CIHR Multidisciplinary Research Group on Hypertension. Role of aldosterone in angiotensin II-induced cardiac and aortic inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertrophy
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with increased extracellular matrix and inflammatory markers in the cardiovascular system. We evaluated the effects of aldosterone antagonism on cardiovascular structure, collagen deposition, and expression of inflammatory markers in 2-week angiotensin (Ang) II-infused rats (120 ng.kg-1.min-1, s.c.)+/-spironolactone or hydralazine (25 mg.kg-1.d-1). Aortic and cardiac collagen density was evaluated with Sirius red staining. NFkappaB and AP-1 were measured by a electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and ED-1 (macrophage marker) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Ang II increased blood pressure (176+/-2 mmHg vs. 115+/-1 mmHg in controls, p<0.01), which was attenuated by spironolactone (147+/-4 mmHg, p<0.01) and prevented by hydralazine (124+/-2 mmHg, p<0.01). Ang II enhanced left ventricular interstitial collagen type I/III deposition (4.1%+/-0.1% vs. 3.1%+/-0.2%, p<0.05), and this was attenuated by spironolactone but not hydralazine. Ang II-induced cardiac perivascular fibrosis was prevented by spironolactone and hydralazine. Ang II significantly increased cardiac AP-1 activity and ED-1 expression, which was prevented by spironolactone only. Ang II-enhanced NFkappaB activity, and VCAM-1 expression was reduced by spironolactone and hydralazine, whereas aortic hypertrophy was prevented by spironolactone and slightly reduced by hydralazine. In conclusion, blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors with spironolactone inhibited Ang II-induced aortic hypertrophy, cardiac transcription factor activation, upregulation of downstream inflammatory markers, and collagen deposition, thus preventing Ang II-induced cardiovascular damage.
Available from: Saeid Golbidi
- "Several studies show that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves systemic insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose uptake that is associated with reduced NADPH oxidase activity and the attenuation of ROS [72, 74]. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in hypertensive rats decreases aortic inflammation, fibrosis, and hypertrophy [90–92] while it also decreases oxidative stress and inflammation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, a model of atherosclerosis . Other proposed mechanisms for aldosterone induced metabolic effects include the effects of hypokalemia on pancreatic β-cell function, induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis, interfering with sodium-glucose transport, and fibrosis-induced malfunction in insulin secreting or insulin sensitive tissues [87, 94, 95]. "
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension that is occurring in increasing frequency across the global population. Although there is some controversy about its diagnostic criteria, oxidative stress, which is defined as imbalance between the production and inactivation of reactive oxygen species, has a major pathophysiological role in all the components of this disease. Oxidative stress and consequent inflammation induce insulin resistance, which likely links the various components of this disease. We briefly review the role of oxidative stress as a major component of the metabolic syndrome and then discuss the impact of exercise on these pathophysiological pathways. Included in this paper is the effect of exercise in reducing fat-induced inflammation, blood pressure, and improving muscular metabolism.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "The selective MR blocker eplerenone reduced this inflammatory response. The beneficial effects of this drug were also verified in the peripheral vasculature, with reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and aortic hypertrophy in hypertensive rats . An interesting interplay between Ang II and aldosterone was described by Virdis et al. "
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ABSTRACT: Inflammation is recognized as an important factor in the pathophysiology of hypertension, with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) playing a key role in the disease. Initially described because of its contribution to extracellular fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, the RAAS has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine production, and adhesion molecule synthesis by the vascular wall. Both angiotensin II and aldosterone are involved in these systemic effects, activating innate and adaptive immune responses. This paper highlights some aspects connecting RAAS to the hypertensive phenotype, based on experimental and clinical studies, with emphasis on new findings regarding the contribution of an increasingly studied population of T lymphocytes: the T-regulatory lymphocytes. These cells can suppress inflammation and may exert beneficial vascular effects in animal models of hypertension.
Available from: Fabiano E Xavier
- "Several studies have demonstrated that aldosterone stimulates a vascular inflammatory response, and this could induce endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis (Blanco-Rivero et al., 2005; Neves et al., 2005; Xavier et al., 2008). In addition, an aldosterone-mediated increase in the release of various inflammatory agents has been described (Blanco-Rivero et al., 2005; Neves et al., 2005; Sanz-Rosa et al., 2005; Xavier et al., 2008). Recently we have reported that vasoconstrictor prostanoids are involved in the impaired "
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ABSTRACT: This study analyzed the effect of aldosterone (0.05mg/kg per day, 3 weeks) on vasoconstriction induced by noradrenaline in mesenteric resistance arteries from WKY rats and SHR. Contraction to noradrenaline was measured in mesenteric resistance arteries from untreated and aldosterone-treatedrats from both strains. Participation of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions, thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) and prostacyclin in this response was determined. 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1alpha and thromboxane B(2) (TxB(2)) releases were determined by enzyme immunoassay. NO and superoxide anion release were also determined by fluorescence and chemiluminiscence, respectively. Aldosterone did not modify noradrenaline-induced contraction in either strain. In mesenteric resistance arteries from both aldosterone-treated groups, endothelium removal or preincubation with NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME increased the noradrenaline-induced contraction, while incubation with the superoxide anion scavenger tempol decreased it. Preincubation with either the COX-1/2 or COX-2 inhibitor (indomethacin and NS-398, respectively) decreased the noradrenaline contraction in aldosterone-treated animals, while this response was not modified by COX-1 inhibitor SC-560. TxA(2) synthesis inhibitor (furegrelate), or TxA2 receptor antagonist (SQ 29 548) also decreased the noradrenaline contraction in aldosterone-treated animals. In untreated SHR, but not WKY rats, this response was increased by L-NAME, and reduced by tempol, indomethacin, NS-398 or SQ 29 548. Aldosterone treatment did not modify NO or TxB(2) release, but it did increase superoxide anion and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) release in mesenteric resistance arteries from both strains. In conclusion, chronic aldosterone treatment reduces smooth muscle contraction to alpha-adrenergic stimuli, producing a new balance in the release of endothelium-derived prostanoids and NO.
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