Phase II trial of intravenous lobradimil and carboplatin in childhood brain tumors: A report from the Children's Oncology Group

ArticleinCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 58(3):343-7 · September 2006with12 Reads
DOI: 10.1007/s00280-005-0172-7 · Source: PubMed
[corrected] Lobradimil is a synthetic bradykinin analog that rapidly and transiently increases the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was studied in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors in a phase II trial, the primary endpoints of which were to estimate the response rate and time to disease progression. Patients were stratified by histology into five cohorts: brainstem glioma, high-grade glioma, low-grade glioma, medullobastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and ependymoma. Patients received carboplatin adaptively dosed to achieve a target AUC of 3.5 mg min/ml per day (7 mg.min/ml/cycle) intravenously over 15 min on 2 consecutive days and lobradimil 600 ng/kg ideal body weight/day on 2 consecutive days each 28 day cycle. Forty-one patients, age 2-19 years, were enrolled; 38 patients, including 1 patient ultimately determined to have atypical neurocytoma, were evaluable for response. No objective responses were observed in the brainstem glioma (n=12) and high-grade glioma (n = 9) cohorts, although two patients with high-grade glioma had prolonged disease stabilization (>6 months). The study was closed for commercial reasons prior to achieving the accrual goals for the ependymoma (n = 8), medulloblastoma/PNET (n = 6) and low-grade glioma (n = 2) cohorts, although responses were observed in 1 patient with PNET and 2 patients with ependymoma. The combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was inactive in childhood high-grade gliomas and brainstem gliomas.
    • "Two major vasoactive substances used to selectively open the BTB without altering the tumour free sites are bradykinin and its agonist lobradimil (Elliott et al., 1996; Emerich et al., 2001; Kemper et al., 2004). Hydrophilic chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin have been delivered into brain tumours such as high grade gliomas in combination of infused bradykinin resulting in reduced tumour size and stable disease in phase I clinical trial (Cloughesy et al., 1999; Warren et al., 2001; Kemper et al., 2004; Warren et al., 2006). In the context of BM, only some preclinical studies have shown the increase of drug delivery of chemotherapeutics to BM by selectively disrupting the BBB. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral metastases are the most common brain neoplasms seen clinically in the adults and comprise more than half of all brain tumours. Actual treatment options for brain metastases that include surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are rarely curative, although palliative treatment improves survival and life quality of patients carrying brain-metastatic tumours. Chemotherapy in particular has also shown limited or no activity in brain metastasis of most tumour types. Many chemotherapeutic agents used systemically do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whereas others may transiently weaken the BBB and allow extravasation of tumour cells from the circulation into the brain parenchyma. Increasing evidence points out that the interaction between the BBB and tumour cells plays a key role for implantation and growth of brain metastases in the central nervous system. The BBB, as the tightest endothelial barrier, prevents both early detection and treatment by creating a privileged microenvironment. Therefore, as observed in several in vivo studies, precise targetting the BBB by a specific transient opening of the structure making it permeable for therapeutic compounds, might potentially help to overcome this difficult clinical problem. Moreover, a better understanding of the molecular features of the BBB, its interrelation with metastatic tumour cells and the elucidation of cellular mechanisms responsible for establishing cerebral metastasis must be clearly outlined in order to promote treatment modalities that particularly involve chemotherapy. This in turn would substantially expand the survival and quality of life of patients with brain metastasis, and potentially increase the remission rate. Therefore, the focus of this review is to summarise the current knowledge on the role and function of the BBB in cancer metastasis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
    • "A phase II trial of lobradimil and carboplatin was conducted in pediatric patients with glioma. Unfortunately, the combination of lobradimil and carboplatin was inactive in childhood gliomas [131,179]. Apoplogic Pharmaceuticals has conducted a phase I trial with B9870 in lung cancer, however we were unable to find further information about this development. The analysis ofTable 1 discloses a disappointing scenario. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) represents an obstacle for cancer diagnosis and treatment, but little is known about its functional role in cancer progression. The A Desintegrin And Metalloproteinase 23 (ADAM23) gene is epigenetically silenced in different types of tumors, and silencing is often associated with advanced disease and metastasis. Here, we show that invasive breast tumors exhibit significant ADAM23-ITH and that this heterogeneity is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. We demonstrate that while loss of ADAM23 expression enhances invasion, it causes a severe proliferative deficiency and is not itself sufficient to trigger metastasis. Rather, we observed that, in ADAM23-heterotypic environments, ADAM23-negative cells promote tumor growth and metastasis by enhancing the proliferation and invasion of adjacent A23-positive cells through the production of LGI4 (Leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 4) and nitric oxide (NO). Ablation of LGI4 and NO in A23-negative cells significantly attenuates A23-positive cell proliferation and invasion. Our work denotes a driving role of ADAM23-ITH during disease progression, shifting the malignant phenotype from the cellular to the tissue level. Our findings also provide insights for therapeutic intervention, enforcing the need to ascertain ITH to improve cancer diagnosis and therapy.Oncogene advance online publication, 24 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.70.
    Article · Mar 2015
    • "However, a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled phase II study of RMP-7 in combination with carboplatin failed to demonstrate clinical benefit (Prados et al., 2003). A few subsequent studies on childhood gliomas also had a negative outcome (Warren et al., 2006), and further clinical development was discontinued. A potential reason for the negative results was that the dose level of RMP-7 of 300 ng/kg might have been inadequate. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Particularly in adult patients, the vast majority of gliomas belongs to the heterogeneous group of diffuse gliomas, i.e. glial tumors characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth in the preexistent brain tissue. Unfortunately, glioblastoma, the most aggressive (WHO grade IV) diffuse glioma is also by far the most frequent one. After standard treatment, the 2-year overall survival of glioblastoma patients is approximately only 25%. Advanced knowledge in the molecular pathology underlying malignant transformation has offered new handles and better treatments for several cancer types. Unfortunately, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients have not yet profited as although numerous experimental drugs have been tested in clinical trials, all failed miserably. This grim prognosis for GBM is at least partly due to the lack of successful drug delivery across the blood-brain tumor barrier (BBTB). The human brain comprises over 100 billion capillaries with a total length of 400 miles, a total surface area of 20m(2) and a median inter-capillary distance of about 50μm, making it the best perfused organ in the body. The BBTB encompasses existing and newly formed blood vessels that contribute to the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the tumor and facilitate glioma cell migration to other parts of the brain. The high metabolic demands of high-grade glioma create hypoxic areas that trigger increased expression of VEGF and angiogenesis, leading to the formation of abnormal vessels and a dysfunctional BBTB. Even though the BBTB is considered 'leaky' in the core part of glioblastomas, in large parts of glioblastomas and, even more so, in lower grade diffuse gliomas the BBTB more closely resembles the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) and prevents efficient passage of cancer therapeutics, including small molecules and antibodies. Thus, many drugs can still be blocked from reaching the many infiltrative glioblastoma cells that demonstrate 'within-organ-metastasis' away from the core part to brain areas displaying a more organized and less leaky BBTB. Hence, drug delivery in glioblastoma deserves explicit attention as otherwise new experimental therapies will continue to fail. In the current review we highlight different aspects of the BBTB in glioma patients and preclinical models and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of drug delivery approaches for the treatment of glioma patients. We provide an overview on methods to overcome the BBTB, including osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), bradykinin receptor-mediated BBTB opening, inhibition of multidrug efflux transporters, receptor-mediated transport systems and physiological circumvention of the BBTB. While our knowledge about the molecular biology of glioma cells is rapidly expanding and is, to some extent, already assisting us in the design of tumor-tailored therapeutics, we are still struggling to develop modalities to expose the entire tumor to such therapeutics at pharmacologically meaningful quantities. Therefore, we must expand our knowledge about the fundamentals of the BBTB as a step toward the design of practical and safe devices and approaches for enhanced drug delivery into the diseased brain area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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