Article

Cheerleading-related injuries to children 5 to 18 years of age: United States, 1990-2002

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 01/2006; 117(1):122-9. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2005-1139
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To describe the epidemiology of cheerleading-related injuries among children in the United States.
A retrospective analysis of data for children 5 to 18 years old from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 1990-2002.
Sample weights provided by the NEISS were used to make national estimates of cheerleading-related injuries. Injury rates were calculated for the most frequently occurring types of injury using cheerleading participation data.
An estimated 208,800 children (95% confidence interval [CI]: 166,620-250,980) 5 to 18 years of age were treated in US hospital emergency departments for cheerleading-related injuries during the 13-year period of 1990-2002. The number of injuries increased by 110% from 10,900 in 1990 to 22,900 in 2002, with an average of 16,100 (95% CI: 12,848-19,352) injuries per year (P < .01). The average age of injured children was 14.4 years (median: 15.0 years); 97% were female; and 85% of injuries occurred to children 12 to 17 years old. The number of injuries per 1000 participants per year was greater for 12- to 17-year-olds (8.1) than for 6- to 11-year-olds (1.2) for all cheerleading-related injuries combined (P < .01; relative risk [RR]: 6.49; 95% CI: 6.40-6.58), as well as for injuries grouped by body part injured and type of injury. The body parts injured were lower extremity (37.2%), upper extremity (26.4%), head/neck (18.8%), trunk (16.8%), and other (0.8%). Injury diagnoses were strains/sprains (52.4%), soft tissue injuries (18.4%), fractures/dislocations (16.4%), lacerations/avulsions (3.8%), concussions/closed head injuries (3.5%), and other (5.5%). Children in the 12- to 18-year age group were more likely to sustain strains or sprains to the lower extremity than 5- to 11-year-olds (P < .01; RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.50-1.88). The majority of patients with cheerleading-related injuries was treated and released from the emergency department (98.7%). Patients sustaining fractures or dislocations were more likely to be admitted to the hospital than those sustaining other types of injury (P < .01; RR: 5.30; 95% CI: 3.29-6.43).
To our knowledge, this study is the first to report numbers, rates, and trends of cheerleading-related injuries to children using a nationally representative sample. Cheerleading is an important source of injury to girls. The number of cheerleading-related injuries more than doubled during the 13-year study period. A set of uniform rules and regulations directed at increasing the safety of cheerleading, that are universally enforced, should be implemented. Mandatory completion of a safety training and certification program should be required of all cheerleading coaches. Establishment of a national database for cheerleading-related injuries would facilitate the development and evaluation of injury-prevention strategies based on epidemiologic evidence.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Vainstain's theory for excitation of resonator and waveguides have been generalized for strict nonstationary case including nonlinear media and boundary conditions. The spatial-time tensor Green's functions and corresponding Integral or integrodifferential equations for shielded resonators and waveguides with linear and nonlinear media and/or inclusions have been constructed. The theory also generalized for waveguide transformers and for open structures. The numerical results for pulse radiation by dipole currents and its propagation in resonators, waveguides and its discontinuities are presented.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Feb 2004
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of gymnastics-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted of data for children 6 through 17 years of age from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 2005. Sample weights provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to calculate national estimates of gymnastics-related injuries. Injury rates were calculated for the most frequently occurring types of injury using gymnastics participation data. An estimated 425,900 children 6 through 17 years of age were treated in US hospital emergency departments for gymnastics-related injuries during the 16-year period of 1990-2005. The number of injuries averaged 26,600 annually. The number of injuries sustained per 1000 gymnastics participants per year for the pediatric population was 4.8. The number of injuries sustained per 1000 participants per year was greater for the ages 12 to 17 years (7.4) than for the ages 6 to 11 years (3.6). The place where an injury occurred include school (40.0%), a place of recreation or sports (39.7%), home (14.5%), or on other public property (5.8%). The body parts injured were upper extremity (42.3%), lower extremity (33.8%), head/neck (12.9%), trunk (10.4%), and other (0.6%). Injury diagnoses were strain/sprain (44.5%), fracture/dislocation (30.4%), abrasion/contusion (15.6%), laceration/avulsion (3.7%), concussion/closed head injury (1.7%), and other (4.2%). The majority (97.1%) of patients with gymnastics-related injuries were treated and released from the emergency department. Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports. Establishment of a national database for gymnastics-related injuries, including exposure data for direct calculation of injury rates, would permit better identification and monitoring of risk factors for gymnastics-related injuries and aid in the development, implementation, and evaluation of injury prevention strategies based on epidemiologic evidence.
    Preview · Article · May 2008 · PEDIATRICS
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sports and recreational activities are associated with a variety of injuries. Although many of these injuries are musculoskeletal in nature, both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system are at risk for injury as well. This article examines the incidence of nervous system injuries in particular sports. The association between particular forms of injuries and the sports in which they are likely to be incurred are also investigated. Further assessment of preventative measures is provided when possible.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Show more

We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on ResearchGate. Read our cookies policy to learn more.