Tropism and Virus-Induced Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Viral Arthritis and Myositis
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses are a significant cause of both encephalitic and arthritic disease in humans worldwide. In contrast to the encephalitic alphaviruses, the pathogenesis of alphavirus-induced arthritic disease is not well understood. Utilizing a mouse model of Ross River virus (RRV) disease, we found that the primary targets of RRV infection are bone, joint, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hind limbs in both outbred CD-1 mice and adult C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, histological analyses demonstrated that RRV infection resulted in severe inflammation of these tissues. Characterization of the inflammatory infiltrate within the skeletal muscle tissue identified inflammatory macrophages, NK cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. To determine the contribution of the adaptive immune system, the outcome of RRV-induced disease was examined in C57BL/6J RAG-1−/− mice, which lack functional T and B lymphocytes. RAG-1−/− and wild-type mice developed similar disease signs, infiltration of inflammatory macrophages and NK cells, and muscle pathology, suggesting that the adaptive immune response does not play a critical role in the development of disease. These results establish the mouse model of RRV disease as a useful system for the identification of viral and host factors that contribute to alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mayaro virus (MAYV), an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response and its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response and the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 and VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection and were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools and therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen.0Comments 0Citations
- "Furthermore, it is currently unknown if these autoantibodies are developed following MAYV infection. Alphavirus infection results in the induction of a robust inflammatory response in both humans and animals1920212223 40] . The acute phase of CHIKV infection is characterized by elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory innate immune factors such as IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL- 12p70, IL-15, IP-10, and MCP-1, among others20212223 41]. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are responsible for explosive epidemics involving millions of cases. These mosquito-transmitted viruses cause inflammation and injury in skeletal muscle and joint tissues that results in debilitating pain. We previously showed that arginase 1 (Arg1) was highly expressed in myeloid cells in the infected and inflamed musculoskeletal tissues of RRV- and CHIKV-infected mice, and specific deletion of Arg1 from myeloid cells resulted in enhanced viral control. Here, we show that Arg1, along with other genes associated with suppressive myeloid cells, is induced in PBMCs isolated from CHIKV-infected patients during the acute phase as well as the chronic phase, and that high Arg1 expression levels were associated with high viral loads and disease severity. Depletion of both CD4 and CD8 T cells from RRV-infected Arg1-deficient mice restored viral loads to levels detected in T cell-depleted wild-type mice. Moreover, Arg1-expressing myeloid cells inhibited virus-specific T cells in the inflamed and infected musculoskeletal tissues, but not lymphoid tissues, following RRV infection in mice, including suppression of interferon-γ and CD69 expression. Collectively, these data enhance our understanding of the immune response following arthritogenic alphavirus infection and suggest that immunosuppressive myeloid cells may contribute to the duration or severity of these debilitating infections.0Comments 0Citations
- "Mice were monitored for disease signs and weighed at 24-h intervals. Disease scores were determined by assessing grip strength, hind limb weakness, and altered gait, as previously described . On the termination day of each experiment, mice were sacrificed by exsanguination, blood was collected, and mice were perfused by intracardial injection of 1x PBS. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bite. A decade ago, the virus caused a major outbreak in the islands of the Indian Ocean, then reached India and Southeast Asia. More recently, CHIKV has emerged in the Americas, first reaching the Caribbean and now extending to Central, South and North America. It is therefore considered a major public health and economic threat. CHIKV causes febrile illness typically associated with debilitating joint pains. In rare cases, it may also cause central nervous system disease, notably in neonates. Joint symptoms may persist for months to years, and lead to arthritis. This review focuses on the spectrum of signs and symptoms associated with CHIKV infection in humans. It also illustrates how the analysis of clinical and biological data from human cohorts and the development of animal and cellular models of infection has helped to identify the tissue and cell tropisms of the virus and to decipher host responses in benign, severe or persistent disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Chikungunya discovers the New World". Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.0Comments 2Citations
- "Interestingly, in human adult muscle biopsies, myositis together with inflammatory infiltrates mainly consisting of monocytes/macrophages and T cells have been reported (Ozden et al., 2007 ). Similarly to CHIKV in mouse neonates , RRV has been shown to induce myositis in mice (Heise et al., 2000; Morrison et al., 2006; Ryman et al., 2000). In the case of severe disease in mice, viremia is high and CHIKV also disseminates to other tissues, including skin, eye and the central nervous system (CNS) (Fig. 1). "
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