Sicora CI, Appleton SE, Brown CM, Chung J, Chandler J, Cockshutt AM et al.. Cyanobacterial psbA families in Anabaena and Synechocystis encode trace, constitutive and UVB-induced D1 isoforms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1757: 47-56

Department of Biology, Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB, Canada E4L1G7.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 02/2006; 1757(1):47-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2005.11.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cyanobacteria cope with UVB induced photoinhibition of Photosystem II by regulating multiple psbA genes to boost the expression of D1 protein (in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803), or to exchange the constitutive D1:1 protein to an alternate D1:2 isoform (in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942). To define more general patterns of cyanobacterial psbA expression, we applied moderately photoinhibitory UVB to Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and tracked the expression of its five psbA genes. psbAI, encoding a D1:1 protein isoform characterized by a Gln130, represented the majority of the psbA transcript pool under control conditions. psbAI transcripts decreased upon UVB treatment but the total psbA transcript pool increased 3.5 fold within 90 min as a result of sharply increased psbAII, psbAIV and psbAIII transcripts encoding an alternate D1:2 protein isoform characterized by Glu130, similar to that of Synechococcus. Upon UVB treatment the relaxation of flash induced chlorophyll fluorescence showed a characteristic acceleration of a decay phase likely associated with the exchange from the D1:1 protein isoform encoded by psbAI to the alternate D1:2 isoform encoded by psbAIV, psbAII and psbAIII. Throughout the UVB treatment the divergent psbA0 made only a trace contribution to the total psbA transcript pool. This suggests a similarity to the divergent psbAI gene from Synechocystis, whose natural expression we demonstrate for the first time at a trace level similar to psbA0 in Anabaena. These trace-expressed psbA genes in two different cyanobacteria raise questions concerning the functions of these divergent genes.

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    • "The various aspects of cellular differentiation in cyanobacteria, including development of heterocysts and akinetes, and the developmental response of heterocyst spacing can be negatively affected by the UV-B radiation (Singh et al. 2011). UVR-induced ROS damage the photosynthetic machinery in cyanobacteria, and the main targets are the D1 and D2 proteins in the photosynthetic electron transport chain within the reaction center of photosystem II (Sicora et al. 2006; Xie et al. 2009). UVR-induced ROS can also damage DNA molecules because of base degradation, single and double strand breakage, and cross-linking to proteins due to oxidation of the sugar and base moiety of the genome (He and Häder 2002; Lesser 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Protoplasma
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    • "Two of these (psbAII and psbAIII) produce an identical D1. Nevertheless, while psbAII is expressed under the " normal " cultivation conditions, transcription of psbAIII is induced by high light or UV light [12]. The expression of psbAI seems triggered by micro-aerobic conditions [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria have multiple psbA genes encoding PsbA, the D1 reaction center protein of the Photosystem II complex which bears together with PsbD, the D2 protein, most of the cofactors involved in electron transfer reactions. The thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus has three psbA genes differently expressed depending on the environmental conditions. Among the 344 residues constituting each of the 3 possible PsbA variants there are 21 substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, 31 between PsbA1 and PsbA2 and 27 between PsbA2 and PsbA3. In this review, we summarize the changes already identified in the properties of the redox cofactors depending on the D1 variant constituting Photosystem II in T. elongatus. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: Keys to Produce Clean Energy.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    • "Nevertheless, while psbAII is expressed under the " normal " laboratory cultivation conditions, transcription of psbAIII is induced by high light or UV light [17] and that of psbAI seems triggered by micro-aerobic conditions [20]. T. elongatus has also three different psbA genes in its genome [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria have multiple psbA genes encoding PsbA, the D1 reaction center protein of the Photosystem II (PSII) complex. The thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus has three psbA genes differently expressed depending on the environmental conditions. Among the 344 residues of PsbA, there are 21 substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, 31 between PsbA1 and PsbA2 and 27 between PsbA2 and PsbA3. In this study, we found a new hemoprotein that is expressed when the T. elongatus genome has only the psbA2 gene for D1. This hemoprotein was found in both the non-membrane proteins and associated to the purified PsbA2-PSII core complex. This protein could be removed by the washing of PSII with Tris-washing or CaCl2-washing. From MALDI-TOF/TOF spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-MS/MS analysis upon tryptic digestion, the new hemoprotein was identified to be the tll0287 gene product with a molecular mass close to 19 kDa. Until now, tll0287 was registered as a gene encoding a hypothetical protein with an unknown function. From the amino acid sequence and the EPR spectrum the 5th and 6th axial ligands of the heme iron are the His145 and likely either the Tyr93, Tyr159 or Tyr165, respectively. From EPR, the heme containing Tll0287 protein associated to PsbA2-PSII corresponds to approximately 25% of the Cytc550 content whereas, from SDS page analysis, the total amount of Tll0287 with and without the heme seems almost in a stoichiometric amount with PsbA2-PSII. Homologous genes to tll0287 are found in several cyanobacteria. Possible roles for Tll0287 are suggested.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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