Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density

Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
Experimental Eye Research (Impact Factor: 2.71). 06/2006; 82(5):915-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2005.10.014
Source: PubMed


Macular pigment (MP) has been suggested to have a protective role in age-related macular degeneration by reducing the amount of oxidative stress on the retina. MP levels peak at the foveal center, where it is found predominantly in the receptor axon and inner plexiform layers of the retina. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between central retinal thickness and macular pigment optical density in a group of healthy subjects. We report that macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has a significant and positive relationship with central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography. The strength of the observed relationship (r approximately 0.30) was independent of the technique used to measure MPOD, whether heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) or 2-wavelength autofluorescence (AF). Of note, there was no statistically demonstrable relationship between MPOD at an eccentricity of 1- or 2-degrees and central retinal thickness. This finding has important implications for future studies investigating MPOD, and its response to dietary modification/supplementation.

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Available from: Christopher J Hammond, Jul 25, 2014
    • "MP has been shown to be significantly related to central retinal thickness in the healthy subjects as well as in some types of retinal degeneration.[9101112] Liew et al. have shown a significant positive relationship between the central retinal thickness and the MP optical density.[9] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent reports indicated that the slope of the foveal depression influences the macular pigment (MP) spatial profile. MP has been shown to confer possible protection against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) because of its antioxidant properties. Aims: To study the configuration of foveal slope and the foveal thickness in fellow eyes of subjects with unilateral neovascular ARMD. Settings and design: Case-control series. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 30 cases aged >50, who had unilateral choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) or disciform scar in the fellow eye and 29 controls aged >50, who had no sign of ARMD in the either eye. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, foveal thickness at different locations including the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) was noted. The foveal slopes were calculated in the six radial scans (between 0.25° and 1° retinal eccentricity) as well as the 3D scan. Results: Cases had a significantly higher CSFT when compared to controls (215.1 ± 36.19 μ vs. 193.0 ± 17.38 μ, P = 0.004). On the 3D scan, the cases had shallower superior (cases 1.32 ± 0.32 vs. controls 1.45 ± 0.13, P = 0.04) and temporal slopes (cases 1.27 ± 0.21 vs. controls 1.39 ± 0.12, P = 0.01) in comparison to the controls. Conclusions: We noted a shallower superior and temporal foveal slope and a higher CSFT in the fellow eyes of subjects with a unilateral neovascular ARMD. Prospective studies observing the development of CNVM in subjects with altered foveal slope might provide more information on this optical coherence tomography finding.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
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    • "Bjornsson [31] reported higher prevalence of early age- related maculopathy (EAMD) in Norwegians compared with other ethnic populations, which might suggest the age-related MFT increase we observed could be attributed to genetic or local environmental factors [30,43,51,59,60]. However, this is less likely because our MMT values were similar to those reported in other white ethnic groups. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnic, intersubject, interoperator and intermachine differences in measured macular thickness seem to exist. Our purpose was to collect normative macular thickness data in Norwegians and to evaluate the association between macular thickness and age, gender, parity, and contraception status. Retinal thickness was measured by Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography in healthy subjects. Mean macular thickness (MMT) was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with three dependent regional MMT-variables for interaction with age, gender, parity and oral contraception use. Exploratory correlation with age by the Pearson correlation test, both before and after stratification by gender was performed. Differences in MMT between older and younger subjects, between oral contraception users and non-users, as well as parous and nulliparous women were studied by post-hoc Student's t-tests. Central MMT in Norwegians was similar to values earlier reported in whites. MMT in central areas of 1 and 2.25 mm in diameter were higher in males than in females. In younger subjects (< or =43 years) differences in MMT between genders were larger than in the mixed age group, whereas in older subjects (>43 years) the small differences did not reach the set significance level. No differences were found in minimal foveolar thickness (MMFT) between the genders in any age group.Mean foveal thickness (1 mm in diameter) was positively associated with age in females (r = 0.28, p = 0.03). MMFT was positively associated with age in all groups and reached significance both in females and in mixed gender group (r = 0.20, p = 0.041 and r = 0.26, p = 0.044 respectively).Mean foveal thickness and MMFT were significantly higher in parous than in nulliparous women, and age-adjusted ANOVA for MMFT revealed a borderline effect of parity. Age and gender should be taken into consideration when establishing normal ranges for MMT in younger subjects. The gender difference in retinal thickness in young, but not older adults suggests a gonadal hormonal influence. The possible association between parity and retinal structure and its clinical relevance, should be studied further.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · BMC Ophthalmology
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    • "These data are also consistent with the mean central MPOD level of a study of 828 healthy Irish subjects (Nolan et al., 2007b). In this population, the mean central MPOD was 0.30 d.u. which is comparable to values determined in other studies (ranging from 0.21 to 0.44 d.u.) using similar age groups and testing conditions (Berendschot & van Norren, 2005; Ciulla, et al., 2001; Hammond & Caruso-Avery, 2000; Liew, et al., 2006; Mellerio, et al., 2002; Nolan et al., 2007b). The panel acknowledged that whether or not central MPOD declines with age remains controversial. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing recognition that the optical and antioxidant properties of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin play an important role in maintaining the health and function of the human macula. In this review article, we assess the value of non-invasive quantification of macular pigment levels and distributions to identify individuals potentially at risk for visual disability or catastrophic vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, and we consider the strengths and weaknesses of the diverse measurement methods currently available.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Vision research
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