Article

The Metabolic Syndrome: A Global Public Health Problem and A New Definition

International Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis (Impact Factor: 2.73). 02/2005; 12(6):295-300. DOI: 10.5551/jat.12.295
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The constellation of metabolic abnormalities including centrally distributed obesity, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides, elevated blood pressure (BP), and hyperglycaemia is known as the metabolic syndrome. Associated with a 3 fold and 2 fold increase in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), respectively, it is thought to be a driver of the modern day epidemics of diabetes and CVD and has become a major public health challenge around the world. Since its initial description, several definitions of the syndrome have emerged. Each of these definitions used differing sets of criteria, which reflected contrasting views on pathogenic mechanisms and the need for clinical usefulness. The use of these definitions to conduct research into the metabolic syndrome in diverse populations resulted in wide ranging prevalence rates, inconsistencies and confusion, and spurred on the vigorous debate regarding how the metabolic syndrome should be defined. In response to this controversy, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has recently proposed a new definition, which is applicable to populations around the world. It is envisaged that the development of the new definition for the metabolic syndrome will help resolve the confusion caused by the number of earlier attempts to define this important entity.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Dianna J Magliano
  • Source
    • "Clinical implications include hypercoagulability, obesity, hyperuricemia, osteoporosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, sleep apnea and polycystic ovary syndrome [2]. The incidence of metabolic syndrome is increasing globally and it is a pandemic effecting 20-30% on adult populations [3]. Patients with metabolic syndrome are observed to have myocardial infarction and strokes 3 times more than healthy people. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is a systemic disorder and manifests as a group of conditions including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease. The importance of epicardial adipose tissue has been proven through recognition of its contribution to inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokine discharge. Several investigations have been performed on vitamin D receptors in different tissues. In this study, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) and the levels of vitamin D were measured and compared with a healthy control group. 84 patients who had metabolic syndrome without diabetes and 64 healthy individuals were enrolled into the study. In all patients, the EATT was calculated by ecocardiography and the level of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D was measured. It was observed that EATT in patients with metabolic syndrome increases significiantly compared to the healthy control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference between patients and control group was found for the levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D (P = 0.507). There was no correlation between 25 (OH) vitamin D and EATT (P = 0.622). We observed that EATT increased in patients with metabolic syndrome. In contradiction to literature; the levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D was not found to be high in patients with metabolic syndrome. Any significant correlation was not found between EATT and 25 (OH) vitamin D levels. Further studies with a larger patient population are required to assess the relationship.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
  • Source
    • "Lipid parameters were estimated using Spectrophotometry technique and commercial kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd.) In the present study, diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on two methods: Firstly modified NCEP ATP III criteria (Heng et al., 2006) which defines metabolic syndrome by the presence of three or more of the following risk determinants: central obesity [WC >90 cm in men or WC> 80 in women); elevated TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women), SBP ≥130 mmHg and/ or DBP ≥85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, FG >110 mg/dl. Secondly Subjects were defined as Metabolic syndrome by IDF (Zimmet et al., 2005) presence of central obesity with WC >90 cm in men or WC >80 cm in women plus any two of the following: elevated TG >150mg/dl or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality, HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women or medical treatment of this lipid abnormality, SBP >130 and or DBP>85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, fasting glucose >100 mg/dl or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to assess and compare the presence of metabolic syndrome using IDF and Modified NCEP ATPIII criteria among Sunni Muslim of Delhi and to determine the optimal cut off values of different parameters for the detection of metabolic syndrome. A total of, 406 individuals (125 men, 281women) aged 35-65 years were recruited. Anthropometric, blood pressure and laboratory investigations were performed following the standard protocols. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of waist circumference, serum triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were created for the determination of the metabolic syndrome and the area under curve (AUC) was evaluated to determine the predictive efficiency of each variable of metabolic syndrome. The cut off values of each parameter with corresponding sensitivity, specificity, Youden index and likelihood ratios were estimated. The overall metabolic syndrome assessed through Modified NCEP ATP III was 75.12% while through IDF criterion it was 75.36%. Majority of the participants were equally identified by both definitions. The metabolic syndrome was higher in women as compare to men using both the criteria. The area under curve (AUC) shows that serum triglycerides have highest predictive ability for metabolic syndrome in modified NCEP ATP III and IDF. The population specific cut off values of different variable to detect metabolic syndrome was formed. Although these result may not apply to rest of Indian population due to multi ethnicity but similar studies with large sample size to find the cut off values of parameter for metabolic syndrome is needed for better detection and prevention.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • Source
    • "Lipid parameters were estimated using Spectrophotometry technique and commercial kits (Randox Laboratories Ltd.) In the present study, diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on two methods: Firstly modified NCEP ATP III criteria (Heng et al., 2006) which defines metabolic syndrome by the presence of three or more of the following risk determinants: central obesity [WC >90 cm in men or WC> 80 in women); elevated TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women), SBP ≥130 mmHg and/ or DBP ≥85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, FG >110 mg/dl. Secondly Subjects were defined as Metabolic syndrome by IDF (Zimmet et al., 2005) presence of central obesity with WC >90 cm in men or WC >80 cm in women plus any two of the following: elevated TG >150mg/dl or specific treatment for this lipid abnormality, HDL-C <40 mg/dl in men, <50 mg/dl in women or medical treatment of this lipid abnormality, SBP >130 and or DBP>85 mmHg or medical treatment of previously diagnosed hypertension, fasting glucose >100 mg/dl or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes. "

    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
Show more