The Role of Vitamin D in Cancer Prevention

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 0631C, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0631, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 03/2006; 96(2):252-61. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.045260
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D status differs by latitude and race, with residents of the northeastern United States and individuals with more skin pigmentation being at increased risk of deficiency. A PubMed database search yielded 63 observational studies of vitamin D status in relation to cancer risk, including 30 of colon, 13 of breast, 26 of prostate, and 7 of ovarian cancer, and several that assessed the association of vitamin D receptor genotype with cancer risk. The majority of studies found a protective relationship between sufficient vitamin D status and lower risk of cancer. The evidence suggests that efforts to improve vitamin D status, for example by vitamin D supplementation, could reduce cancer incidence and mortality at low cost, with few or no adverse effects.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael F Holick, Jan 29, 2016
  • Source
    • "17 Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25OHD) has an essential 18 role in calcium homeostasis and the maintenance of bone health 19123. There is now good evidence that 25OHD status may have an 20 important impact on other conditions including: cancer [4,5], 21 blood pressure via the modulation of renin synthesis [6,7]; and 22 the development and progression of cardiovascular disease 23 [8,9]. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency has been reported to 24 have a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes 25 [10,11], multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disease [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is now good evidence that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status may have an important impact on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Because of the potential involvement of vitamin D deficiency in blood pressure control and immune responses, we aimed to investigate whether there was a relationship between 25OHD status and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an Iranian population.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · Advances in Medical Sciences
  • Source
    • "The epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and high mortality rates extends beyond the abnormal mineral homeostasis that impairs bone mineralization due to high serum levels of PTH. In fact, vitamin D deficiency associates with an increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, infectious and autoimmune diseases, glucose intolerance, albuminuria, and cancer [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Clearly, adequate strategies for vitamin D supplementation could help attenuate the incidence of these disorders, as suggested by the recent meta-analysis on the efficacy of cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ), "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · BioMed Research International
    • "Providing patients with advice that balances enough sun exposure to achieve adequate vitamin D status alongside the sun protection message is challenging and little guidance for GPs is currently available. There is evidence from general practice in Germany, Australia and New Zealand that indicates there are gaps in GP knowledge of vitamin D, that GPs are providing patients with advice that is not recommended, and that vitamin D testing rates may be inappropriately high [6] [9] [10]. In addition, we were unable to identify any published reports of existing vitamin D and sun protection education for GPs. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Online continuing medical education (CME) offers a number of advantages for physicians including flexibility with regards to location and timing of use. In order to effect physician practices and improve patient outcomes, it is important that the development of online CME is theory and evidence-based. This paper aims to describe the development of an online CME program for practising general practitioners (GPs) on vitamin D and sun health called "The ABC's of Vitamin D for GPs" using elements of design principles for physician-education web sites as a framework. The paper will also report the program's usability and acceptability pilot test results. The ABC's of Vitamin D program was developed following nine principles: needs assessment; evidence-based content development; multimodal program and modularisation; clinical cases; tailoring and interactivity; audit and feedback; credibility of the web site host; patient education materials; ease of use and navigation. Among the 20 GPs invited, acceptability and useability was tested with 12 GPs (60%) who agreed to participate and were interviewed following use of the program. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2013. An online CME program consisting of eight modules was constructed. Of the 12 participating GPs, most (n=11) reported that the program was clear and easy to understand, logical, easy to navigate, and took a reasonable amount of time (estimated between 1 and 3h) to complete. Eleven of 12 participants said they would use the program as an accredited CME activity and all participants indicated that the program was 'very or somewhat' likely to lead to changes in the advice patients are given. This study found that a theory and evidence based approach for the development of an online CME program for GPs was acceptable to users. Further research is needed to examine whether the online CME program is effective at changing GP practices and improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Medical Informatics
Show more