Patients in intensive SUD programs who subsequently participate in continuing care for a longer interval have better outcomes than those who participate for a shorter interval. We sought to identify patient and program factors associated with duration of engagement in SUD continuing care after residential/inpatient treatment.
Patients (n=3032) at 15 geographically diverse SUD residential treatment programs provided data on demographics, symptom patterns, recovery resources, and perceptions of treatment environment. We identified patient characteristics associated with the number of consecutive months of engagement in continuing care. We then consolidated and classified risk factors into an integrated model.
Being African American, having more SUD and psychiatric symptoms, more resources for recovery, and perceiving the treatment staff as being supportive were associated with longer engagement in continuing care. African Americans' engagement in continuing care was 17% longer than Caucasians'. The positive effect of being African American was partially mediated by having taken actions toward changing use, and by the presence of psychotic symptoms.
These results extend previous research on the predictors of continuing care engagement after residential SUD programs. Clinicians can use information about characteristics that put patients at risk for shorter engagement in continuing care to target patients who might benefit from interventions to increase engagement in continuing care.
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"Although it has been operationalized differently, continuity has been adopted as a quality measure by the Department of Veterans Affairs (Harris et al. 2006; Schaefer et al. 2004; Schaefer et al. 2008), the American Society on Addiction Medicine (ASAM) and the American Psychological Association. In addition, rapid re-admissions into acute care services are also considered problematic because they signify lack of clinical progress, consume expensive resources and can be a marker of inadequate or insufficiently effective community services (Barnett and Swindle 1997; Mattick and Hall 1996; Mertens et al. 2005; Thakur et al. 1998). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized trial of substance abuse treatment programs tested whether "enhanced profiles," consisting of feedback and coaching about performance indicators, improved the performance of residential, methadone, and detoxification programs. These enhanced profiles were reviewed during quarterly on-site visits between October 2005 and July 2007. The performance indicators were the percentage of clients completing referrals to a lower level of care, and the percentage of clients admitted to a higher level of care within 30 days of discharge. Control programs received only "basic profiles," consisting of emailed quarterly printouts of these performance indicators. Effectiveness was evaluated using hierarchical linear models with client-level information nested within agencies and regions of the state. Treatment programs receiving enhanced profiles (n = 74) did not perform significantly differently from those receiving only basic profiles (n = 29) on either performance measure. To improve performance, interventions with greater scope and incentives may be needed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
"Several studies have developed and investigated methods to increase both patient involvement/participation and treatment retention. A number of correlational and quasi-experimental studies 5 (e.g., Harris et al. 2006; Schaefer et al. 2005; Hitchcock et al. 1995; Schmitt et al. 2003) have investigated factors that predict involvement and retention in continuing care. These analyses identified a wide range of variables that may have an influence. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For many patients, alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders are chronic, recurring conditions involving multiple cycles of treatment, abstinence, and relapse. To disrupt this cycle, treatment can include continuing care to reduce the risk of relapse. The most commonly used treatment approach is initial intensive inpatient or outpatient care based on 12-step principles, followed by continuing care involving self-help groups, 12-step group counseling, or individual therapy. Although these programs can be effective, many patients drop out of initial treatment or do not complete continuing care. Thus, researchers and clinicians have begun to develop alternative approaches to enhance treatment retention in both initial and continuing care. One focus of these efforts has been the design of extended treatment models. These approaches increasingly blur the distinction between initial and continuing care and aim to prolong treatment participation by providing a continuum of care. Other researchers have focused on developing alternative treatment strategies (e.g., telephone-based interventions) that go beyond traditional settings and adaptive treatment algorithms that may improve outcomes for clients who do not respond well to traditional approaches.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the patient intake and treatment-related risk factors associated with a suicide attempt in the 30 days before a 1-year posttreatment assessment.
A national sample of 8,807 patients presenting for treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs) in the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system were assessed at treatment intake and follow-up. Using the MacArthur Model, the risk and protective factors for suicide attempt were identified at baseline and during treatment.
At follow-up, 4% (314/8,807) of the patients reported a suicide attempt within the past 30 days. Baseline predictors of a suicide attempt before follow-up included elevated suicidal/psychiatric symptoms, more recent problematic alcohol use, and longer duration of cocaine use. Contact with the criminal justice system was a protective factor that reduced the likelihood of a future suicide attempt. Greater engagement in SUD treatment was also associated with a reduction in suicide risk.
More involvement in SUD treatment reduced the likelihood of a future suicide attempt in high-risk patients. Substance use disorder treatment providers interested in reducing future suicidal behavior may want to concentrate their efforts on identifying at-risk individuals and actively engaging these patients in longer treatment episodes.
Preview · Article · May 2007 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research