Validation of a predictive rule for the management of community-acquired pneumonia

Service of Pneumology, Hospital de Galdakao, E-48960 Galdakao, Bizkaia, Spain.
European Respiratory Journal (Impact Factor: 7.64). 01/2006; 27(1):151-7. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.06.00062505
Source: PubMed


The CURB-65 score (Confusion, Urea > 7 mmol x L(-1), Respiratory rate > or = 30 x min(-1), low Blood pressure, and age > or = 65 yrs) has been proposed as a tool for augmenting clinical judgement for stratifying patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) into different management groups. The six-point CURB-65 score was retrospectively applied in a prospective, consecutive cohort of adult patients with a diagnosis of CAP seen in the emergency department of a 400-bed teaching hospital from March 1, 2000 to February 29, 2004. A total of 1,100 inpatients and 676 outpatients were included. The 30-day mortality rate in the entire cohort increased directly with increasing CURB-65 score: 0, 1.1, 7.6, 21, 41.9 and 60% for CURB-65 scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The score was also significantly associated with the need for mechanical ventilation and rate of hospital admission in the entire cohort, and with duration of hospital stay among inpatients. The CURB-65 score (Confusion, Urea > 7 mmol x L(-1), Respiratory rate > or = 30 x min(-1), low Blood pressure, and age > or = 65 yrs), and a simpler CRB-65 score that omits the blood urea measurement, helps classify patients with community-acquired pneumonia into different groups according to the mortality risk and significantly correlates with community-acquired pneumonia management key points. The new score can also be used as a severity adjustment measure.

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Available from: Pedro Pablo España
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    • "The performance of the CRB-65 was worse (77% and 64% sensitivity and specificity, respectively), but still comparable. Likewise, several other studies found sensitivity and specificity for CURB-65 to be between 80%-90% and 50%-60%, respectively [9,13,28]. In the original CURSI study [16], Myint et al. reported only 60% and 75% for sensitivity and specificity for the CURB-65. "
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    ABSTRACT: For patients hospitalised due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), mortality risk is usually estimated with prognostic scores such as CRB-65 or CURB-65. For elderly patients, a new score referred to as CURSI has been proposed which uses shock index (SI) instead of the blood pressure (B) and age (65) criteria. The new score has not been externally validated to date. We used data from a hospital-based CAP registry to compare the ability of CURSI, CURB-65 and CRB-65 to predict mortality at day 30 after hospital admission. Patients were stratified by score points as well as score-point-based risk categories, and mortality for each group was assessed. To compare test performance, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed, and the areas under the curve (AUROC) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed 553 inpatients (45% females, median age 78 years) hospitalised between 2005 and 2009 for CAP. Overall, mortality at day 30 was 11% (59/553). The study sample was characterised by advanced comorbidity (chronic heart failure: 22%, chronic kidney failure: 27%) and functional impairment (nursing home residency: 26%, dementia: 31%). All risk scores were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. The AUROC values with 95% CI using score points for risk prediction were as follows: 0.63 [0.56-0.71] for CRB-65, 0.68 [0.61-0.75] for CURB-65 and 0.68 [0.61-0.75] for CURSI. The CURSI-defined low-risk group (0 or 1 score point) had a higher mortality (8%) than the low-risk groups defined by CURB-65 and CRB-65 (4% and 3%, respectively). Lowering the cut-off for the CURSI-defined low-risk group (0 point only) would lower the mortality to 4%, making it comparable to the CURB-65-defined low-risk group. In our study, the CURSI-defined low-risk group had a higher 30-day mortality than the low-risk groups defined by CURB-65 and CRB-65. Lowering the cut-off value for the CURSI low-risk group would result in a mortality comparable to the CURB-65-defined low risk group. Even then, however, CURSI does not perform better than the established risk scores.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "The admission to the ICU of all the patients and of the PSI subgroup in this study was compared with that in the PORT validation cohort study (14) and with that in the Capelastegui et al. (12) at the CURB-65 score. Such data could not be acquired in the Medisgroup study (13) and the Lim et al. (11) study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    • "PSI is not appropriate for use in a retrospective study due to numerous measurement items. Instead CURB-65 is usually used as it can be readily measured and shows a good correlation with PSI results (26). For patients with the CURB-65 mean score of 1-2 points, hospitalization in a general ward is recommended, and for 3 points, mean mortality rate is 14% and ICU admission is indicated. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to estimate the direct medical costs and epidemiology of pneumonia in adults of Korea. We conducted a multi-center, retrospective, observational study and collected data targeting for community-acquired pneumonia patients ( ≥ 50 yr) from 11 hospitals. Costs attributable to the treatment of pneumonia were estimated by reviewing resource utilization and epidemiology data (distribution of pathogen, hospital length of stay, overall outcome) were also collected. A total 693 patients were included; average 70.1 ( ± 10.5) aged, 57.3% male and average 1.16 CURB-65 (confusion, blood urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age > 65 yr) scored. The pathogen was identified in the 32.9% (228 patients); Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 22.4% (51 patients) of identified pathogens. The hospital mortality was 3.2% (especially, for S. pneumoniae was 5.9%) and average length of stay was 9 days. The mean total cost for the treatment of pneumonia was US dollar (USD) 1,782 (SD: USD 1,501). Compared to the cost of all caused pneumonia, that of pneumococcal pneumonia was higher, USD 2,049 ( ± USD 1,919), but not statistically significant. Charge of hospitalization accounted the greatest part of total medical costs. The economic burden of pneumonia was high in Korea, and the prevention of pneumonia should be considered as effective strategy.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Korean medical science
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