Dynamically Spreading Frontal and Cingulate Deficits Mapped in Adolescents With Schizophrenia

Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 02/2006; 63(1):25-34. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.63.1.25
Source: PubMed


We previously detected a dynamic wave of gray matter loss in childhood-onset schizophrenia that started in parietal association cortices and proceeded frontally to envelop dorsolateral prefrontal and temporal cortices, including superior temporal gyri.
To map gray matter loss rates across the medial hemispheric surface, including the cingulate and medial frontal cortex, in the same cohort studied previously.
Five-year longitudinal study.
National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md. Subjects Twelve subjects with childhood-onset schizophrenia, 12 healthy controls, and 9 medication- and IQ-matched subjects with psychosis not otherwise specified.
Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and follow-up.
Gyral pattern and shape variations encoded by means of high-dimensional elastic deformation mappings driving each subject's cortical anatomy onto a group average; changes in cortical gray matter mapped by computing warping fields that matched sulcal patterns across hemispheres, subjects, and time.
Selective, severe frontal gray matter loss occurred bilaterally in a dorsal-to-ventral pattern across the medial hemispheric surfaces in the schizophrenic subjects. A sharp boundary in the pattern of gray matter loss separated frontal regions and cingulate-limbic areas.
Frontal and limbic regions may not be equally vulnerable to gray matter attrition, which is consistent with the cognitive, metabolic, and functional vulnerability of the frontal cortices in schizophrenia.

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Available from: Yasaman Alaghband, Oct 04, 2014
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    • "There is also information about the schizophrenia course and its clinical picture that could be explained by a defect in neurostructural dynamics. Neuroimaging studies strongly suggest that overt psychosis becomes evident while the last major pruning of brain connections is taking place (Thompson et al., 2001; Vidal et al., 2006; Sun et al., 2009a,b). This pruning normally occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood (Huttenlocher, 1990; Giedd et al., 1999; Gogtay et al., 2004; Lenroot and Giedd, 2006) when schizophrenia is most commonly diagnosed. "
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    • "This effect may be associated with the role of Val66Met polymorphism on brain function. One neuroimaging study showed that prefrontal cortical gray matter loss may be more pronounced in schizophrenic patients with earlier age at onset (Vidal et al., 2006). Further studies revealed that schizophrenic patients with the Met allele had significantly greater reductions in frontal gray matter volume and increased reciprocal volume in lateral ventricles than their corresponding Val homozygous carriers (Ho et al., 2007; Szeszko et al., 2005). "
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