Implementation and Maintenance of Quality Improvement for Treating Depression in Primary Care

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Psychiatric Services (Impact Factor: 2.41). 02/2006; 57(1):48-55. DOI: 10.1176/
Source: PubMed


Little is known about the long-term success of quality improvement efforts for the treatment of depression in primary care. This study assessed factors associated with the successful implementation, maintenance, and spread of such efforts.
The authors conducted an independent process evaluation of data from monthly progress reports and 18-month telephone interviews from multidisciplinary quality improvement teams in 17 diverse primary care organizations that participated in the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series for Depression from February 2000 through March 2001.
All sites made changes toward improving care in three of six categories: delivery system redesign, self-management strategies, and information systems. The changes that were most commonly viewed as major successes were delivery system changes (ten sites, or 59 percent) and information system changes (nine sites, or 53 percent); these types of changes were also the most often sustained over time (ten sites, or 59 percent, and 16 sites, or 94 percent, respectively). Fifteen sites made changes in decision support, community linkages, and health system support but were less likely to view these changes as major successes or to sustain them. Organizational structure and leadership support were the most common facilitators. Staff resistance, time constraints, and information technology were the most common barriers. Implementation strategies varied with sets of barriers.
Despite substantial challenges, there was evidence of broad success at implementation and maintenance of quality improvement for depression treatment in primary care.

Download full-text


Available from: Marjorie L Pearson, Sep 17, 2015
  • Source
    • "Our study can be compared to the Depression QIC, organised by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement in the United States in 2000–2001 and based on Wagner’s Chronic Care Model (CCM) [40]. The American QIC, also involving seventeen general practices, led to successful changes in the depression delivery and information system, which were also the most often sustained over time [41]. Organisational structure and leadership support were the most common facilitators, while staff resistance, time constraints, and information technology were the most common barriers. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Internationally, guidelines for depression recommend a stepped care approach, implying that antidepressant medication should not be offered as a first step treatment to patients with sub-threshold or mild depression. In the Netherlands, antidepressant prescribing rates in general practice as a first treatment step are considered to be high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of guideline recommendations on antidepressant prescribing. A quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent naturalistic control group and three years follow-up was performed in the general practice setting in the Netherlands. General Practitioners (GPs) participated in a national Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), focusing on the implementation of a guideline based model for a stepped care approach to depression. The model consisted of self-help and psychological treatment options for patients with milder symptoms as an alternative to antidepressants in general practice. Changes in antidepressant prescription rates of GPs were documented for a three-year period and compared to those in a control group of GPs, selected from an ongoing national registration network. A decrease of 23.3% (49.4%-26.1%) in antidepressant prescription rates for newly diagnosed patients with depressive symptoms was found within the intervention group, whereas no difference occurred in the reference group (50.3%-52.6%). The decrease over time was significant, compared to the usual care group (OR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92). An implementation program using stepped care principles for the allocation of depression interventions resulted in reduced antidepressant prescription rates in general practice. GPs can change prescribing behaviour within the context of a QIC.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Family Practice
  • Source
    • "It was reported in two studies that the implementation of the CCM could guide future efforts to examine the measures of implementation performance (Meredith et al. 2006; Pearson et al. 2005). Two studies described the need for more research to estimate changes in the CCM process (Katzelnick et al. 2005; Solberg et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is a socially- and physically-disabling condition. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) was developed to promote better management of long-term conditions, such as depression, in primary care settings. The aim of the study was to identify barriers to, and facilitators of, success when implementing the CCM for the management of depression in primary care. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases from January 2005 to December 2011. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed by means of a thematic analysis. The barriers were categorized under two themes: lack of organizational, administrative, and professional ability to change and implement the components of the CCM; and lack of clarity pertaining to the responsibility inherent in the role of care manager (often a nurse) when it comes to promoting the patient's self-management ability. In terms of the facilitators of success, two themes emerged: leadership support and vision, and redesigning the delivery system. When shaping an environment for organizational change, leadership and professionals must work towards a common goal and vision. Such processes require a care manager with a clear role and responsibilities in order for the health-care system to meet the needs of the person with depression.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · International journal of mental health nursing
  • Source
    • "Lack of support from leadership has been shown to be one of the most important barriers to the implementation of the CCM [42]. While emphasizing the involvement of outside experts and empirical evidence, EBQI stresses that an organization's own healthcare professionals and staff are best positioned to improve their systems [40]. Clinicians and administrators contribute the local knowledge needed to tailor the evidence-based practice for their own particular needs and organizational capabilities. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Collaborative-care management is an evidence-based practice for improving depression outcomes in primary care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has mandated the implementation of collaborative-care management in its satellite clinics, known as Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOCs). However, the organizational characteristics of CBOCs present added challenges to implementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI) as a strategy to facilitate the adoption of collaborative-care management in CBOCs. This nonrandomized, small-scale, multisite evaluation of EBQI was conducted at three VA Medical Centers and 11 of their affiliated CBOCs. The Plan phase of the EBQI process involved the localized tailoring of the collaborative-care management program to each CBOC. Researchers ensured that the adaptations were evidence based. Clinical and administrative staff were responsible for adapting the collaborative-care management program for local needs, priorities, preferences and resources. Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used to refine the program over time. The evaluation was based on the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) Framework and used data from multiple sources: administrative records, web-based decision-support systems, surveys, and key-informant interviews. Adoption: 69.0% (58/84) of primary care providers referred patients to the program. Reach: 9.0% (298/3,296) of primary care patients diagnosed with depression who were not already receiving specialty care were enrolled in the program. Fidelity: During baseline care manager encounters, education/activation was provided to 100% (298/298) of patients, barriers were assessed and addressed for 100% (298/298) of patients, and depression severity was monitored for 100% (298/298) of patients. Less than half (42.5%, 681/1603) of follow-up encounters during the acute stage were completed within the timeframe specified. During the acute phase of treatment for all trials, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) symptom-monitoring tool was used at 100% (681/681) of completed follow-up encounters, and self-management goals were discussed during 15.3% (104/681) of completed follow-up encounters. During the acute phase of treatment for pharmacotherapy and combination trials, medication adherence was assessed at 99.1% (575/580) of completed follow-up encounters, and side effects were assessed at 92.4% (536/580) of completed follow-up encounters. During the acute phase of treatment for psychotherapy and combination trials, counseling session adherence was assessed at 83.3% (239/287) of completed follow-up encounters. Effectiveness: 18.8% (56/298) of enrolled patients remitted (symptom free) and another 22.1% (66/298) responded to treatment (50% reduction in symptom severity). Maintenance: 91.9% (10/11) of the CBOCs chose to sustain the program after research funds were withdrawn. Provider adoption was good, although reach into the target population was relatively low. Fidelity and maintenance were excellent, and clinical outcomes were comparable to those in randomized controlled trials. Despite the organizational barriers, these findings suggest that EBQI is an effective facilitation strategy for CBOCs. Clinical trial # NCT00317018.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Implementation Science
Show more