Food groups and risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia

University of Milan, Milano, Lombardy, Italy
Urology (Impact Factor: 2.19). 02/2006; 67(1):73-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.030
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the role of a wide range of foods on the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we conducted a case-control study in Italy between 1991 and 2002. Although BPH is an extremely common condition, particularly among older men, its risk factors, including dietary ones, remain largely undefined.
Included in the study were 1369 patients younger than 75 years old surgically treated for BPH and 1451 controls younger than 75 years of age who had been admitted to the same hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. A validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages, plus a separate section on alcoholic beverages, was used to assess patients' dietary habits 2 years before diagnosis or hospital admission. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for energy intake and other major potential confounding factors.
A significant trend of increasing risk with more frequent consumption was found for cereals (OR 1.55 for the greatest versus lowest quintile), bread (OR 1.69), eggs (OR 1.43), and poultry (OR 1.39). Inverse associations were observed for soups (OR 0.74), pulses (OR 0.74), cooked vegetables (OR 0.66), and citrus fruit (OR 0.82). No association was observed for milk and yogurt products, coffee and tea, pasta and rice, fish, cheese, row vegetables, potatoes, fruit, or desserts.
The results of this study suggest a role for dietary habits on the risk of BPH. In particular, a diet rich in cereals and some types of meat and poor in vegetables and pulses may have an unfavorable effect in this Italian population.

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    • "Allium vegetables seem to have antiproliferative action on human cancers and to prevent diseases associated with aging [9]. Moreover, onion and garlic intake has been inversely associated with BPH [10]. Onions contain high levels of nonnutrient antioxidant compounds, flavonoids, and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs), which have protective effects against different degenerative pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other dysfunctions based on oxidative stress [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'- β -O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF- α , IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF- β 1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.
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    ABSTRACT: To better understand the role of specific macronutrients on the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we used data from an Italian case-control study. Although BPH is extremely common among the elderly, its etiology-and, particularly, the role of diet and specific macronutrients-is still unclear. A case-control study of 1369 patients with BPH and 1451 controls, admitted to the same hospitals for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions, was conducted in Italy. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained after allowance for energy intake and other potential confounding factors. A significant direct relation was observed between starch intake (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.99 for highest quintile compared with lowest one), and an inverse relation was observed for polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.93), linoleic acid (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.94), and linolenic acid (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.93). The results of this study suggest a role for specific macronutrients in the risk of BPH, including, in particular, an unfavorable effect for starch and a beneficial one for polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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