Estimating the resource needs of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review for national policy makers and planners Health Policy 2006 79 1 15 Epub 2006 Jan 2004 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60384-0 16388874
Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Health Policy
(Impact Factor: 1.91).
12/2006; 79(1):1-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.11.005
Considerable effort has been made to estimate the global resource requirements of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) interventions. There are currently several medium- and long-term global estimates available. Comprehensive country specific estimates are now urgently needed to ensure the successful scaling-up of these services. This paper reviews evidence on the global resource requirements of scaling-up HIV/AIDS and TB interventions. The purpose of this review is to summarise and critically appraise the methods used in the global estimates and to identify remaining knowledge gaps, particularly those relevant to country level estimation.
Available from: Carlos Avila
- "The existence of inefficiency calls for incorporating efficiency in the resource needs modelling (Shepard et al. 2007; Vassall and Compernolle 2006). It is critical to quantify both RG and EG in achieving HIV/AIDS targets because of their significant policy indication for allocating HIV/AIDS resources at the global and country level and for designing appropriate policies to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. "
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-To manage the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, international donors have pledged unprecedented commitments for needed services. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) projected that low- and middle-income countries needed $25 billion to meet the 2010 HIV/AIDS goal of universal access to AIDS prevention and care, using the resource needs model (RNM).
-Drawing from the results from its sister study, which used a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a Tobit model to evaluate and adjust the technical efficiency of 61 countries in delivering HIV/AIDS services from 2002 to 2007, this study extended the DEA and developed an approach to estimate resource needs and decompose the performance gap into efficiency gap and resource gap. In the DEA, we considered national HIV/AIDS spending as the input and volume of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) as the outputs. An input-oriented DEA model was constructed to project resource needs in achieving 2010 HIV/AIDS goal for 45 countries using the data in 2006, assuming that all study countries maximized efficiency.
-The DEA approach demonstrated the potential to include efficiency of national HIV/AIDS programmes in resource needs estimation, using macro-level data. Under maximal efficiency, the annual projected resource needs for the 45 countries was $6.3 billion, ∼47% of their UNAIDS estimate of $13.5 billion. Given study countries' spending of $3.9 billion, improving efficiency could narrow the gap from $9.6 to $2.4 billion. The results suggest that along with continued financial commitment to HIV/AIDS, improving the efficiency of HIV/AIDS programmes would accelerate the pace to reach 2010 HIV/AIDS goals. The DEA approach provides a supplement to the AIDS RNM to inform policy making.
Available from: Megan Murray
- "In order to alleviate the financial burden borne by TB patients, policy makers should consider incorporating policies to support patients receiving TB treatment into general financing and risk-pooling strategies, such as tax-based or social insurance systems as used by many developed and, increasingly, developing economies. While in some settings strategies aimed at reducing patient costs incurred when utilizing healthcare may be feared to lead to increases in demand for healthcare exceeding the underlying need, in many developing countries like those in sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare demand is currently far below need, including for the priority diseases TB and HIV, so that financial and non-financial support for healthcare seeking is likely to contribute substantially to improving population health [70,71]. In addition to the direct benefits to the treated patient, TB treatment also reduces onward transmission of the disease in the community. "
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Tuberculosis (TB) is known to disproportionately affect the most economically disadvantaged strata of society. Many studies have assessed the association between poverty and TB, but only a few have assessed the direct financial burden TB treatment and care can place on households. Patient costs can be particularly burdensome for TB-affected households in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty levels are high; these costs include the direct costs of medical and non-medical expenditures and the indirect costs of time utilizing healthcare or lost wages. In order to comprehensively assess the existing evidence on the costs that TB patients incur, we undertook a systematic review of the literature.
PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, EconLit, Dissertation Abstracts, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts databases were searched, and 5,114 articles were identified. Articles were included in the final review if they contained a quantitative measure of direct or indirect patient costs for treatment or care for pulmonary TB in sub-Saharan Africa and were published from January 1, 1994 to Dec 31, 2010. Cost data were extracted from each study and converted to 2010 international dollars (I$).
Thirty articles met all of the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one studies reported both direct and indirect costs; eight studies reported only direct costs; and one study reported only indirect costs. Depending on type of costs, costs varied from less than I$1 to almost I$600 or from a small fraction of mean monthly income for average annual income earners to over 10 times average annual income for income earners in the income-poorest 20% of the population. Out of the eleven types of TB patient costs identified in this review, the costs for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and care in the private sector were largest.
TB patients and households in sub-Saharan Africa often incurred high costs when utilizing TB treatment and care, both within and outside of Directly Observed Therapy Short-course (DOTS) programs. For many households, TB treatment and care-related costs were considered to be catastrophic because the patient costs incurred commonly amounted to 10% or more of per capita incomes in the countries where the primary studies included in this review were conducted. Our results suggest that policies to decrease direct and indirect TB patient costs are urgently needed to prevent poverty due to TB treatment and care for those affected by the disease.
Available from: Festus Mwetu Ilako
- "The health systems in SSA lack human resources to face the increasing needs to care for people living with HIV (Vassall & Compernolle, 2006) and the World Health Organization (WHO) has since 1974 acknowledged the importance of traditional health practitioners. WHO has also suggested these practitioners become more involved in standard HIV care. "
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to explore the influence of traditional medicine and religion on discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in one of Africa's largest informal urban settlement, Kibera, in Nairobi, Kenya.
Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 patients discontinuing the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) ART program in Kibera due to issues related to traditional medicine and religion.
Traditional medicine and religion remain important in many people's lives after ART initiation, but these issues are rarely addressed in a positive way during ART counseling. Many patients found traditional medicine and their religious beliefs to be in conflict with clinic treatment advice. Patients described a decisional process, prior to the actual drop-out from the ART program that involved a trigger event, usually a specific religious event, or a meeting with someone using traditional medicine that influenced them to take the decision to stop ART.
Discontinuation of ART could be reduced if ART providers acknowledged and addressed the importance of religious issues and traditional medicine in the lives of patients, especially in similar resource-poor settings. Telling patients not to mix ART and traditional medicine appeared counter-productive in this setting. Introducing an open discussion around religious beliefs and the pros and cons of traditional medicine as part of standard counseling, may prevent drop-out from ART when side effects or opportunistic infections occur.
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