Association Between Dinner-to-Bed Time and Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease

Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 12/2005; 100(12):2633-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00354.x
Source: PubMed


It is generally recommended that patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) refrain from eating within 3 h of going to sleep. In addition to a remarkable lack of supporting clinical evidence, whether GERD patients have shorter dinner-to-bed time is unknown. This study was designed to determine a possible association between dinner-to-bed time and GERD, compared with healthy adults.
In a matched case-control study, we enrolled 147 GERD patients, and age- and sex-matched 294 controls without GERD symptoms such as heartburn and acid regurgitation during the previous year. Dinner-to-bed time, defined as the time intervals until going to bed after finishing eating dinner, was examined by a self-report questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for GERD.
After adjustment for smoking habits, drinking habits, and body mass index, shorter dinner-to-bed time was significantly associated with an increased OR of GERD (p < 0.0001) and the OR for patients whose dinner-to-bed time was less than 3 h was 7.45 (95% CI 3.38-16.4) compared with patients whose dinner-to-bed time was 4 h or more. These observations were consistent in both patients with non-erosive GERD and erosive esophagitis, and there was no significant difference in dinner-to-bed time intervals between non-erosive GERD and erosive esophagitis.
In this matched case-control study, shorter dinner-to-bed time was significantly associated with an increased OR for GERD.

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    • "Dietary factors such as shorter dinner-tobed time, a high dietary fat intake, obesity, and smoking have been implicated in increasing the risk for GERD. Other lifestyle factors include stress, major negative life events, and alcoholism [2] [3] [4] [5]. Furthermore, residents in rural areas and those with a positive family history are associated with a higher risk of GERD [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim. We aimed to assess the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the adult population of Albania, a Mediterranean country in Southeast Europe which has experienced major behavioral changes in the past two decades. Methods. A cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, included a population-representative sample of 845 individuals (≥18 years) residing in Tirana (345 men, mean age: 51.3 ± 18.5; 500 women, mean age: 49.7 ± 18.8; response rate: 84.5%). Assessment of GERD was based on Montreal definition. Covariates included socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of socioeconomic characteristics and lifestyle factors with GERD. Results. The overall prevalence of GERD was 11.9%. There were no significant sex differences, but a higher prevalence among the older participants. In fully adjusted models, there was a positive relationship of GERD with smoking, physical inactivity, fried food consumption, and obesity, but not so for alcohol intake and meat consumption. Conclusion. We obtained important evidence on the prevalence and lifestyle correlates of GERD in a Western Balkans' country. Smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity were strong "predictors" of GERD in this population. Findings from this study should be replicated in prospective studies in Albania and other transitional settings.
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    • "Our results also indicated that dietary habits have significant correlation with FSSG scores (Table 2). Although there have been very few reports showing the effect of dietary habits upon pathogenesis of GERD [31], our results showed an obvious correlation between GERD symptoms and dietary habits. Accordingly, such dietary habits as the following should be avoided: 1) having dinner a few hours before going to bed, 2) the habit of eating a midnight snack, 3) frequently going without breakfast, and 4) the habit of quick eating. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very common disorder worldwide, comprised of reflux esophagitis (RE) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). As more than half of GERD patients are classified into the NERD group, precise evaluation of bothersome epigastric symptoms is essential. Nevertheless, compared with many reports targeting endoscopic reflux esophagitis, large-scale studies focusing on GERD symptoms have been very scarce. To elucidate lifestyle factors affecting GERD symptoms, 19,864 healthy adults in Japan were analyzed. Sub-analyses of 371 proton pump inhibitor (PPI) users and 539 histamine H₂-receptor antagonist (H₂RA) users were also performed. Using the FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD) score as a response variable, 25 lifestyle-related factors were univariately evaluated by Student's t-test or Pearson's correlation coefficient, and were further analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Average FSSG scores were 4.8 ± 5.2 for total subjects, 9.0 ± 7.3 for PPI users, and 8.2 ± 6.6 for H₂RA users. Among the total population, positively correlated factors and standardized coefficients (β) for FSSG scores are inadequate sleep (β = 0.158), digestive drug users (β = 0.0972 for PPI, β = 0.0903 for H₂RA, and β = 0.104 for others), increased body weight in adulthood (β = 0.081), dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.061), the habit of midnight snack (β = 0.055), lower body mass index (β = 0.054), NSAID users (β = 0.051), female gender (β = 0.048), lack of breakfast (β = 0.045), lack of physical exercise (β = 0.035), younger age (β = 0.033), antihyperglycemic agents non-users (β = 0.026), the habit of quick eating (β = 0.025), alcohol drinking (β = 0.025), history of gastrectomy (β = 0.024), history of cardiovascular disease (β = 0.020), and smoking (β = 0.018). Positively correlated factors for PPI users are female gender (β = 0.198), inadequate sleep (β = 0.150), lack of breakfast (β = 0.146), antihypertensive agent non-users (β = 0.134), and dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.129), whereas those for H₂RA users are inadequate sleep (β = 0.248), habit of midnight snack (β = 0.160), anticoagulants non-users (β = 0.106), and antihypertensive agents non-users (β = 0.095). Among many lifestyle-related factors correlated with GERD symptoms, poor quality of sleep and irregular dietary habits are strong risk factors for high FSSG scores. At present, usual dose of PPI or H₂RA in Japan cannot fully relieve GERD symptoms.
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    • "Thus, sleeping fewer hours could disturb the gastric motor function and induce GERD. A shorter dinner-to-bed time has also been described as being associated with GERD [18]. Although the dinner-to-bed time was not examined in the participants in the present study, individuals leading a busy life would plausibly tend to eat dinner later at night, possibly resulting in both a shorter dinner-to-bed time and a reduced sleeping time. "
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