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Abstract

Little information exists on the contribution of psychological strengths to well-being in persons with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data from other populations suggest that gratitude, defined as the positive experience of thankfulness for being the recipient of personal benefits, may have salutary effects on everyday functioning. We investigated whether dispositional gratitude predicted daily hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in combat veterans with and without PTSD. We also examined associations between daily gratitude and daily well-being across time. Veterans with PTSD, compared to those without PTSD, exhibited significantly lower dispositional gratitude; no differences were found on daily gratitude. Dispositional gratitude predicted greater daily positive affect, percentage of pleasant days over the assessment period, daily intrinsically motivating activity, and daily self-esteem over and above effects attributable to PTSD severity and dispositional negative and positive affect in the PTSD group but not the non-PTSD group. Daily gratitude was uniquely associated with each dimension of daily well-being in both groups. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the further investigation of gratitude in trauma survivors.

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... Similarly, gratitude reflects a tendency to respond with appreciation for aspects of one's life (Seligman et al., 2004). Individuals higher in gratitude tend to mindfully focus on the present, experience more positive affect, and engage in more social and adaptive activities, all of which may help survivors cope with trauma-related distress (Kashdan et al., 2006). Indeed, empirical findings outside the area of trauma suggest both optimism (Hirsch et al., 2007) and gratitude (Kleiman et al., 2013) are generally associated with lower risk for suicidal ideation. ...
... Further, we extend posttraumatic stress and suicide research by introducing unique psychological strengths as factors that appear to be consistent with resilience (as evidenced by less suicidal ideation) among sexual assault survivors. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined optimism and gratitude as moderators of this association among survivors of sexual assault, despite arguments for these psychological strengths as potential protective factors following trauma (Kashdan et al., 2006;Yehuda et al., 2006). ...
... Moreover, the fact that optimism went so far as to reduce this association to nonsignificance is also remarkable-and suggests that those with higher levels of optimism might be able to better manage the demands of a traumatic event, such that optimism is associated with fewer negative outcomes (Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009). Relatedly, our finding that gratitude weakened the link between posttraumatic stress symptoms and suicidal ideation is also meaningful and consistent with the hypothesis that this strength may function to help survivors counter trauma triggers and avoidance behaviors, in turn facilitating experiences of positive affect (Kashdan et al., 2006). The buffering effect of gratitude similarly aligns with the possibility that practicing daily appreciation is associated with focusing one's attention on favorable aspects of life and practicing healthy coping, which may promote a source of resilience and ultimately decrease the adverse impact of a traumatic event (Killen & Macaskill, 2015). . ...
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Objective: Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to sexual assault have been linked to greater suicidal ideation, yet little is known about protective factors that may weaken this link and reduce thoughts of suicide in the context of posttraumatic stress. Drawing on the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and prior research, psychological strengths associated with resilience, such as optimism and gratitude, have the potential to be associated with attenuated suicidal ideation among sexual assault survivors. Method: We tested this possibility in a sample of 425 undergraduate women who reported unwanted sexual experiences during adolescence or adulthood. Results: A linear regression analysis revealed that greater sexual assault-related posttraumatic stress symptoms in the past month were associated with greater concurrent suicidal ideation. However, moderation analyses revealed the link between assault-related posttraumatic stress and suicidal ideation was attenuated for individuals higher in optimism and gratitude. Further, at the highest levels of optimism and gratitude, there was no longer a significant association between posttraumatic stress and suicidal ideation. Conclusions: Given optimism and gratitude are modifiable strengths that individuals can develop and grow over time, these results suggest boosting optimism and gratitude may be a valuable way to attenuate thoughts of suicide in interventions for college women who have experienced sexual assault. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Gratitude has also been shown in a number of studies to reduce the impact of negative experiences and events. One study found that veterans with higher levels of gratitude experienced fewer symptoms of PTSD, had stronger positive affect, and felt more self-worth (Kashdan et al., 2006). In addition, a 2015 Israeli study found that gratitude exercises can improve traumatic stress, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction in rocket attack survivors (Israel-Cohen et al., 2015). ...
... Jans-Beken (2021) also suggested that practicing gratitude can help to cope with stress and stay healthy during the pandemic. Despite the fact that there is a consistent negative relationship between stress and gratitude, much of this research has focused on gratitude as an intervention or practice (Israel-Cohen et al., 2015;Kashdan et al., 2006;Oliveira et al., 2021). It is certainly useful to consider gratitude as a form of intervention, but we believe that gratitude also has a trait component, similar to individual differences (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). ...
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The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused widespread emotional distress. The current study sought to ascertain the impact of COVID stress syndrome on quality of life and gratitude. The COVID-19 Stress Scale, COVID-19 Quality of Life Scale, and Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Scale were administered to 199 Singaporeans. Data were collected online using convenience sampling between December 2020 and March 2021. Pearson correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that fear of spreading SARSCoV2 by foreigners was the most stressful fear among Singaporeans (M = 2.59), while traumatic stress by COVID-19 was the least stressful fear (M = 0.16). COVID stress syndrome was positively correlated with negative quality of life (r ranged from .25 to .66) and negatively correlated with gratitude (r ranged from −.29 to −.14). Xenophobia was also found to be the most influential factor in reducing quality of life (β = .52) and gratitude (β = −.37) during the pandemic. Study findings demonstrate how COVID-19 increases Singaporeans’ xenophobic attitudes towards foreigners, making them more vulnerable to the pandemic.
... In a large randomized trial, we tested a positive affect intervention on a mostly male (91.7%) sample of people recently diagnosed with HIV [5]. The intervention was delivered via one-onone in-person sessions, and included teaching participants skills that targeted positive affect including noticing and capitalizing on positive events [8][9][10], gratitude [11][12][13], mindfulness [14], positive reappraisal [15,16], focusing on personal strengths [17], achieving attainable goals [18,19], and engaging in altruistic behaviors or acts of kindness [20,21]. At ten months post-intervention, participants in the intervention group reported higher past-day positive affect, reductions in intrusive and avoidant thoughts about HIV, and a lower likelihood of being on antidepressants as compared to the control group [5]. ...
... Intentionally noting that which for one is grateful is associated with increased wellbeing [11][12][13]. Acts of Kindness. ...
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While programs and interventions intended to increase positive affect among people living with HIV (PLWH) and other chronic diseases have been associated with improved health outcomes, including decreased depression, programs have not been tailored specifically for Black women. We tailored a program designed to increase positive affect and to decrease depressive symptoms in PLWH to a group format for Black WLWH. We also added skills to increase gender empowerment. We then tested the acceptability and feasibility of this program with 8 Black WLWH. The program was acceptable and relatively feasible, as assessed by women’s participation and feedback about program clarity and helpfulness, which women rated above 9 on a 10-point scale. A few women suggested that optimal delivery point for some skills taught would be shortly after HIV diagnosis. A proof-of-concept program intended to bolster positive emotions and gender empowerment and decrease depression can be tailored for Black WLWH and is relatively feasible and acceptable. A randomized controlled trial is needed to assess the preliminary efficacy of this program on positive affect, depression, and other health outcomes for WLWH.
... Perhaps, it is crucial to know the constructs of gratitude in foreign language learning as it may spiral learner's well-being and overcome negative emotions such as language anxiety, lack of engagement, and demotivation resulting in learner's well-being. Accordingly, gratitude bring happiness (Emmons, 2010), reduces anxiety (Wood, Froh & Geraghty, 2009), and makes us more resilient (Kashdan, Uswatte & Julian, 2006). ...
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Studies on positive emotions in language learning have increased over the years. However, gratitude, a moral virtue, which may have a novel effect in learning a foreign language, remains underexplored in applied linguistics. This paper aims to know the antecedents of gratitude and its constructs in English as a foreign language context. Nineteen antecedents of gratitude were generated to create a survey questionnaire called Foreign Language Gratitude Scale, a 4-point Likert rating scale. An open-ended question was also added to gain qualitative data. Convenience sampling was used to collect data from 240 undergraduate students. Descriptive statistics results showed that the participants were very grateful in all situations in the survey, specifically for their improved outputs and the corrections initiated by their teachers. Further, principal component analysis was used to explore the underlying dimensions of gratitude. Two factors were elicited-positive reinforcement and language practice. The first factor includes the following grateful situations: encouraging students to do better, appreciating students' output, correcting students' mistakes, using media resources in learning, sharing practical knowledge, providing examples and practices, treating students equally, encouraging language activities, and managing classroom effectively. The grateful situations in the second factor are having fluent English speakers, doing productive activities, providing opportunities, sharing ideas, and having a better output. Other factors coded from the qualitative data include promoting collaborative work, gaining comprehension and knowledge, language success, encouraging productive activities, the teacher acts, and designing out-of-class activities. Finally, implications of results and suggestions for future studies were presented.
... When the literature is investigated, it is seen that psychological resilience, patience, and happiness are interrelated variables. Positive emotions such as satisfaction, interest, and joy, have been observed to improve resilience (Amstadter et al., 2014;Cohn & Fredrickson, 2010;Emmons & Shelton, 2002;Kashdan et al., 2006;Ong et al., 2006). National and international investigations show that resilience individuals tendency be more satisfied, more grateful, and happier; that is, happiness shows that it is related to resilience (Boehm & Lyubomirsky, 2008;Clough & Strycharczyk, 2015;Doğan, 2015;Malkoç & Yalçın, 2015;Yalçın, 2015;Yılmaz-Akbaba, 2020). ...
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Abstract: The research aims were to examine the relationship among psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels of physical education teachers employing in İzmir, Afyonkarahisar, and Muğla provinces in the Aegean Region and was to explain whether psychological resilience and patience levels predict happiness. The research was a descriptive study in the relational scanning model. The study participants consisted of 336 PE teachers, 182 (54.2%) were males, and 154 (45.8%) were females. The data were obtained using the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Patience Scale and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. In the analysis of data were used SPSS 25 statistical program. The analysis of the data descriptive statistics, correlation, and statistical regression methods were used. As a result of the research, it was determined that the psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels were at medium levels according to the average score the PE teachers got from the scales. It was found that there is a moderate positive relationship between PE teachers' psychological resilience, patience, and happiness levels, and psychological resilience and patience levels are a significant predictor of happiness.
... In the wake of the tragedy of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Peterson and Seligman (2003) assessed people before and after the event, showing that gratitude increased during this period. In addition, psychological interventions to increase gratitude had beneficial effects for Vietnam War veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Kashdan et al., 2006). These results suggest that gratitude may play an important role in what has recently been termed "post-traumatic growth, " referring to the benefits that can be experienced from overcoming trauma, despite the intense suffering from which it has originated (Bono et al., 2004). ...
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Research on individual differences in facing the COVID-19 pandemic seems to be crucial in order to design diverse and highly effective intervention strategies. This study uses a sample of 302 North American participants who were recruited through the crowdsourcing platform ProA; different profiles were established, profiling variables of interest in facing the COVID-19 outbreak. Socio-demographic and psychological (personality traits, gratitude, life purpose, and religiosity) variables were explored. These results are of interest if we want to deepen the study of individual differences at both a theoretical and applied level.
... Our findings are consistent with past research in both daily meaning and gratitude research. One study found daily reflection on things that you are grateful for can increase mental health, even among those who have experienced trauma (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006). Other research indicates the usefulness of making meaning salient for preventing burnout and fatigue in high stress environments (Hooker, Post, & Sherman, 2020b). ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, various restrictions forced people around the world to socially isolate. People were asked to stay at home and were largely unable to do many of the activities that they derived meaning from. Since meaning is often related to mental health, these restrictions were likely to decrease mental health. The current study aimed to examine these effects and additionally benefit individuals' mental health by making their meaning salient. Specifically, the goal of the research was to design an intervention that could counter the potential negative effects of social distancing. We recruited a total of 96 U.S.A. residents (M age = 34.45, 92.7% Female) and assigned them to either the control group or to a meaning salience intervention. That is, participants either focused on the meaning of their daily activities (n = 45) or did not participate in any study-related activities during the week (n = 51). They completed various measures of mental health before and after this experimental period. Results suggested that the control group reported significantly greater anxiety, depression, and stress at the end of the week. In contrast, the experimental group reported less anxiety and trended toward less depression and stress at the end of that same week. In all, results suggest that simply focusing on one's daily activities and the meaning found in them protected people from the otherwise detrimental effects of the restrictions. This provides a promising and simple intervention that may assist both individuals and practitioners aiming to improve mental health, especially in challenging times.
... The third limitation is that there is probably an inflated effect due to the relationship between adaptive narcissism and other variables (e.g., selfesteem). For example, previous research has demonstrated that gratitude is related to greater self-esteem and self-worth (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006;Toussaint & Friedman, 2009). Likewise, empirical findings also showed positive associations between adaptive narcissism and self-esteem and further indicated that if adaptive narcissism is associated with development benefits, this is probably due to its overlap with self-esteem (Miller, Lynam, Hyatt, & Campbell, 2017;Sedikides et al., 2004). ...
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This study analyzes the relationships among parental attachment, narcissism, and gratitude. It further examines the mediation effect of adaptive narcissism on the association between attachment security to fathers and mothers and dispositional gratitude in late adolescence. The current study employed the questionnaire survey method and convenience sampling to collect the research data. A total of 285 Taiwanese university students completed parental attachment, narcissism, and gratitude measures. Structural equation modeling indicated that both paternal attachment (β = .13, p < .05) and maternal attachment (β = .19, p < .05) have direct effects on gratitude. Moreover, adaptive narcissism significantly mediated the association between attachment security to mothers and gratitude (estimated indirect effect = .05, 95% CI = [.01 ~ .12]). However, it showed no mediating effect between attachment security to fathers and gratitude. The findings showed that the effect of secure attachment to mothers on gratitude was significantly greater than that of secure attachment to fathers, suggesting that mother-child attachment security plays a more important role in the development of gratitude.
... Sam desired to be a role model to the next generation, whilst Tenzin's desire to give back was underpinned by his ties to his cultural beliefs and the importance of repayment. Feelings of gratitude and the altruistic drive to give back have been shown to be constructive ways to encourage motivation and increase self-worth and feelings of satisfaction, all signposts of growth following adversity (Kashdan et al. 2006;Wood et al. 2009). The theme of building new generations of hope reflects a choice to go forward and not allow the negative consequences of their shattered lives to influence their rebuilding of new families and communities. ...
Article
Few studies explore both positive and negative interpretations of life as a refugee despite an abundance of literature that recognizes psychological growth as an outcome of adversity. This iterative phenomenological study sought positive and negative subjective interpretations from five former adult refugees. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. One superordinate theme, authentic self in the irreconcilable loss of refugee trauma, overarched four subordinate themes, refugee trauma, refugeeism, life is a gift, and authenticity in posttraumatic growth, which mapped the participants’ journeys from hopelessness and fear, to a determined rediscovery of ‘self’. Rather than avoidance and hypervigilent behaviours representing psychological pathology, these participants used both behaviours as coping strategies for reconciling the traumatic loss of family and familial support, culture, country, financial and social stability, and security as a refugee, recognizing the need to welcome a future out of a past that could not be reconciled.
... In addition, studies show that gratitude may help to inhibit competitive and vengeful actions in threatening social interactions (Sasaki et al., 2020). Finally, studies show that across a broad spectrum of life experiences, during the most difficult moments of one's life, resilient people are willing to express gratitude (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006). ...
Article
Past research shows most women report higher levels of empathy and gratitude than men. Although studies show relations among resilience, gratitude, and empathy, little is known on the influence of gender on the links among. The present study examined the individual differences and relations among adults’ levels of empathy, gratitude, and resilience, particularly how gender influences such relations. Secondly the mediation role of resilience was tested on the associations between empathy and gratitude. Participants were 214 Polish (104 women) self-identified adults, aged from 18 to 55 years old (M = 28.29 years, SD = 11.19), who completed online self-report measures of empathy (QCAE scale), gratitude (GRAT scale), and resilience (SPP-25 scale). The cross-sectional study was used to get the data. The results show that females scored higher in empathy and gratitude than males, but males reported higher levels of resilience than females. Openness to new life experiences (resilience dimension) emerged as the strongest predictor for gratitude in both groups. Resilience also served as a mediator between empathy and gratitude and this differed according to self-identified gender. Implications for gendered developmental research in positive psychology are discussed.
... Gratitude is known to predict better coping and adjustment (5,6). For instance, it predicted adjustment among Vietnam War veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (7). Among Israeli survivors of missile attacks, gratitude was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms 2.5 months after the attacks (8). ...
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We report results of a cross-sectional survey conducted during March-April 2020 which marked the start and escalation of the COVID-19 crisis in Singapore. Our purpose was to examine whether reported feelings of gratitude among Chinese Singaporeans (N = 371; 124 males, 247 females; M age = 22.54, SDage = 3.63, age range: 18-53 years) could be linked to adaptive responses to the pandemic. The results revealed that gratitude was associated with stronger endorsement of virus-prevention measures (β = 0.25, p = 0.001) that are necessary for protecting the physical health of oneself and others but disruptive to daily lives. Gratitude was also positively related to the tendency to perceive meaningful benefits in the crisis (β = 0.25, p = 0.002). Importantly, demonstrating the uniqueness and robustness of gratitude as a predictor of positive coping in response to the pandemic, these relationships remained significant when controlling for other protective psychological factors (resilience and optimism), emotions, and key demographic variables. Among the emotions measured, gratitude was also reported the most strongly. The findings support theoretical models that gratitude facilitates prosocial inclinations and openness to different ways to support the well-being of others and suggest that in a collectivistic culture, gratitude could be a key resource enabling adaptation to a crisis.
... Aún más, la gratitud parece fortalecer prácticamente todos los dominios de las experiencias humanas sin importar si proceden de la apreciación de la belleza del universo, de las acciones afables de los demás, o del reconocimiento de las cualidades que uno mismo adquiere en (Emmons & Stern, 2013), refiriéndose como "una emoción, una actitud, una virtud moral, un hábito, un rasgo de personalidad y una respuesta de afrontamiento" (Emmons et al., 2003, p. 327). En lo que concierne a este último aspecto, se ha encontrado que la gratitud se establece como una de las asociaciones más fuertes de la salud mental (e.g., Armenta et al., 2016;Emmons & Stern, 2013;McCullough et al., 2002), y juega un papel significativo en el camino hacia la superación o crecimiento personal tras vivenciar acontecimientos negativos, contribuyendo a la restitución de la actividad positiva diaria (e.g., soldados después de la guerra de Vietnam; Kashdan et al., 2006). Trabajos previos han demostrado en este sentido que, frente al estrés inducido por el trauma, las personas que manifiestan gratitud presentan una alta resiliencia, se recuperan rápidamente de la enfermedad, y disfrutan de un mayor bienestar físico (e.g., Armenta et al., 2016;Emmons & Stern, 2013). ...
Article
La Comisión Nacional de Salud ha clasificado el COVID-19 (enfermedad por coronavirus 2019) como una enfermedad tipo B altamente contagiosa que requiere medidas de control y prevención, y que ha causado graves consecuencias físicas y un impacto psicológico potencialmente significativo en todo el mundo. La literatura empírica ha documentado ciertas variables psicológicas que se han observado relevantes al enfrentar experiencias de vida complejas, y que parecen asociarse con altos niveles de crecimiento personal, como son la gratitud y la compasión hacia los demás. En virtud de ello, mediante una metodología correlacional (N = 392 participantes españoles [Medad = 32.08, DT = 12.58]), se trató de examinar cómo la gratitud y la compasión se relacionaban con el crecimiento personal frente a la situación extraordinaria originada por la pandemia del COVID-19. Los resultados revelaron que la gratitud y la compasión se asociaron con un mayor crecimiento personal. Los resultados también evidenciaron que la gratitud se relacionó con un mayor crecimiento personal a través de la compasión. Se discuten estos hallazgos enfatizando en cómo las personas podrían beneficiarse de estos mecanismos psicológicos para intentar afrontar positivamente la situación del COVID-19, así como sus posibles implicaciones para la práctica terapéutica.
... People with a grateful disposition also tend to have empathy, be forgiving, and trusting (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). Grateful individuals are more perceptive of simple everyday pleasures (Watkins, Woodward, Stone, & Kolts, 2003), and show better recovery from traumatic experiences (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006). They have a more proactive coping style when faced with adversity, and are more likely to seek social support than those who are less grateful . ...
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Contemporary thinking regarding the phenomenon of gratitude portrays it as a fundamental attribute of every human being as well as a commendable and beneficial human quality capable of enhancing human flourishing in society. This study demonstrates that although a variety of life experiences can elicit feelings of gratitude, there is evidence that the moral human society considers gratitude as a force capable of encouraging acts of beneficence. Apparently though, in the lens of ethics, gratitude is a purely person-to-person phenomenon, while ingratitude is seen as a profound moral failure. This research addresses issues of why moralists generally see gratitude as an obligation and stressed its dutiful aspects rather than its emotional quality. Findings show that until the advent of moral sentimentalism, gratitude interventions had always produced positive outcomes and benefits which in the heart of ethics is a duty and social obligation towards human benefactors and God.
... These studies found that trait gratitude is associated with increased well-being (Emmons & McCullough, 2003), more prosocial behaviors (Bartlett & DeSteno, 2006), an increased sense of meaning (Kleiman et al., 2013), a lower level of suicidal ideation (Li et al., 2012), fewer self-reported physical symptoms (Hill et al., 2013), and better subjective sleep quality (Wood et al., 2009). Relatively, a smaller number of studies have examined the effect of gratitude as an affective state on well-being (for exceptions, see Algoe et al., 2010;Kashdan et al., 2006;Nezlek et al., 2017Nezlek et al., , 2019Sztachańska et al., 2019;Zygar et al., 2018). Few studies have examined whether the benefits of gratitude vary with age. ...
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Objectives Numerous studies have shown that gratitude can improve mental health of people facing stressful events. However, most studies in this area have been based on laboratory experiments and retrospective surveys, rather than actual situations in which people are experiencing stress. Moreover, few studies have examined whether age moderates the benefits of gratitude. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused enormous psychological distress worldwide. Evidence-based strategies are needed to enhance well-being during this stressful time. This study attempted to fill these gaps by examining the benefits of feeling gratitude every day during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method A sample of 231 participants from mainland China aged 18 to 85 years participated in a 14-day daily diary study. After a pretest to collect demographic data, information on gratitude, daily positive and negative affect, perceived stress related to COVID-19, and subjective health were measured using daily questionnaires on 14 consecutive days. One month after the daily diary period, information on affective experiences, life satisfaction, and subjective health was collected as a follow-up survey. Results On days when individuals feel more gratitude than usual, they report more positive affect, a lower level of perceived stress related to COVID-19, and better subjective health on the concurrent day (Day N). Individuals also report a lower level of stress related to COVID-19 on the following day (Day N+1), when they feel more gratitude than usual on Day N. Higher levels of gratitude across the 14-day study period was associated with a higher level of positive affect and a lower level of negative affect, but was not associated with life satisfaction or subjective health at the one-month follow-up assessment. Discussion These findings demonstrate the benefits of gratitude in a naturalistic situation that induced stress and anxiety.
... In addition, studies show that gratitude may help to inhibit competitive and vengeful actions in threatening social interactions (Sasaki et al., 2020). Finally, studies show that across a broad spectrum of life experiences, during the most difficult moments of one's life, resilient people are willing to express gratitude (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006). ...
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Investigaciones anteriores muestran que la mayoría de las mujeres reportan niveles más altos de empatía y gratitud que los hombres. Aunque los estudios muestran relaciones entre resiliencia, gratitud y empatía, se sabe poco sobre la influencia del género en los vínculos entre ellos. El presente estudio examinó las diferencias individuales y las relaciones entre los niveles de empatía, gratitud y resiliencia de los adultos, particularmente cómo el género influye en tales relaciones. En segundo lugar, se probó el papel de mediación de la resiliencia en las asociaciones entre empatía y gratitud. Los participantes fueron 214 adultos polacos (104 mujeres) autoidentificados, con edades entre 18 y 55 años (M = 28.29 años, DT = 11.19), que completaron medidas de empatía de autoinforme en línea (escala QCAE), gratitud (escala GRAT) y resiliencia (escala SPP-25). El estudio transversal se utilizó para obtener los datos. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en empatía y gratitud que los hombres, pero los hombres informaron niveles más altos de resistencia que las mujeres. La apertura a nuevas experiencias de vida (dimensión de resiliencia) surgió como el predictor más fuerte de gratitud en ambos grupos. La resiliencia también sirvió como mediador entre la empatía y la gratitud y esto difería según el género autoidentificado. Se discuten las implicaciones para la investigación del desarrollo de género en psicología positiva. Past research shows most women report higher levels of empathy and gratitude than men. Although studies show relations among resilience, gratitude, and empathy, little is known on the influence of gender on the links among. The present study examined the individual difference and relations among young adults’ levels of empathy, gratitude, and resilience, particularly how gender influences such relations. Participants were 214 Polish self-identified females and males’ young adults, who completed self-report measures of empathy, gratitude, and resilience. Results showed that females scored higher in empathy and gratitude than males, but males reported higher levels of resilience than females. Resilience also served as a mediator between empathy and gratitude and this differed according to self-identified gender. Implications for gendered developmental research in social cognition are discussed.
... Estudios en adolescentes reportaron que un estado de ánimo agradecido indica un mayor bienestar subjetivo y mayores niveles de optimismo . También se han reportado resultados contrarios a los reseñados anteriormente (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006;Henrie, 2007). Emmons y McCullough (2003) reportan una relación causal entre gratitud y la felicidad. ...
Article
Se analiza la probable relación entre gratitud, medida por la Escala de gratitud desarrollada por Alarcón y la felicidad, medida por la Escala defelicidad de Lima, ambas desarrolladas por el mismo autor. El estudio es de tipo sustantivo, con un diseño transeccional causal predictivo enel que participaron 300 personas, 147 varones y 153 mujeres, con edades entre 20 y 30 años, que se encuentran estudiando en universidadespúblicas y privadas de Lima Metropolitana. Entre los principales resultados observamos que los factores de la gratitud, reciprocidad y obligaciónmoral correlacionan positiva y significativamente con la felicidad (r = .294, p < .01; r = .293, p < .01), así como con los factores sentidopositivo de la vida, satisfacción con la vida y realización personal de la Escala de felicidad. El agradecer el beneficio recibido y la satisfacciónque esto conlleva tiende a estar relacionado con actitudes y experiencias positivas hacia la vida, satisfacción por lo que se ha alcanzado y laautosuficiencia y tranquilidad emocional. Cualidad sentimental se relaciona positiva y significativamente con la felicidad (r = .218, p < .05)y con satisfacción con la vida. Entre la gratitud y la felicidad no se observan diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre varones y mujeres. Para determinar cuál o cuáles de los factores de la gratitud predicen mejor la felicidad, se ha realizado un análisis de regresión múltiple, identificando que la variable reciprocidad explica el 8.7 % de la varianza total de la variable felicidad. En conclusión, se observa que gratitud y felicidad correlacionan positiva y significativamente (r=.318, p < .01).
... The relationship between variables were examined in the survey of literature to identify the predictor, predicted and mediating variables. Gratitude has been found to be directly or indirectly related with well-being (Boehm et al. 2011;Kong et al. 2015;Lyubomirsky et al. 2011;Lyubomirsky et al. 2005;Sin and Lyubomirsky 2009;, resilience , social support (Chen et al. 2012;Kong et al. 2015), satisfaction of psychological needs (Boehm et al. 2011), and self-esteem and selfefficacy (Kashdan et al. 2006;Kong et al. 2015;Li et al. 2012;Strelan 2007). ...
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The use of the positive psychology approach is increasing and this approach emerges as one of the sources that can effectively be used for the field of counseling. One of the main works of the positive psychology approach is the issue of positive emotions, development process of these emotions and benefits of positive emotions. The aim of the study was to test a hypothetical model developed to explain the effect mechanism of positive feelings on individuals' well-being and resilience. The sample consisted of 471 college students from three universities in Turkey. For data collection, Gratitude Scale, Life Orientation Test, Two-Dimensional Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale, Balanced Measure of Psychological Needs Resilience Scale and Risk Factor Determining List were used. It was found that all the variables discussed in the model have significant positive relationships with each other. It was found that the proposed model was confirmed and the fit indices were found as at good level. Accordingly, gratitude as a positive emotion and a general life orientation, was found to contribute to the psychological needs satisfaction through the perceived social support and self esteem and need satisfaction enhances the individual's well-being and resilience levels. The research revealed that main proposals of Positive Activity Model and Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions were validated. This validated model may be implemented with experimental researches. Besides, the proposed model may be tested among different samples.
... /18.4-5] Gratitude for being able to undertake the course, and the support provided, was palpable within the sample, and this gratitude was linked to positive outcomes, consistent with therapeutic findings (Kashdan et al., 2006). Re-integration of CBT with the client's personal life was relatively effortless and the transition process was completed. ...
Article
Aim Transition between roles is widely recognised to be a complex process that involves training, socialisation into the new culture, exiting a previous role culture, and dealing with the transition process itself, and dealing with loss of identity and initial incompetence in the new role. Moving from core profession to high intensity (CBT) therapist is an example of such a role transition. As a result, complete transition is not guaranteed, which may affect completeness of learning, and how CBT is practiced post qualification. It is recognised in a number of studies that professional cultures are present in professions such as nursing and counselling, and these professions may have different filters for viewing CBT, and different training needs. Method A grounded theory analysis (Glaserian) of each of three core professions’ (mental health nurses, counsellors, and an unprofessionalised group) reflective reports (7 per profession) was undertaken, incorporating information from their learning journals throughout the year independently of each other. The reflective reports incorporate reflections on the process of transition and learning, and is a mandatory requirement of the course. Through an inductive process described in the article, a theory of transition was developed for each group. Results Three different theories of transition are presented. Nurses absorbed knowledge but resisted practice changes, especially being clinically observed. Practice changes occurred through behavioural consequences and cognitive dissonance and reflection is structured and compartmentalised generally. The conflict between counselling and CBT is felt more deeply emotionally but resolved through experiencing ‘self as client’ for most counselling participants. Practice conflicts are mostly resolved with this group, but some ideological ones are not. The KSA group have a relatively smooth transition unaffected by previous experiences. Inability to use previous coping strategies for dealing with distress is influential, inducing crises for the nursing and counselling groups. Implications Learning is delayed by trying to avoid clinical practice, and excessive identification only with the aspects of CBT that fit with existing identity and practice with nursing and counselling groups. Adaptations to training may be beneficial to enforce observation of practice at an earlier stage to drive change. The nursing role does appear to undermine learning. Reflection does eventually drive the learning process as noted in other studies, but this does not occur spontaneously with nurses or counsellors. Identification with the new role appears influential in a relatively complete change, which is consistent with theory. Recommendations to adopt CBT coping strategies early in the training are made, as is a session of individual support to address profession-based conflicts. Potential implications for the evidence base are noted. Transitional models provide a framework for educators and students. Key learning aims (1) To appreciate the importance of successful role transitions and their effect on future practice. (2) To become familiar with the key issues in transitioning between different core professions and an IAPT high-intensity role. (3) To critically reflect on personal experience in transitioning to cognitive behavioural therapy, and the impact it has had on clinical practice.
... They found that some of the positive associations between children's gratitude and life satisfaction indicators remained significant even after controlling for PA whereas others did not. Although studies with adults provide evidence that gratitude is uniquely related to well-being when controlling for PA (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2006;Kashdan et al., 2009), construct specificity remains an area to for further investigation with child samples. ...
Article
Positive psychology has highlighted the importance of personal positive qualities such as gratitude for human thriving. Reviews of research on gratitude are predominantly based on work with adults. We address this gap by considering the familial roots and well-being implications of gratitude in children. We conducted two systematic reviews examining children’s gratitude as it relates to parent–child relationships (N = 10) and children’s gratitude and well-being (N = 38). Children’s gratitude was higher when parents modeled gratitude, there was a more secure parent–child attachment, and parents employed more supportive, autonomy granting, and warm parenting. These findings align with attachment theory, social learning and emotion socialization theories, and the find-remind-and-bind theory. Additionally, children’s gratitude was positively related to greater life satisfaction, positive affect, and mental well-being in cross-sectional and intervention studies. These findings provide some support for the broaden-and-build theory, the adaptive cycle model, and the schematic hypothesis. The reviewed theoretical frameworks and empirical findings formed the basis of our proposed model whereby children’s gratitude is posited to mediate the relation between parent–child relationship factors and children’s well-being. Further, we identified several testable mechanisms that might explain why gratitude is related to well-being. Our proposed model is an important contribution to the current literature because it provides a novel, overarching synthesis of existing work on children’s gratitude that is intended to be a framework for future research to test potential mechanisms relevant to children’s gratitude development and well-being outcomes.
... The starting point for the study was the growing body of research suggesting that dispositional gratitude is positively related to well-being. [3][4][5] Our study was designed to identify the factors that influence the well-being of breast cancer patients by examining relationships between gratitude and well-being and by examining how coping strategies mediate relationships between gratitude and well-being. ...
Article
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Introduction: Gratitude has been studied as a disposition that reflects the extent to which people appreciate what they have in life knowing that it has not been given to them forever. Being grateful has been found to promote quality of life, which is why it may be used to cope in difficult times including during breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Dispositional gratitude was examined in relation to the well-being of women with breast cancer. In the current study, 119 women with breast cancer completed questionnaires that measured gratitude, well-being, coping styles, depression, and anxiety. Results: Correlational analyses found that dispositional gratitude was positively correlated with well-being (p < 0.001) and was negatively correlated with depression (p < 0.05) and anxiety (p < 0.05). Gratitude was also positively correlated with the use of task-oriented (p < 0.05) and socially oriented coping (p < 0.01) techniques. Analyses of mediation using PROCESS found that the use of task-oriented and socially oriented coping mediated relationships between gratitude and well-being, between gratitude and anxiety, and between gratitude and depression. Conclusion: In terms of application, the present results suggest that among women who have breast cancer, increasing dispositional gratitude may increase adaptive coping, which in turn will increase their well-being.
... The psychological research into gratitude has overwhelmingly focused on the benefits of higher levels of gratitude. Grateful individuals tend to experience more daily positive emotions, fewer negative emotions (Kashdan et al., 2006), and greater overall hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (Fehr et al., 2017;Jans-Beken et al., 2019;Lyubomirsky et al., 2011;McCullough et al., 2002;Seligman et al., 2005). In addition, gratitude is linked to a number of positive emotional and social outcomes, such as increased feelings of social connectedness and greater perceived social support (Algoe, 2012;Layous et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2008), less stress (Wood et al., 2008), and reduced depressive symptoms (Lambert et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The psychological research into gratitude has overwhelmingly focused on the benefits of higher levels of gratitude. However, recent research suggests that positive psychology interventions to enhance gratitude are not always suitable and the effectiveness of an intervention depends on psycho-contextual factors, personal characteristics, and boundary conditions. The current study aimed to explore and compare the effect of two possible boundary conditions (prioritizing positivity and prioritizing meaning) on well-being levels, following a gratitude intervention. Replicating and extending the findings of the seminal 2005 study by Seligman et al., the current study explored the complex dynamics of gratitude and well-being in a sample of 448 participants. This study’s results replicated Seligman et al.’s finding suggesting a significant increase in satisfaction with life following a gratitude intervention. However, this trend was not significant when eudaimonic well-being was used as the dependent variable. Further analysis revealed that the intervention was most beneficial for people who prioritized both meaning and positivity in their lives, whereas those with different prioritizing patterns enjoyed only short-term gains. In addition, those who prioritize neither positivity nor meaning in their lives did not benefit from the intervention. This suggests implications for practitioners, mental health providers and organizations as consciously integrating the prioritization of meaning and positivity into one’s daily routines along with various gratitude activities which are aligned with one’s values and interests may contribute to gratitude interventions’ efficacy.
... It is negatively associated with negative affect (Jans-Beken et al., 2019) and self-alienation (Wood et al., 2010), and it is positively associated with positive affect (Wood et al., 2010, p. 894). Additionally, gratitude is positively related to eudaimonic well-being (Kashdan et al., 2006;Wood et al., 2009) and authentic living (Wood et al., 2010, p. 895). Although social support is itself predictive of psychological well-being (Turner, 1981), to our knowledge the association between gratitude and psychological well-being has not yet been examined among dyads. ...
Article
Extant literature often assumes that gratitude is intrinsically positive therefore ought to be maximized. Virtue theory and social alignment theory, however, suggest gratitude is adaptive only in specific relational contexts. Drawing from find-remind-bind theory’s notion that gratitude functions to promote interactions with supportive partners in particular, we test whether it is not just the overall level of gratitude and support that bear upon personal (psychological well-being, physical health) and relational (commitment, sexual satisfaction, aggression) outcomes, but also congruence in levels of gratitude for one’s partner relative to the support they provide. Drawing from a cross-sectional survey of 874 mixed-sex married dyads (N=1,748) in the United States, we demonstrate that gratitude for a partner in excess of the support that partner provides is associated with maladaptive personal and relational outcomes. Implications and future directions are discussed.
... Dispositional gratitude can also be characterized as a trait that highlights between-person differences in how often or likely someone is to feel grateful in a specific instance. Prior research has found that higher dispositional gratitude and more frequent state-level gratitude are associated with a range of positive psychosocial outcomes, including increased prosocial behavior (Ma et al., 2017;Tsang & Martin, 2019), increased affiliation or connectedness with others (Algoe et al., 2016;Froh et al., 2010;Williams & Bartlett, 2015), and hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (Disabato et al., 2016;Kashdan et al., 2006;Wood et al., 2009). ...
Article
Background Dispositional gratitude has been implicated as a psychological characteristic that may modulate risk for mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample of U.S. military veterans, this study evaluated the association between dispositional gratitude and the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors over a 7-year period. Methods A nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans was surveyed at four timepoints across seven years. Analyses were restricted to veterans without incident outcomes at baseline. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relation between baseline levels of dispositional gratitude and risk of developing (a) major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); (b) suicidal ideation; and (c) suicide attempts. Results A total 9.6% of veterans developed MDD, GAD, and/or PTSD, 9.5% developed suicidal ideation, and 2.8% reported having attempted suicide over the 7-year follow-up period. Among veterans with high levels of dispositional gratitude, incidence was lower for MDD/GAD/PTSD (8.0%), suicidal ideation (6.8%), and suicide attempts (1.5%). Conversely, veterans with low dispositional gratitude were at substantially higher risk of developing MDD/GAD/PTSD (27.7%), suicidal ideation (33.6%), and suicide attempts (20.3%). Conclusions High dispositional gratitude may help protect against the development of psychopathology and suicidal behaviors in U.S. military veterans, whereas low gratitude may increase risk of developing these outcomes. Collectively, these results support the potential utility of enhancing gratitude as part of primary prevention efforts for veterans, service members, and other populations at heightened risk for adverse mental health outcomes.
... Research suggests that gratitude can buffer the negative psychological outcomes associated with stressful life events (Deichert et al., 2019). Our results add to the growing body of evidence suggesting gratitude is a beneficial tool that reduces psychological distress associated with the experience of traumatic events such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, war (Fredrickson et al., 2003;Israel-Cohen et al., 2015;Kashdan et al., 2006;McCanlies et al., 2014) and global pandemics. ...
Article
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... Survivors of the bombing without PTSD provided far more discussion pertaining to appreciation for life than those with PTSD, similar to the Dekel et al. study's findings (Hankin Dekel et al., 2015); however, the current study also found that survivors without PTSD were alone in discussing increased enjoyment in life after the bombing. It has been well documented in both psychological and social work literature on coping with trauma that appreciation for life and gratitude are associated with positive forms of coping (Deichert et al., 2019;Harms & Talbot, 2007;Jirek, 2017;Joseph & Murphy, 2014) and lower likelihood of PTSD (Israel- Cohen et al., 2015;Kashdan et al., 2006;Lies et al., 2014). It is possible that the ability to develop appreciation for life and gratitude after a traumatic event can increase personal resilience against psychopathology or, alternatively, that the development of psychopathology can reduce the capacity for appreciation of life and gratitude. ...
... A growing number of longitudinal studies have demonstrated the positive relation between gratitude and mental health . For example, it has been found that higher levels of gratitude predict improvements in wellbeing and distress over time for various populations, such as healthy adults (Disabato et al., 2017), heart patients (Millstein et al., 2016), people with rheumatic disorders (Sirois and Wood, 2017), and war veterans (Kashdan et al., 2006). ...
Article
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This position paper proposes a model for systematic integration of positive psychology interventions (PPIs) in mental healthcare. On the one hand, PPIs can contribute to the decrease of dysfunctional processes underlying mental illness. This evidence is at the core of the new domains of positive clinical psychology and positive psychiatry. On the other hand, a growing number of studies demonstrate that mental health is not merely the absence of mental illness. Mental wellbeing represents a related but separate dimension of mental health. Mental wellbeing reduces the risk of future incidence of mental illness and is highly valued by people receiving psychological treatment as an important aspect of personal and complete recovery and personal growth. This makes mental wellbeing a vital outcome of mental healthcare. PPIs can directly increase mental wellbeing. The model of sustainable mental health is presented integrating the science of positive psychology and mental wellbeing into mental healthcare. This heuristic model can guide both practitioners and researchers in developing, implementing, and evaluating a more balanced, both complaint- and strength-oriented, treatment approach. The role of gratitude interventions is discussed as an example of applying the model. Also, three potential modalities for implementing PPIs as positive psychotherapy in treatment are as: positive psychotherapy as primary treatment, as combinatorial treatment, and as intervention for personal recovery of people with severe or persistent mental disorder. Finally, we argue that longitudinal studies are needed to substantiate the model and the processes involved.
... An individual's incisive stand on Divinity will make that individual steadfast and persevere when solving various problems in daily life (Grotberg, 1995). The last aspect that enhances patience and has a positive relationship with resilience is not to complain, be appreciative and think positively when facing the challenges of life (Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006). Linley and Joseph (2004) said that an individual who is thankful and appreciative will experience positive emotions, such as feeling a sense of happiness although in times of adversity, coping better with stress and helping others to recover or rebounding from adversities (Ningrum, 2011). ...
... V súčasnosti už viaceré výskumné zistenia poukazujú na pozitívne koreláty dispozičnej vďačnosti v rôznych klinických populáciách. Predispozícia k vďačnosti je napríklad prediktorom vyššej kvality života u ľudí s chronickým ochorením (Eaton et al., 2014) a tiež prediktorom prežívania pozitívnych emócií počas všedného dňa, sebaúcty, výskytu kladne hodnotených dní a vnútorne motivujúcich aktivít u vojnových veteránov s posttraumatickou stresovou poruchou (Kashdan et al., 2006). Pozitívne koreluje s mierou odpúšťania, pozitívnymi emóciami a životnou spokojnosťou a je v zápornom vzťahu s negatívnymi emóciami a symptómami depresie (Eaton et al., 2014;Sirois & Wood, 2016 Uvedené oblasti vďačnosti (ocenenie života, prepojenie s inými ľuďmi, spirituálna zmena) čiastočne korešpondujú s konštruktom posttraumatického rozvoja. ...
Conference Paper
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Práca na diaľku alebo práca z domu je spôsob, ktorý poznáme už dlhšiu dobu. Súčasná pandémia Covid 19 však tento spôsob práce o čosi viac zviditeľnila a sprostredkovala oveľa väčšiemu množstvu ľudí, ako tomu bolo v minulosti. Reakcie na takýto spôsob práce sa rôznia, od pracovníkov, ktorí tento spôsob privítali, až po reakcie na opačnom konci spektra, ktorí pociťujú rôzne typy praktických, či psychologických ťažkostí. Rôznym súvislostiam, vrátane tých psychologických sa venujú súčasné prieskumy a výskumy. Príspevok prezentuje vybrané poznatky o vnímaných výhodách a nevýhodách a faktoroch ovplyvňujúcich spokojnosť a postoje k práci z domu/ vzdialenej práci. Na záver ponúka zopár implikácií, ako prácu z domu/ vzdialenú prácu uchopiť efektívnejšie. Working remotely or working from home (homeoffice) is a way of work we have known for a longer time. However, the current Covid 19 pandemic has made this way of working somewhat more visible and accessible to a much larger number of eployees and enterpreneurs than in the past. Reactions to this way of work vary, from workers who have welcomed this way to reactions at the other end of the spectrum who experience several practical or psychological di culties. This paper is focused on various contexts of remote work, including psychological ones. The paper introduces selected ndings and factors in uencing satisfaction and attitudes towards work from home / remote work. Finally, it o ers a few implications of how to handle work from home / remote work more e ectively.
... V súčasnosti už viaceré výskumné zistenia poukazujú na pozitívne koreláty dispozičnej vďačnosti v rôznych klinických populáciách. Predispozícia k vďačnosti je napríklad prediktorom vyššej kvality života u ľudí s chronickým ochorením (Eaton et al., 2014) a tiež prediktorom prežívania pozitívnych emócií počas všedného dňa, sebaúcty, výskytu kladne hodnotených dní a vnútorne motivujúcich aktivít u vojnových veteránov s posttraumatickou stresovou poruchou (Kashdan et al., 2006). Pozitívne koreluje s mierou odpúšťania, pozitívnymi emóciami a životnou spokojnosťou a je v zápornom vzťahu s negatívnymi emóciami a symptómami depresie (Eaton et al., 2014;Sirois & Wood, 2016 Uvedené oblasti vďačnosti (ocenenie života, prepojenie s inými ľuďmi, spirituálna zmena) čiastočne korešpondujú s konštruktom posttraumatického rozvoja. ...
Conference Paper
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Continual rise of overweight and obesity of the world‘s population represents a serious global health problem. In addition to physical health, obesity signi cantly a ects overall quality of life, well-being, mental state and social functioning. Current article deals mainly with the psychological and behavioral aspects of overweight and obesity and presents opportunities for psychological interventions.
Article
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The sense of gratitude that women have is not always the same between single and married women. Subjects in this study were 46 participants aged 22-36 years. The instrument used in this study was the GQ-6 gratitude scale compiled by McCullough, Emmons & Tsang. The data analysis used was the 2-sample difference test technique, namely the Independent sample t-test. Based on the results of the research data analysis, it can be concluded that there are significant differences in single and married women related to the level of gratitude. This can be seen from the results of statistical data analysis with the t test technique which shows a probability value of 0.034> 0.05 which indicates a significant difference. Thus the difference in the average actually occurs in real terms. In conclusion, married women have a higher level of gratitude (M = 35.95) than single women (M = 34.04). Rasa kebersyukuran yang dimiliki oleh perempuan tidak selalu sama antara perempuan lajang dan menikah. Subjek dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 46 orang partisipan yang berumur 22-36 tahun. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah skala syukur GQ-6 yang di susun oleh McCullough, Emmons & Tsang. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik uji perbedaan 2 sampel yaitu Independent sampel t-test. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data penelitian dapat diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada perempuan lajang dan sudah menikah terkait dengan tingkat kebersyukuran. Hal tersebut dapat dilihat dari hasil analisis data statistik dengan teknik uji t yang menunjukkan nilai probabilitas 0,034 > 0,05 yang mengindikasikan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan. Dengan demikian perbedaan rata-rata yang ada benar-benar terjadi secara nyata. Sebagai kesimpulannya adalah perempuan yang sudah menikah memiliki tingkat kebersyukuran yang lebih tinggi (M = 35,95) dibandingkan perempuan lajang (M = 34,04).
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents.
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A rising interest in the psychological community in resilience has spurred research examining psychological resources that promote resilience to psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One such psychological resource is gratitude, or one’s perception of a positive outcome resulting from an outside entity. The present study is a meta-analytic review of the relationship between gratitude and PTSD in order to determine whether the current literature is consistent with gratitude acting as a possible protective factor against PTSD severity as well as a possible intervention mechanism. A comprehensive literature review identified 11 studies that met eligibility criteria, resulting in a total of 3694 participants. The mean effect size between gratitude and PTSD severity was − 0.23 [95% CI (− 0.32, − 0.15)], indicating a moderate, negative relationship between gratitude and PTSD severity. Moderator analyses indicated that these results were not impacted by gender or trauma type. The moderate association between gratitude and PTSD is indicative that further study may be needed to explore if and how gratitude may work to protect against or be used to reduce PTSD.
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Ergenlik dönemi insan yaşantısındaki önemli dönemlerden biridir. Bu dönemde bireyde oluşmaya başlayan hızlı ve çok boyutlu değişim ve gelişimler beraberinde birçok risk faktörünü getirmektedir. Özellikle bu dönemde ergenin duygusal gelişiminden kaynaklanan duygu inişçıkışları ve patlamaları oldukça sık gözlenmektedir. Hem duygusal problemler –içselleştirme (internalizing) hem de davranışsal problemler-dışsallaştırma (externalizing) ergenlik döneminde çocukluğa göre artış gösteren durumlar olarak belirtilmekte ve ergen için olumsuz deneyimlere neden olmaktadır. Pozitif psikoloji son dönemde en fazla dikkat çeken yaklaşımlardandır. Bu yaklaşım önceki hastalık ve hastalığın sebepleri temelli yaklaşımlara alternatif olarak geliştirilmiştir. Olumsuz tanıların yerine alternatif olumlu tanılar ve tanımlamalarla ortaya çıkar. Yeterlilik temellidir. Bireyin yeterliliklerini temel alarak ilerlemeyi kabul eder. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş değerler sınıflaması pozitif psikoloji temelli bir sistemdir. Karakter güçleri ve erdemli oluş kavramı altı ana erdem boyutu altında yirmi dört karakter gücünü kapsayan bir değerler sınıflamasıdır. Yapılan araştırmalarda değerlere sahip olmanın yaşam doyumuyla doğrudan bağlantılı olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, ergenlik döneminde ortaya çıkan içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma belirtilerine ilişkin karakter güçlerinin koruyucu etkisi olup olmadığının incelenmesidir. Araştırma kapsamında içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemlerinin sosyo-demografik değişkenlere göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı da incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmada dışsallaştırma problemleri Jessor ve Jessor (1977) Problem Davranış Kuramı’ na göre ele alınmıştır. Burada belirtilenler sigara kullanımı, alkol ve madde kullanımı, intihar eğilimi, anti-sosyal davranışlar, erken yaşta güvensiz cinsel ilişki ve yeme sorunlarıdır. İçselleştirme problemleri olarak depresyon, anksiyete, fobiler, obsesif kompusif bozukluk ele alınmıştır. Araştırmaya Van il merkezinden 1138 ergen katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri aracı olarak katılımcıların demografik özeliklerini belirlemek amacıyla; Demografik Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Duygusal ve davranışsal problemleri belirlemek amacıyla 11-18 Yaş Grubu Gençler İçin Kendini Değerlendirme Ölçeği ( Youth Self Report –YSR-11/18 ) ve Kısa Belirti Tarama Listesi-53 (SCL-53) uygulanmıştır. Son olarak karakter güçlerini belirlemek için ülkemizde ilk defa VIA Gençlik Taraması (VIA Youth Survey-96) kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda elde edilen bulgular değerlendirildiğinde sosyo-demografik özellikler içerisinde anne eğitim düzeyi önemli bir değişken olarak saptanmıştır. Anne eğitim düzeyi arttıkça ergende dikkat problemleri ve kural dışı davranışlar görülmektedir. Ayrıca anne eğitim düzeyi yüksek ergenler Bilgelik ve Ölçülülük erdem boyutlarında daha düşük özellikler göstermiştir. Kızlarda daha çok içselleştirme erkeklerde ise dışsallaştırma problemleri görülmüştür. Erkeklerin kızlara göre değerleri daha düşüktür. Araştırma yapılan sınıflarda sınıf düzeyi yükseldikçe değerlerin oranlarında düşme meydana gelmiştir. Karakter güçlerine ilişkin bulgularda ise karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemlerine ilişkin çok yüksek oranda koruyucu olduğu saptanmıştır. İçselleştirme problemlerinin temelinde dışsallaştırma problemleri yer almaktadır. Doğrudan etkisine bakıldığında karakter güçleri dışsallaştırma problemlerine ilişkin daha zayıf bir oranda koruyucudur. Ancak karakter güçlerinin içselleştirme problemleri üzerinden dışsallaştırma problemlerine dolaylı etkisi göz önünde bulundurulduğunda oldukça yüksek bir koruyuculuğa sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Sonuç olarak karakter güçlerinin ergenlikte geliştirilmesi ve pekiştirilmesiyle ortaya çıkacak içselleştirme ve dışsallaştırma problemleri azaltılacak ve ergenlerin yaşadığı riskler büyük oranda azaltılmış olacaktır.
Chapter
This chapter describes how intentional well-being interventions integrate the development of character strengths and activation of positive emotional resources while reducing risks and alleviating symptoms of depression and poor health. The emergence of these interventions reaches back nearly half a century and each layer of development has led to a more robust platform for implementing these approaches. Now, based on the evidence-based principles of positive psychology, these positive interventions help to cultivate hope through a more balanced approach to well-being than traditional deficit-oriented methods of psychotherapy. This chapter looks at the history of development of these interventions and their likely next phase of development.
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This study aims to determine the effect of prosocial behavior on death anxiety moderated by gratitude of the elderly. The research used a quantitative approach. Respondents were 405 elderly aged 60 years and over in Bandung. This study used three instruments: the prosocialness scale, the death anxiety scale (DAS), and the GQ-6. Data were analyzed by linear regression analysis techniques to determine the effect of prosocial on death anxiety, the effect of gratitude on death anxiety, and moderation regression by interacting with the influence of prosocial behavior and gratitude on death anxiety. The results indicate that gratitude increases the effect of prosocial behavior on death anxiety of the elderly in Bandung. The results of this study also found the intensity differences of prosocial behavior, gratitude, and death anxiety of the elderly who live in nursing homes and those who live at home with their families and those who have a history of disease and those who don’t.
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The life of a student is not easy. They face many difficulties during this time. Future, relationships, and carrier planning all things are all part of their life. Some students handle these situations very effectively and some get confused in handling these situations. This study was conducted to look at the role of two positive factors (happiness and gratitude) of resilience. To fulfill that purpose 120 university students were selected, and suitable measures were used to gather information. Findings suggested a significant positive role of happiness and gratitude in resilience.
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This research focuses on the potential positive effects of time spent on Instagram, a visual-based social media tool, on Gen Y and Z gratitude, altruism, and willingness to donate to charities. Despite the prevalence in the media of Instagram’s negative effects on consumers’ well-being, our research suggests time spent on it might have an instant positive effect on consumers. Specifically, our three studies show the average and heavy Instagram users express more gratitude, feel more altruistic, and end up donating more than light users. We discuss the results in light of the role of hedonism and escape from negative feelings as mechanism explaining the effect. We offer theoretical and managerial implications of these results and discuss the role of Instagram to better promote a responsible and well-being oriented use of Instagram by companies and organizations.
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Objectives: To (1) describe the level of hope, optimism, and gratitude in a sample of minority health professional college students. (2) To examine the association between hope, optimism, and gratitude with wellbeing domains. Participants: One hundred and thirty-two (n = 132) college students from the Nursing, Medicine, and Allied Health programs. Methods: Cross-sectional survey study assessed wellbeing across the five domains of positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. Results: Mean and Standard Deviation on hope, optimism, and gratitude were 50.2 ± 5.6; 21.7 ± 4.34; and 36.3 ± 5.35, respectively. Hope, optimism, and gratitude were positively associated with domains of wellbeing, controlling for gender and age. Conclusion: Students maintained a positive outlook in life. Hopeful, op6timistic, and grateful students experienced positive emotion, were more engaged in their daily activities, had more supportive relationships, had a better sense of direction in life, and more often accomplished their goals. Interpretations and future directions are discussed.
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Gratitude has been described as a human emotion, an attitude or a personality trait. The practice of gratitude was traditionally associated with religious activities, but it has recently gained significant interest from the medical community. The field of positive psychology has been developing over the past three decades and has found that the practice of gratitude has benefits in five key areas: emotional, social, personality, career and health. There is evidence that those who are naturally more ‘grateful’ are happier, healthier, have better overall wellbeing, are more satisfied with life and sleep better. It is proposed that these effects might be mediated through neuroendocrine mechanisms. The potential health benefits of gratitude lead to the possibility that it could be used as an intervention in healthcare or as adjunct to support traditional medical management in a variety of clinical settings. Although the understanding of gratitude is in its infancy, and many of the current studies addressing gratitude are small and are of variable quality, results suggest it is an area that warrants further research and that could have an important future role in clinical medicine.
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Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
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This study examines the correlation between psychological resilience, patience, and happiness among 438 tertiary students in the Philippines taking education courses. Correlation research suggests A moderate positive association was found between happiness and psychological resilience (r=.528). It was determined that there is a moderately positive correlation between happiness and patience (r=.313). It was found that there is a moderate positive correlation between patience and psychological resilience (r=.356). Thus, implications of the study were presented.
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Counting blessings is one of the gratitude intervention methods to promote gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB). This study aimed to examine whether counting blessings could effectively promote SWB in prisoners and test whether the effect was mediated by gratitude and satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN). A total of 124 male prisoners wrote either grateful things or a control topic. The results demonstrated that counting blessings were associated with significant increase in gratitude, partially increases in satisfaction of BPN, and slightly increase SWB at the post-intervention assessment. Additionally, gratitude and satisfaction of BPN mediated the effect of counting blessings on SWB.
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Gratitude is considered as a feeling of appreciation a person receives whether material or immaterial. With gratitude, people acknowledge the goodness in their lives which can also be cultivated by continuous practice. Moreover, The teachings of Buddhism considers gratitude as an spiritual practice to attain the ultimate purpose of life. The field of positive psychology and Buddhism share a common belief on nurturing constructive emotions, personal strengths and virtues. The psychological studies on Buddhism have gradually shown an interest in the area of gratitude and related dimensions in the light of Buddhist teachings. Therefore, present paper draws on centuries of Buddhist teachings and the relevant research done in the area of positive psychology to explore the nature of gratitude and its benefits in everyday life.
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El presente informe bibliográfico, es una exposición de datos obtenidos en una investigación de campo y tiene como objetivo explorar en la dimensión espiritual de la personalidad, proponiendo su inclusión a la óptica de la Psicología Sistémica Ultramoderna. Se presentarán diversas investigaciones en el campo de la salud mental, las que proponen la espiritualidad como un componente de la personalidad y sus virtudes en el logro de la salud del ser humano. Una mirada que abandona el dualismo, mente-cuerpo, para sumergirse en una conciencia de unidad universal, considerando que se es parte de un supra contexto, impulsados en la búsqueda de respuestas, encontrando en la espiritualidad una dimensión que otorga sentido y significado a los diversos escenarios vivenciales. Un sujeto abierto a adaptarse a su entorno, sin perder su sintonía personal, su diálogo interno. Un ser humano que construye significado, esperanza y paz interior, aumentando de esa manera, bienestar psicológico.
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We examined the virtues of optimism, hope, and gratitude as potential correlates and predictors of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in a sample of trauma survivors (N = 151). Results indicated that each of these qualities significantly correlated with PTS and PTG. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that optimism, hope, and gratitude each significantly predicted PTS, with hope being the greatest predictor of PTG. Clinical implications for professional counselors are discussed.
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In this research it is aimed to test the effectiveness of junior high school students writing gratitude journals on gratitude. The research group constitutes students who attend secondary school in a public school and volunteer to participate in the research. The research was carried out on two groups, one experimental group and one control group. There were 23 participants in the experimental group and 24 participants in the control group. In the scope of the research, Gratitude Scale and Subjective Well-Being Scale for Adolescents were used. Data were collected three times in the research process; pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test. After the pre-test was applied, a training seminar on gratitude was given to the experimental group. In this seminar, students were told about what they can be grateful for and how they can be expressed. After the training seminar, the experimental group was asked to write daily in gratitude diaries created by the researchers based on the balance model of positive psychotherapy for 21 days. At the end of 21 days, the last time was collected, and the final test data were collected. Finally, the follow up data were collected 10 weeks after the end of the study and the study was terminated. The data were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U Test and the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and the Friedman Test. Examination of the test results for the experimental and control groups revealed that the experimental group differed significantly from the control group in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being. In addition to these findings, according to the Wilcoxon Test results, the individuals in the experimental group got significantly higher scores in terms of gratitude and subjective well-being in the posttests than in the pretest scores. In the control group, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest scores. According to the Friedman test results used for the follow-up test analysis, the positive effect in the experimental group continues in the follow-up test. It was observed that individuals in the control group got significantly lower scores in the follow-up tests compared to gratitude and subjective well-being scores. According to the results of the follow-up test, it was understood that the effectiveness of the writing exercise continued. According to these findings, it was determined that the practice of writing gratitude diaries increased the gratitude and subjective well-being levels of adolescents
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Combining positive psychology with coaching is a complex matter. While most positive psychology coaching research promotes the use of positive psychology interventions in a coaching practice, the current study attempted to turn it on its head, and use coaching to amplify the effect of positive psychology interventions. In one-week-long randomised controlled trial with 45 participants, 24 (wait/control group) of them completed a gratitude-only intervention, whilst the remaining 21 (experimental group) engaged in a gratitude-and-coaching intervention. Three measures were used to identify the wellbeing differences of wait/control and experimental groups pre-intervention and immediately after the intervention. Paired-sample t-test results showed that participants in the gratitude-only intervention enhanced aspects of their subjective wellbeing, whereas those in the gratitude-and-coaching intervention increased an aspect of their eudaimonic wellbeing and dispositional gratitude. The study provided preliminary evidence that coaching can be used to amplify the effect of positive psychology interventions. The implications of the study are discussed along with the recommendations for future research.
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ÖZET: Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin minnettarlık ile ilgili görüşlerinin belirlenmesi ve bu iki grubun görüşleri arasındaki benzerliklerin ve farklılıkların ortaya konulmasıdır. Araştırmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden olgubilim yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışma 2019-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin değişik bölgelerinde yaşayan, farklı yaşlarda, mesleklerde ve öğrenim düzeylerinde yer alan; 20 beliren (18-25 yaş arası) ve 20 orta yetişkinlik (26-45 yaş arası) döneminde bulunan 40 katılımcı ile yürütülmüştür. Bu araştırmanın katılımcıları amaçlı örnekleme yöntemleri içerisinde yer alan tabakalı amaçsal örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan kişisel bilgi formu ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla online olarak yapılan görüşmeler ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin; minnettarlığın tanımı, minnettarlık hissedilen durumlar, minnettarlığın ifade edilmesi, minnettarlığın davranışsal ve duygusal karşılığı, sosyal yaşama katkısı ve önündeki engellere dair yaklaşımlarının büyük oranda benzer olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Ancak az da olsa bu iki grubun minnettarlığa bakış açılarının birbirlerinden ayrıldığı noktalar göze çarpmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bu bulgular, alanyazın ışığında tartışılmış ve sonuçlarla ilgili öneriler geliştirilmiştir. & ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the current study is to determine the opinions of individuals who are in their emerging and middle adulthood periods about thankfulness and to elicit the similarities and differences between the opinions of these two groups. The current study employed the phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research designs. The current study was conducted with the participation of 20 individuals who were in their emerging adulthood period (18-25 years old) and 20 individuals who were in their middle adulthood period (26-45 years old); thus, a total of 40 participants, in the years 2019 and 2020. The participants were of the different ages, professions and education levels and lived in different regions of Turkey. The participants of the current study were selected by using the stratified purposeful sampling method, one of the purposive sampling methods. The data were collected by using the personal information form prepared by the researchers and a semi-structured interview form administered online. In the analysis of the collected data, content analysis method was used. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the individuals who were in their emerging adulthood and middle adulthood periods have largely similar opinions about the definition of thankfulness, the situations where thankfulness is felt, expression of thankfulness, behavioural and emotional exhibition of thankfulness, its contribution to social life and obstacles to it. Yet, there are some points where the two groups of participants’ perceptions of thankfulness differ. These findings obtained in the current study were discussed in reference to the literature and suggestions were made in light of the findings.
Article
Power and gratitude are universal features of social life and impact a wide range of intra- and interpersonal outcomes. Drawing on the social distance theory of power, we report four studies that examine how relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude. An archival analysis of author acknowledgements in published academic articles ( N = 1,272) revealed that low-power authors expressed more gratitude than high-power authors. A pre-registered experiment ( N = 283) involving live conversations online found that having relatively low power caused increased feelings and expressions of gratitude after benefiting from a favor. Another pre-registered experiment ( N = 356) demonstrated that increased interpersonal orientation among lower power individuals and increased psychological entitlement among higher power individuals drove these effects. Finally, an archival analysis of conversational exchanges ( N = 136,215) among Wikipedia editors revealed that relational history moderated the effect of relative power on gratitude expression. Overall, our findings highlight when and why relative power influences feelings and expressions of gratitude.
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How important gratitude is in terms of helping people to overcome their mental discomfort and behave adaptively? Conflicting evidence has appeared about the effects of gratitude on work engagement, and other aspects of life. In the present study, gratitude intervention was introduced to test it in the Nepali population who experienced a natural disaster, the Gorkha earthquake in 2015. Positive and negative affect, work engagement, and perceived damage were measured before, during, and after the intervention. Participants were sampled from the employees of 5-star hotel in Kathmandu valley and were assigned to one of the three conditions: Gratitude, Job Diary, and No Exposure. In gratitude, they were asked to write the names of 3 grateful people. Participants of Job Diary were instructed to write 3 major duties. No intervention was given to participants in No Exposure. This exercise lasted for two weeks. Only those in Gratitude showed increased positive affect and work engagement and decreased negative affect during this intervention. These positive changes seemed related to decreased perceived damage of a natural disaster. Even though there have been mixed results about the effect of gratitude, findings of the present study showed that it is robust even against a real disaster. Conducting research with survivors against natural disasters is extremely difficult, but more effort should be made with those who have similar experiences.
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This review organizes a variety of phenomena related to emotional self-report. In doing so, the authors offer an accessibility model that specifies the types of factors that contribute to emotional self-reports under different reporting conditions. One important distinction is between emotion, which is episodic, experiential, and contextual, and beliefs about emotion, which are semantic, conceptual, and decontextualized. This distinction is important in understanding the discrepancies that often occur when people are asked to report on feelings they are currently experiencing versus those that they are not currently experiencing. The accessibility model provides an organizing framework for understanding self-reports of emotion and suggests some new directions for research.
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Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Using information processing constructs, a model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic events. Many people recover in the ensuing months, but in a significant subgroup the symptoms persist, often for years. A cognitive model of persistence of PTSD is proposed. It is suggested that PTSD becomes persistent when individuals process the trauma in a way that leads to a sense of serious, current threat. The sense of threat arises as a consequence of: (1) excessively negative appraisals of the trauma and/or ist sequelae and (2) a disturbance of autobiographical memory characterised by poor elaboration and contextualisation, strong associative memory and strong perceptual priming. Change in the negative appraisals and the trauma memory are prevented by a series of problematic behavioural and cognitive strategies. The model is consistent with the main clinical features of PTSD, helps explain several apparently puzzling phenomena and provides a framework for treatment by identifying three key targets for change. Recent studies provided preliminary support for several aspects of the model.
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Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying attitudes have been conceptualized as being reciprocally activated, making the bipolar rating scale the measure of choice. Research is reviewed suggesting that this bipolar dimension is insufficient to portray comprehensively positive and negative evaluative processes and that the question is not whether such processes are reciprocally activated but under what conditions they are reciprocally, nonreciprocally, or independently activated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Several literatures converge on the idea that approach and positive affect related to goal pursuit are managed by one self-regulatory system and that avoidance (or withdrawal) and negative affect related to threats are managed by a second self-regulatory system. After briefly reviewing these literatures, the authors consider the relation of these themes to the broader domain of personality. In particular, they map individual differences in the responsivity of the approach system onto the personality dimension of extraversion and map individual differences in the responsivity of the withdrawal system onto the dimension of neuroticism. This mapping requires a slight refocusing of current conceptions of extraversion and neuroticism. However, such a refocusing brings a gain as well as a cost: In particular, it would embed these dimensions more explicitly in a process-oriented conceptualization of action control.
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Quality ties to others are universally endorsed as central to optimal living. Social scientists have extensively studied the relational world, but in somewhat separate literatures (e.g., attachment, close relationships, marital and family ties, social support). Studies of intimacy and close connection are infrequently connected to health, whereas studies of health and social support rarely intersect with literatures on relational flourishing. Efforts to probe underlying physiological processes have been disproportionately concerned with the negative (e.g., adverse effects of relational conflict). A worthy goal for the new millennium is promoting greater cross talk between these realms via a focus on the positive health implications of interpersonal flourishing. Vital venues for the future include mapping the emotional configurations of quality social relationships and elaborating their physiological substrates.
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The primary objectives of this article are (a) to put forth an explicit operational formulation of positive human health that goes beyond prevailing "absence of illness" criteria; (b) to clarify that positive human health does not derive from extant medical considerations, which are not about wellness, but necessarily require a base in philosophical accounts of the "goods" in life; (c) to provoke a change of emphasis from strong tendencies to construe human health as exclusively about the mind or the body toward an integrated and positive spiral of mind-body influences; (d) to delineate possible physiological substrates of human flourishing and offer future directions for understanding the biology of positive health; and (e) to discuss implications of positive health for diverse scientific agendas (e.g., stress, class and health, work and family life) and for practice in health fields (e.g., training, health examinations, psychotherapy, and wellness intervention programs).
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects neutrality, whereas high activation of such processes reflects maximal conflict. Attitudes, an important class of manifestations of evaluative processes, have traditionally been conceptualized as falling along a bipolar dimension, and the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying attitudes have been conceptualized as being reciprocally activated, making the bipolar rating scale the measure of choice. Research is reviewed suggesting that this bipolar dimension is insufficient to portray comprehensively positive and negative evaluative processes and that the question is not whether such processes are reciprocally activated but under what conditions they are reciprocally, nonreciprocally, or independently activated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily self-concept clarity (SCC), mood (negative affect [NA] and positive affect [PA]), and self-esteem (SE), and they described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily SCC covaried with daily positive and negative events, with daily NA, and with daily SE. None of these relationships was moderated by trait levels of SE, SCC, PA, NA, or measures of depressogenic self-concept, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Analyses that simultaneously included SE, mood, and events suggested that relationships between daily SCC and daily events were mediated by daily NA and daily SE. Such mediation suggests that daily events lead to changes in mood and SE, which in turn lead to changes in SCC. Additional analyses found that temporal variability of SE, PA, NA, and SCC was negatively correlated with trait SCC.
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Increasingly, social and personality psychologists are conducting studies in which data are collected simultaneously at multiple levels, with hypotheses concerning effects that involve multiple levels of analysis. In studies of naturally occurring social interaction, data describing people and their social interactions are collected simultaneously. This article discuses how to analyze such data using random coefficient modeling. Analyzing data describing day-to-day social interaction is used to illustrate the analysis of event-contingent data (when specific events trigger or organize data collection), and analyzing data describing reactions to daily events is used to illustrate the analysis of interval-contingent data (when data are collected at intervals). Different analytic strategies are presented, the shortcomings of ordinary least squares analyses are described, and the use of multilevel random coefficient modeling is discussed in detail. Different modeling techniques, the specifics of formulating and testing hypotheses, and the differences between fixed and random effects are also considered.
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In this chapter we suggest that “happiness,” or high subjective wellbeing, is more strongly associated with the frequency and duration of people’s positive feelings, not with the intensity of those feelings. People who rarely or never feel euphoria, for instance, can nonetheless report very high levels of well-being. We hypothesize that there are several reasons that subjective well-being is more strongly associated with the amount of time people feel positive versus negative feelings rather than with the intensity of their positive feelings. Intense positive feelings often have costs, including a tendency to more intense negative feelings in negative situations. Another hypothesis is that it is more difficult to accurately measure the intensity of feelings than their time-course, and this makes the amount of time people feel positive more amenable to study with self-report methods. The intensity of people’s positive emotions should not be ignored, but should be studied in combination with the time-course (frequency and duration) of positive and negative feelings.
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Despite broad agreement that understanding a personality construct requires integrating trait and state levels of analysis, few studies have explicitly attempted such an integration. The present study did this by examining the relationships between trait and state measures of empathy. State measures were taken daily, with a focus on the day level (within-person) covariation between empathy and daily mood and events. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily empathy and mood (NA and PA) and described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily empathy covaried positively with the impact of daily positive and negative social events and with daily positive and negative affect. Empathy did not covary with achievement-related events. Analyses that simultaneously included empathy, mood, and events suggested that daily NA mediated relationships between daily empathy and daily negative social events. Although mean daily empathy was positively related to trait empathy, trait empathy did not moderate relationships between daily empathy and events nor between daily empathy and mood. Moreover, daily empathy did not covary with daily depressogenic thinking, need for cognition, nor self-esteem, suggesting that empathy is distinct from these constructs. Possible mechanisms linking social events and empathy, such as emotional contagion, are discussed.
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Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Results indicate that regardless of the particular disorder under investigation, a heightened degree of self-focused attention is found. Hence, as ordinarily conceptualized, self-focused attention has little discriminatory power among different psychological disorders. Using information processing constructs, a somewhat different model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders.
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The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a 35-item self-report scale derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for the disorder. This article describes a series of three studies designed to explore the psychometric properties of the scale. Study 1 used 362 Vietnam veterans seeking help at Vet Centers (Operation Outreach) to confirm the internal consistency of the instrument and provide an assessment of its factor structure. Study 2 demonstrated the high test—retest reliability of the instrument over a period of 1 week. Study 3 indicated that the test’s sensitivity was .93, specificity was .89, and overall hit rate was .90 when it was used to differentiate between a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) group and two non-PTSD comparison groups. The utility of the test when it is administered within the context of a multiaxial approach to assess military-related PTSD is discussed.
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In this review, the authors examine the evidence linking social support to physiological processes and characterize the potential mechanisms responsible for these covariations. A review of 81 studies revealed that social support was reliably related to beneficial effects on aspects of the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems. An analysis of potential mechanisms underlying these associations revealed that (a) potential health-related behaviors do not appear to be responsible for these associations; (b) stress-buffering effects operate in some studies; (c) familial sources of support may be important; and (d) emotional support appears to be at least 1 important dimension of social support. Recommendations and directions for future research include the importance of conceptualizing social support as a multidimensional construct, examination of potential mechanisms across levels of analyses, and attention to the physiological process of interest.
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Extrapolating from B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, the authors hypothesized that positive emotions are active ingredients within trait resilience. U.S. college students (18 men and 28 women) were tested in early 2001 and again in the weeks following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Mediational analyses showed that positive emotions experienced in the wake of the attacks - gratitude, interest, love, and so forth - fully accounted for the relations between (a) precrisis resilience and later development of depressive symptoms and (b) precrisis resilience and postcrisis growth in psychological resources. Findings suggest that positive emotions in the aftermath of crises buffer resilient people against depression and fuel thriving, consistent with the broaden-and-build theory. Discussion touches on implications for coping.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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It is argued that this book (see record 1999-04118-000) contains some interesting overview-type chapters that identify one aspect of self-reports and that provide researchers with findings that either help them to design their questionnaires so that they obtain more veridical self-reports or at least help them to interpret self-report findings accurately. However, some chapters put heavy emphasis on self-report in medical contexts and clinical practice. Researchers who work in other domains of the behavioral and social sciences may be disappointed to find that they book does not contain, among others, chapters on self-reports of stereotypes, attitudes, evaluations, and self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Posted 3/2000. Develops the hypothesis that intervention strategies that cultivate positive emotions are particularly suited for preventing and treating problems rooted in negative emotions, such as anxiety, depression, aggression, and stress related health problems. B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model of positive emotions provides the foundation for this application. According to this model, the form and function of positive and negative emotions are distinct and complementary. Negative emotions narrow an individual's momentary thought–action repertoire toward specific actions that served the ancestral function of promoting survival. By contrast, positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn can build that individual's enduring personal resources. One implication of the broaden-and-build model is that positive emotions have an undoing effect on negative emotions. A range of intervention and coping strategies are reviewed. These strategies optimize health and well-being to the extent that they cultivate positive emotions. Cultivated positive emotions not only counteract negative emotions, but also broaden individuals' habitual modes of thinking and build their personal resources for coping.
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Objective: This investigation assessed whether current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with impaired functioning in a nationally representative sample of female Vietnam veterans. Methods: Logistic models were used to determine the association between PTSD and outcome while adjusting for demographic characteristics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Results: PTSD was associated with significantly elevated odds of poorer functioning in five of the six outcome domains; only the association between perpetration of violence in the past year and PTSD did not achieve statistical significance. After adjusting for demographics and medical and psychiatric co-morbidities, PTSD remained associated with significantly elevated odds of bed days, poorer physical health, and currently not working. Conclusions: Among female Vietnam veterans PTSD is associated with a broad profile of functional impairment. The significantly increased odds of impaired functioning and diminished quality of life suggest that PTSD may be the core problem of the set of problems afflicting female Vietnam veterans.
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Examines thinking and research relevant to the self-expansion model of motivation and cognition in close relationships. It begins with an explanation of the key elements of the model, followed by a comment on the utility of a model of this kind in terms of the role of metaphor in science. The chapter then considers 2 key processes suggested by the model, discussing the theoretical foundation and research relevant to each. These 2 processes are, first, that relationship satisfaction is increased through the association of the relationship with self-expansion and, second, that the relationship means cognitively that each partner has included the other in his or her self. Implications of the model for 3 other relationship-relevant issues (selectivity in attraction, motivations for unrequited love, and the effects on the self of falling in love) are considered. Concludes with a brief consideration of other relationship-relevant ramifications of the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Are emotions essentially an individual-subjective phenomenon, or are they broader in scope? Do emotions mainly represent what the individual feels ‘inside’ or do they also carry implications for the social context? Questions such as these were in the background of the present research that has examined the way emotions are viewed, understood, and experienced by young and older adult men and women (ranging in age from 18 to 50) in two cultural environments, Germany and the US. Overall, the results revealed distinctly different patterns of age and sex differences in the evaluation and experience of emotions for Americans and Germans. In addition, the study identified specific emotions (e.g. gratitude, despair, rage) that seem to have different connotations and associations for individuals in the two cultural groups. Interpretation of the findings emphasizes connections between the emotional life and emotional understanding of the individual and broad sociocultural themes. It is argued that social context is an important feature of emotion requiring more extensive consideration is psychological theory and research on emotion.
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daily variations may be understood in terms of the degree to which three basic needs, autonomy, competence, and related-ness, are satisfied in daily activity. Hierarchical linear models were used to examine this hypothesis across 2 weeks of daily activ-ity and well-being reports controlling for trait-level individual differences. Results strongly supported the hypothesis. The authors also examined the social activities that contribute to sat-isfaction of relatedness needs. The best predictors were meaning-ful talk and feeling understood and appreciated by interaction partners. Finally, the authors found systematic day-of-the-week variations in emotional well-being and need satisfaction. These results are discussed in terms of the importance of daily activities and the need to consider both trait and day-level determinants of well-being.
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This article uses service utilization and outcome data from the specialized posttraumatic stress disorder outpatient programs of the Department of Veterans Affairs to illustrate a method of evaluating the required intensity of outpatient psychiatric treatment. The analyses presented suggest that posttraumatic stress disorder treatment programs could offer intensive services for only the first four months of treatment, followed by a reduction in intensity to an average of only one visit per month, without loss of clinical gains. Workload projections suggest that applying such standards under a system of regulatory control would allow a 17%–51% increase in patients treated.
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Thirty-seven male veterans with combat-related PTSD completed measures of hostile automatic thoughts, hope, and positive and negative affect. Responses to the items of each measure were presented in two formats: (a) the veteran's feelings today and (b) (on a separate form) how he felt while in combat. Veterans reported significantly higher levels of hostility and negative affect in combat as opposed to today. Contrary to predictions, high levels of both positive affect and automatic positive thoughts also were reported in combat relative to today. Hope levels varied primarily as a function of being employed rather than unemployed. The implications and limitations of this methodology and these findings for combat veterans and other groups are discussed.
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The paper reviews and considers the existing cognitive and behavioral accounts for the acquisition and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder. Mowrer's two-stage theory as applied to rape victims and Vietnam veterans is critically reviewed. It was concluded that traditional S-R learning theories can adequately account for fear and avoidance consequent to a traumatic event, as well as the greater generalization as compared to simple phobics. However, these theories do not explain the remaining PTSD symptoms. The literature on experimental neurosis predicts that uncontrollable and unpredictable events produce responses that are highly reminiscent of PTSD irrespective of stimulus intensity and complexity. An additional shortcoming of S-R theory is the difficulty in incorporating meaning concepts which are so central to PTSD. Evidence for the necessity of a theory to accommodate meaning concepts is the finding that perceived threat is a better predictor of PTSD than actual threat. Therefore, we have presented a theoretical framework developed by Foa & Kozak (1986) which accommodates meaning concepts in explaining mechanisms of fear reduction and adapted this theory to PTSD.
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Emotional numbing symptoms are considered in the clinical literature as cardinal signs of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and have been formally codified in DSM-III-R. However, the term has not been consistently defined nor adequately researched. The present paper critically reviews the extant empirical and theoretical literature in combat-related PTSD that has explored emotional numbing symptoms. A theoretical framework, based on Levanthal's (1984) perceptual-motor theory of emotion, is posited to account for the parameters of emotional processing in PTSD, and specific hypotheses concerning selective or differential emotional processing deficits in PTSD are described in order to clarify empirical issues about the development and maintenance of emotional processing deficits in PTSD and to stimulate future research in this underexplored, yet clinically important area.
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This commentary raises conceptual issues related to recent efforts to develop measures of subjective well-being (SWB). Specifically, Hills’ and Argyle's (2002) article on the development of the 29-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), and its predecessor, the 20-item Oxford Happiness Inventory (Argyle, Martin & Crossland, 1989). Instead of assessing the structure of subjective well-being (SWB), items of the OHQ tap into self-esteem, sense of purpose, social interest and kindness, sense of humor, and aesthetic appreciation. The item content of the OHQ fails to differentiate the assessment of SWB from the predictors, correlates, and consequences of SWB. In contrast to published SWB findings with other measures, data are presented suggesting that the OHQ has artificially inflated correlations with those constructs tapped by the OHQ: self-esteem, sense of purpose, and social interest/extraversion. The operationalization of SWB by the OHQ is not based on relevant definition and theory and appears to invite nonrandom error into the study of SWB. The article concludes with an appeal for the use of more stringent conceptual and analytic approaches.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
Book
There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
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The broaden‐and‐build theory (Fredrickson, 199819. Fredrickson , BL . (1998). What good are positive emotions?. Review of General Psychology, 2: 300–319. [CrossRef], [PubMed]View all references, 200121. Fredrickson , BL . (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden‐and‐build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56: 218–226. [CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references) hypothesises that positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought‐action repertoires. Two experiments with 104 college students tested these hypotheses. In each, participants viewed a film that elicited (a) amusement, (b) contentment, (c) neutrality, (d) anger, or (e) anxiety. Scope of attention was assessed using a global‐local visual processing task (Experiment 1) and thought‐action repertoires were assessed using a Twenty Statements Test (Experiment 2). Compared to a neutral state, positive emotions broadened the scope of attention in Experiment 1 and thought‐action repertoires in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, negative emotions, relative to a neutral state, narrowed thought‐action repertoires. Implications for promoting emotional well‐being and physical health are discussed.
Article
Two studies tested the hypothesis that certain positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. In Study 1, 60 subjects (Ss) viewed an initial fear-eliciting film, and were randomly assigned to view a secondary film that elicited: (a) contentment; (b) amusement; (c) neutrality; or (d) sadness. Compared to Ss who viewed the neutral and sad secondary films, those who viewed the positive films exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. In Study 2, 72 Ss viewed a film known to elicit sadness. Fifty Ss spontaneously smiled at least once while viewing this film. Compared to Ss who did not smile, those who smiled exhibited more rapid returns to pre-film levels of cardiovascular activation. We discuss these findings in terms of emotion theory and possible health-promoting functions of positive emotions.