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Lying and Cheating: Fraudulent Excuse Making, Cheating, and Plagiarism

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Lying and Cheating: Fraudulent Excuse Making, Cheating, and Plagiarism

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Abstract

Undergraduates reported their use of fraudulent excuses; 72% of the student participants claimed to have used a fraudulent excuse in college at least once. This activity was correlated with an independently obtained self-report measure of cheating (r = .38) and plagiarism (r = .27). Grade point average was negatively correlated with all 3 measures but did not reach statistical significance with the measure of plagiarism.

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... This attention has heightened the concern of educators and administrators at all educational levels. Indeed, academic dishonesty concerns have been reflected in research in various academic fields including education (Daniel, Blount, & Ferrell, 1991;Karlins, Michaels, & Podlogar, 1988), science (Paldy, 1996), psychology (Marsden, Carroll, & Neill, 2005;Roig & Caso, 2005), criminal justice (Smith, Dupre, & Mackey, 2005), and business (O'Neill & Pfeiffer, 2012;Reisenwitz, 2012;Simha, Armstrong, &Albert, 2012. As Whitley andKeith-Spiegel (2002) note, several reasons justify this concern including a need for equity among student grades, the importance of moral and ethical character development among students, and a desire to uphold the mission of the institution. ...
... Given the prevalence of academic dishonesty among students at various educational levels (Aiken, 1991;Barnett, 1997;Genereux & McLeod, 1995;McCabe, 2005), it is vital for teachers to implement appropriate strategies that dissuade student cheating behaviour. Although a preponderance of scholarship in this arena underscores the importance of dissuading student cheating behaviour and suggests strategies for preventing its occurrence (Holm, 2002;Marsden et al., 2005;Roig & Caso, 2005), little to no empirical research tests the effectiveness of these methods. The present study directly addressed this gap in the literature. ...
... This finding is particularly striking and illustrates the importance of employing mechanisms (e.g., electronic submission of course material) that heighten students' awareness of academic dishonesty and dissuade them from engaging in cheating behaviour. Future research might assess whether or not this trend is present in other courses and how first-year students come to better appreciate academically honest behaviour in other content areas (Roig & Caso, 2005;Smith et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study explored how electronic submission of course material, intended to deter instances of plagiarism, influenced first-year students' perceptions of academic dishonesty and reports of cheating behaviour in a large, multi-section basic communication course. Results reveal that electronic submission of course material results in first-year students being less likely to self-report engaging in cheating behaviours and heightens their appreciation and awareness of what constitutes academic dishonesty. Implications for classroom pedagogy, course management, and teacher training are discussed.
... The second is to investigate the variables that best explain the academic dishonesty tendency levels of the students who continue their graduate education by using the CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) analysis method. When the literature is examined (Adıbatmaz & Kurnaz, 2017;Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Akdağ & Güneş, 2002;Ayoub/Al-Salim & Aladwan, 2021;Barın et al., 2018;Bateman & Valentine, 2010;Belet-Boyacı et al., 2017;Brown, Bourke-Taylor et al., 2019;Brown, Isbel et al., 2020;Burns, et al., 1998;Chow et al., 2021;Coate & Frey, 2000;Çenberci, 2018;Çetin, 2007;Dağaşan et al., 2017;Dam, 2013;Demir & Arcagök, 2013;Duran, 2020;Eminoğlu-Küçüktepe & Küçüktepe, 2012;Eriksson & McGee, 2015;Ersoy & Özden, 2011;Gümüşgül et al., 2013;Hadjar, 2019;Hensley et al., 2013;Kadı et al., 2016;Kaymakcan, 2002;Keçeci et al., 2011;Kıral & Saracaloğlu, 2018;Kocaman-Karoğlu & Bakar-Çörez, 2020;Koç, 2018;Korn & Davidovitch, 2016;Lin & Wen, 2007;McCabe & Trevino, 1997;Nonis & Swift, 1998;Novianti, 2022;Ömür et al., 2014;Öztürk-Başpınar & Çakıroğlu, 2019;Özyurt & Eren, 2014;Pearson, 2019;Pino & Smith, 2003;Roig & Caso, 2005;Szabo & Underwood, 2004;Şenel et al., 2020;Taşgın et al., 2019;Tayfun et al., 2020;Tümkaya, 2019;Uçak & Ünal, 2015;Underwood & Szabo, 2003;Ünlü & Eroğlu, 2012;Watson, 2013;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999;Yang et al., 2017;Yangın & Kahyaoğlu, 2009;Yeşilyaprak & Öztürk, 1996;Yıldırım, 2015) the following variables were decided to be included in this study to analysis. Gender differentiation of cheating 89 tendencies between female and male students was preferred because the gender variable is frequently used in the literature and different results were obtained (Adıbatmaz & Kurnaz, 2017;Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Akdağ & Güneş, 2002;Ayoub/Al-Salim & Aladwan, 2021;Barın et al., 2018;Bateman & Valentine, 2010;Belet-Boyacı et al., 2017;Burns, et al., 1998;Chow et al., 2021;Coate & Frey, 2000;Çenberci, 2018;Çetin, 2007;Dağaşan et al., 2017;Dam, 2013;Demir & Arcagök, 2013;Duran, 2020;Eminoğlu-Küçüktepe & Küçüktepe, 2012;Eriksson & McGee, 2015;Ersoy & Özden, 2011;Gümüşgül et al., 2013;Hadjar, 2019;Hensley et al., 2013;Kadı et al., 2016;Kaymakcan, 2002;Keçeci et al., 2011;Kıral & Saracaloğlu, 2018;Kocaman-Karoğlu & Bakar-Çörez, 2020;Koç, 2018;Lin & Wen, 2007;McCabe & Trevino, 1997;Nonis & Swift, 1998;Novianti, 2022;Ömür et al., 2014;Öztürk-Başpınar & Çakıroğlu, 2019;Özyurt & Eren, 2014;Pearson, 2019;Pino & Smith, 2003;Roig & Caso, 2005;Szabo & Underwood, 2004;Şenel et al., 2020;Taşgın et al., 2019;Tayfun et al., 2020;Tümkaya, 2019;Uçak & Ünal, 2015;Underwood & Szabo, 2003;Ünlü & Eroğlu, 2012;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999;Yang et al., 2017;Yangın & Kahyaoğlu, 2009;Yeşilyaprak & Öztürk, 1996). ...
... When the literature is examined (Adıbatmaz & Kurnaz, 2017;Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Akdağ & Güneş, 2002;Ayoub/Al-Salim & Aladwan, 2021;Barın et al., 2018;Bateman & Valentine, 2010;Belet-Boyacı et al., 2017;Brown, Bourke-Taylor et al., 2019;Brown, Isbel et al., 2020;Burns, et al., 1998;Chow et al., 2021;Coate & Frey, 2000;Çenberci, 2018;Çetin, 2007;Dağaşan et al., 2017;Dam, 2013;Demir & Arcagök, 2013;Duran, 2020;Eminoğlu-Küçüktepe & Küçüktepe, 2012;Eriksson & McGee, 2015;Ersoy & Özden, 2011;Gümüşgül et al., 2013;Hadjar, 2019;Hensley et al., 2013;Kadı et al., 2016;Kaymakcan, 2002;Keçeci et al., 2011;Kıral & Saracaloğlu, 2018;Kocaman-Karoğlu & Bakar-Çörez, 2020;Koç, 2018;Korn & Davidovitch, 2016;Lin & Wen, 2007;McCabe & Trevino, 1997;Nonis & Swift, 1998;Novianti, 2022;Ömür et al., 2014;Öztürk-Başpınar & Çakıroğlu, 2019;Özyurt & Eren, 2014;Pearson, 2019;Pino & Smith, 2003;Roig & Caso, 2005;Szabo & Underwood, 2004;Şenel et al., 2020;Taşgın et al., 2019;Tayfun et al., 2020;Tümkaya, 2019;Uçak & Ünal, 2015;Underwood & Szabo, 2003;Ünlü & Eroğlu, 2012;Watson, 2013;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999;Yang et al., 2017;Yangın & Kahyaoğlu, 2009;Yeşilyaprak & Öztürk, 1996;Yıldırım, 2015) the following variables were decided to be included in this study to analysis. Gender differentiation of cheating 89 tendencies between female and male students was preferred because the gender variable is frequently used in the literature and different results were obtained (Adıbatmaz & Kurnaz, 2017;Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Akdağ & Güneş, 2002;Ayoub/Al-Salim & Aladwan, 2021;Barın et al., 2018;Bateman & Valentine, 2010;Belet-Boyacı et al., 2017;Burns, et al., 1998;Chow et al., 2021;Coate & Frey, 2000;Çenberci, 2018;Çetin, 2007;Dağaşan et al., 2017;Dam, 2013;Demir & Arcagök, 2013;Duran, 2020;Eminoğlu-Küçüktepe & Küçüktepe, 2012;Eriksson & McGee, 2015;Ersoy & Özden, 2011;Gümüşgül et al., 2013;Hadjar, 2019;Hensley et al., 2013;Kadı et al., 2016;Kaymakcan, 2002;Keçeci et al., 2011;Kıral & Saracaloğlu, 2018;Kocaman-Karoğlu & Bakar-Çörez, 2020;Koç, 2018;Lin & Wen, 2007;McCabe & Trevino, 1997;Nonis & Swift, 1998;Novianti, 2022;Ömür et al., 2014;Öztürk-Başpınar & Çakıroğlu, 2019;Özyurt & Eren, 2014;Pearson, 2019;Pino & Smith, 2003;Roig & Caso, 2005;Szabo & Underwood, 2004;Şenel et al., 2020;Taşgın et al., 2019;Tayfun et al., 2020;Tümkaya, 2019;Uçak & Ünal, 2015;Underwood & Szabo, 2003;Ünlü & Eroğlu, 2012;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999;Yang et al., 2017;Yangın & Kahyaoğlu, 2009;Yeşilyaprak & Öztürk, 1996). The graduate program attended due to the difference in the level of academic dishonesty according to the duration of graduate education (non-thesis master's, thesis master's, doctorate) was preferred because the studies with graduate students are limited (Kıral & Saracaloğlu, 2018). ...
... Taşgın et al. (2019) also found that the mean scores taken from the subscale of Dishonesty Tendency at Studies as Homework, Project, etc.-common and from the whole scale by the male students are higher than those of the female students. Similar studies have also revealed that male students have a higher tendency to cheat than female students (Adıbatmaz & Kurnaz, 2017;Akbaşlı et al., 2019;Akdağ & Güneş, 2002;Bateman & Valentine, 2010;Burns, et al., 1998;Chow et al., 2021;Coate & Frey, 2000;Dağaşan et al., 2017;Demir & Arcagök, 2013;Eminoğlu-Küçüktepe & Küçüktepe, 2012;Eriksson & McGee, 2015;Ersoy & Özden, 2011;Hadjar, 2019;Hensley et al., 2013;Kadı et al., 2016;Kaymakcan, 2002;Kocaman-Karoğlu & Bakar-Çörez, 2020;Koç, 2018;Lin & Wen, 2007;McCabe & Trevino, 1997;Nonis & Swift, 1998;Ömür et al., 2014;Öztürk-Başpınar & Çakıroğlu, 2019;Özyurt & Eren, 2014;Pino & Smith, 2003;Roig & Caso, 2005;Şenel et al., 2020;Uçak & Ünal, 2015;Underwood & Szabo, 2003;Whitley, 1998;Whitley et al., 1999;Yang et al., 2017;Yangın & Kahyaoğlu, 2009;Yeşilyaprak & Öztürk, 1996). The findings reported in some other studies in the literature are different from this finding of the current study. ...
Article
The number of unethical academic dishonesty behaviours is increasing with each day in higher education. Thus, it is important to determine the level of the behaviour of academic dishonesty in the education system, the tendencies of students to perform this behaviour, and the individuals who have a tendency to show this behaviour in advance. The research has two different aims. The first one is to determine the psychometric properties of the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale (ADTS) originally developed for undergraduate students, not for graduate students. The second aim is to investigate the variables that best explain the academic dishonesty tendency levels of the students who continue their graduate education by using the CHAID analysis method. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that the Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale is also a valid and reliable measurement tool for graduate students. The only significant variable explaining the students’ Tendency Towards Cheating was found to be the level of graduate education. It was also determined that the most important variable affecting the “dishonesty tendency at studies as homework, project, etc.–common” is the level of graduate education. The only significant variable explaining the “dishonesty tendency at research and process of write up” was found to be the reason for receiving graduate education. The most significant variable explaining the “dishonesty tendency towards reference” of the students was found to be the level of graduate education. It was determined that the most significant variable explaining the Academic Dishonesty Tendency of the students is the level of graduate education.
... We added the gender variable as a moderator variable. Based on previous research, many say that men do more academic dishonesty than women (Hensley et al., 2013;Roig & Caso, 2005;Whitley, Bernard E., 1998). However, it is different from other studies that say that women do more disagreement than men (Azar & Applebaum, 2020). ...
... Our research is still in line with previous research that there is an influence of Gender on academic dishonesty. Previous studies have said that men have higher academic dishonesty than women (Hensley et al., 2013;Roig & Caso, 2005;Whitley, Bernard E., 1998). But, different from Azar and Applebaum's (2020) study, women disagree more than men. ...
Article
Full-text available
Academic dishonesty is still a concern of researchers in various parts of the world. this is because there are still many academicians doing this unethical behavior. We examine how Grit plays a role in academic dishonesty. Does grit guarantee students not to commit academic dishonesty? A quantitative approach is used in this research. A total of 408 students in Indonesia participated (M = 95; F = 313). The measuring instrument used is the Academic Dishonesty Scale adapted from Ampuni et, al (2019) with α = 0.860 and the Grit Scale for Children and Adult used by Wahidah (2019) with α = 0.727. The results show that Grit has a significant negative effect on academic dishonesty. The more gritty, the lower the academic dishonesty will be. We also discuss the implications in relation to education
... While most studies found that female students were constantly, albeit, not consistently less involved in the act of plagiarism than to male students (Hendershott, Drinan, & Cross, 1999;McCabe & Treviño, 1997;Rocha & Teixeira, 2005a;Straw, 2002;Simon et al., 2004;Ward & Beck, 2001;Yang, 2014), other studies found that female students were more likely to plagiarise (Taylor Bianco & Deeter Schmelz, 2007;Mirshekary and Lawrence (2009). Roig and Caso (2005) and Bilic-Zulle, et al. (2005), on the other hand, found that plagiarism rate is not significantly affected by gender. Another equally pertinent determinant was academic seniority. ...
... The second research question addressed the act and frequency of plagiarism between genders in the two programmes. This study found that although no significant difference was found in the act of plagiarism among the students in the two programmes, a significant difference, however, was found between the male and female students, which contradicts Roig andCaso (2005) Bilic-Zulle, et al. (2005) who concluded that plagiarism rate is not significantly affected by gender. The findings also contradict Taylor Bianco and Deeter Schmelz (2007), and Mirshekary and Lawrence (2009) who found that female students were more likely to plagiarise. ...
Article
Full-text available
Concerned with intellectual theft, we decided to examine intellectual theft among undergraduates at a private higher education institution. The aim of this study was to compare the act and frequency of plagiarism, particularly between programmes, gender, year of study and academic performance. This study adopted the quantitative approach, using a questionnaire to gather the students’ background information and the general practice of intellectual theft. It was administered to 120 students, i.e. 30 students undertaking the Engineering, IT, Management and Creative Multimedia programmes. For the purpose of this study, we categorised the programmes into Technical programme (TP), i.e. Engineering and IT programmes (science discipline) and Non-Technical programme (NTP), i.e. Management and Creative Multimedia programmes (non-science discipline). This study found that the act of plagarising was prevalent in both categories of the programmes, however, more prevalent among the technical programme students than the non-technical programme students. We also found that the act of intellectual theft was more evident among the males than female, junior than seniors and average academic achievers than high achievers. A comparison between programmes found significant differences in the act of plagiarism among gender, particularly among the female NTP students, among the Year 3 students and among the high achievers. No significant difference was found in relation to the frequency of plagiarism between programmes and gender, but among the students who sometimes plagiarise by level of study and by academic achievements.
... Diversos estudos indicam que a tecnologia e, em especial, a Internet, pode ocasionar o aumento da desonestidade acadêmica e, em especial, da prática de plágio (BEUTE; VAN ASWEGEN, 2008;ETTER;CRAMER;FINN, 2006;IYER;EASTMAN, 2008;GRANITZ;LOEWY, 2007;MAVRINAC et al., 2010;MCCABE, 1999;MCCABE, 2005;SHEARD et al., 2002;SISTI, 2007;ROIG;CASO, 2005). Dentre estes, destaca-se o estudo de McCabe (2005) realizado com 50.000 alunos de graduação de 60 instituições de ensino superior. ...
... A atualidade dos estudos revela a preocupação dos pesquisadores em reforçar as análises em torno dos atuais recursos que possam incentivar ou facilitar a desonestidade acadêmica. Assim, diversas pesquisas têm sido realizadas buscando compreender melhor e estudar as atitudes, práticas e influências da atitude em relação ao plágio (BEUTE; VAN ASWEGEN, 2008;MCCABE, 1999;MCCUEN, 2008;ROIG, 2001;ROIG;CASO, 2005;RETTINGER;KRAMER, 2009;SISTI, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumo A crescente preocupação com a desonestidade acadêmica e seus possíveis impactos para as organizações e sociedade tem requerido especial atenção. Diversos estudos indicam que a tecnologia e, em especial, a Internet, pode ocasionar o aumento da desonestidade acadêmica e, em especial, da prática de plágio. Tipos de desonestidade acadêmica são listados pela literatura como sendo a fraude, o plágio, o auxílio externo e a fraude eletrônica. A existência da intencionalidade do individuo é uma característica central nos estudos sobre plágio, caracterizado como sendo a consequência de uma decisão individual. Do ponto de vista da Theory of Planned Behavior-TPB (Teoria do Comportamento Planejado) de Ajzen (1991), a ação do indivíduo é orientada por crenças (comportamentais, normativas e de controle) que influenciam sua atitude em relação a algo, que por sua vez leva à racionalização da intenção que influenciará o comportamento do indivíduo. Essa abordagem teórica é particularmente adequada para a análise do tema. Este trabalho objetivou identificar os fatores antecedentes que influenciam a atitude em relação ao plágio dentre estudantes brasileiros do ensino superior. Por meio de um sistemático mapeamento da literatura sobre o tema que contou com a dedicação de uma equipe de 8 doutorandos, 3 mestrandos e 2 pós-doutorandos por três meses, esta pesquisa identificou mais de 300 artigos associados direta ou indiretamente ao tema que, sistematicamente avaliados por 5 sub-grupos, convergiram em uma lista 74 artigos considerados fundamentais. Destes, foi gerado um modelo de análise que define como preditores da Atitude Positiva em relação ao Plágio os seguintes construtos: Posicionamento Moral, Normas sociais e Aspectos situacionais. Para análise do modelo, utilizou-se uma pesquisa do tipo survey quando, nesta fase de pré-teste, foram distribuídos aproximadamente 120 questionários, no período de 04 a 08 de Abril de 2011, com alunos de diferentes períodos do curso de Administração, modalidade presencial, de uma Universidade particular. A taxa de retorno dos questionários foi de 52%, totalizando 54 questionários após a etapa inicial de validação. Para análise utilizou-se a modelagem por equações estruturais com algoritmo Partial Least Squares (PLS), técnica adequada para um número reduzido de observações e quando não se pode assumir parâmetros para a distribuição. Concluiu-se que a Expectativa de Valor assim como características pessoais como o Relativismo estão altamente associadas à sua Atitude Positiva frente ao plágio. Novas possibilidades de pesquisa e potenciais ações de gestores podem se abrir a partir deste pré-teste.
... The correlation of cheating-issues such as situational environment factors like the opportunity to cheat, class size, and proctoring concerns have been examined, while personality and other psychological constructs such as attitudes toward cheating, moral reasoning, and demographic differences like age, achievements, gender, and fraternity membership have also received attention in an increasing number of studies (Roig and Caso 2005). Younger students and those who engage in high alcohol consumption have a higher probability of committing cheating (Schuhmann et.al 2013). ...
... "Permitting the students to enroll beyond the regular class load" is the fifth priority of the student participants, and "Requiring the students to obtain a higher general weighted average for the program" is the fifth priority of the faculty member participants. Results of the study is in conformity with the claim of Roig and Caso (2005) who suggested that a significant number of studies have also investigated what students report as the reasons why they cheat, which include competition in class, time constraint, grades, complexity of studying, etc. These results were also verbalized by one student participant when she said, "When the teachers are expecting too much on the general average of the students, there is a tendency for them to cheat during the examinations." ...
Article
This study aims to describe the perception on cheating in an academic community. It employed descriptive research design which sought the participation of faculty members (N=144) and graduating college students (N=428) from a Philippine University to answer a self-made instrument in gathering quantitative and qualitative data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and phases of thematic analysis. Results revealed that faculty members and student participants agreed on the perception of cheating in the forms of examination and assignment while having some disagreements with the other forms of cheating. Furthermore, they also agreed on situations that may encourage cheating such as situations that were faculty related, student related, physical structure related, and program related. Suggestions to minimize the occurrence of cheating were stipulated by the participants. Finally, results were utilized to come up with a program that envisions a cheat-free academic community.
... About half of the respondents did not think self-plagiarism was wrong, with more than half of the respondents believing that self-plagiarism should not be punished the same way as plagiarism of others. Self-plagiarism is common in scholarly writing; authors reuse their own texts that have already been published previously as if they were new ideas (Goldblatt, 1984;Roig and Caso 2005;Broome, 2004), and it was among the most common misconceptions in our study. Authors who self-plagiarize do not make any new contributions to the scholarly world (Lowe, 2003). ...
... The extent to which gender differences play a role in whether students plagiarize has been inconclusive in previous literature. While some studies found that more males than females cheated or found it acceptable to cheat (Smyth and Davis, 2004;Brown and Choong, 2005;Lin & Wen, 2007), others found no significant difference (Roig & Caso, 2005). As the goals of our study were to assess the overall level of understanding and ability to identify plagiarism among higher education students, given that this has not been studied in Rwanda before, we did not include gender as a variable. ...
Article
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Plagiarism is a serious type of scholastic misconduct. In Rwanda, no research has been conducted to assess university students’ attitudes and knowledge of plagiarism and if they have the skills to avoid plagiarizing. This study was conducted to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism, as well as ability to recognize plagiaristic writing, among university students in Rwanda. An online questionnaire containing 10 knowledge questions, 10 attitude statements, and 5 writing cases with excerpts to test identification of plagiarism was administered between February and April 2021. Out of the 330 university students from 40 universities who completed the survey, 75.8% had a high knowledge level (score ≥ 80%), but only 11.6% had a high score in recognizing plagiaristic writing (score ≥ 80%). There was no statistically significant association between knowledge level and ability to recognize plagiaristic writing (P = 0.109). Lower odds were found in both diploma/certificate and bachelor students of having high knowledge as well as of having high ability to recognize plagiaristic writing than in master’s students. Although respondents generally disapproved of plagiarism, approximately half of the respondents indicated that sometimes plagiarism is unavoidable, and self-plagiarism should not be punished in the same way as plagiarism of others’ work. Inter-collegial collaboration on effective plagiarism policies and training programs is needed.
... Males have reported having cheated more than females did and to have more positive attitudes towards cheating than females did (Whitley et al. 1999). Males have also tended to report using fraudulent excuses more frequently than females did (Roig and Caso 2005). In contrast, according to Crown and Spiller's review (1998) of empirical research on collegiate cheating, studies published after 1982 did not find significant gender differences, while Roig and Caso (2005) also reported no significant difference in plagiarism between the genders. ...
... Males have also tended to report using fraudulent excuses more frequently than females did (Roig and Caso 2005). In contrast, according to Crown and Spiller's review (1998) of empirical research on collegiate cheating, studies published after 1982 did not find significant gender differences, while Roig and Caso (2005) also reported no significant difference in plagiarism between the genders. Despite these research findings, we did find a clear difference between men and women regarding plagiarism awareness connected with specific socio-economic factors. ...
Article
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Plagiarism is increasingly prevalent in the educational and research culture in higher education. Students are more and more looking for quick solutions when writing research papers and theses. In this paper, students’ awareness of plagiarism and possible gender differences in this awareness are presented. Gender differences in plagiarism awareness were analysed both generally and within several socio-economic contexts (e.g. social life, living with parents/grandparents, living in a student hall of residence, motivation for study and working during studies). Our study was conducted at the University of Maribor in Slovenia. The findings have revealed statistically significant gender differences in students’ plagiarism awareness; specifically, women have a much more negative attitude towards plagiarism than men. Regarding awareness, students could be divided into three groups: (1) students who are aware of plagiarism but do not consider it wrong or unethical, (2) students who are unaware of plagiarism, and (3) students who are aware of plagiarism but continue to plagiarise despite knowing it to be wrong. A very busy social life, strong motivation for study and working during studies also strongly affect plagiarism and reveal gender differences. Based on the findings of the study, this paper puts forward recommendations for plagiarism prevention. Our recommendations encompass the implementation of a plagiarism policy within academic institutions, strict sanctions on plagiarism, teaching students how to avoid plagiarism and, finally, a national programme for the promotion of academic integrity.
... Importantly, the items of the subscales for cheating on oral exams reflects making fraudulent excuses (e.g., "When I have an oral exam in my language teacher's class, I act as if I knew the answer a second ago, " but note that this could also apply to cheating on homework). Fraudulent excuses represent a facet of academic dishonest behavior that is often distinguished from other facets, namely cheating on exams and plagiarism (Roig and Caso, 2005;Hensley et al., 2013). In their study, Roig and Caso (2005) found that fraudulent excuses are prevalent (72% of the sample report at least one incident), and mainly motivated by efforts to win time and move a deadline. ...
... Fraudulent excuses represent a facet of academic dishonest behavior that is often distinguished from other facets, namely cheating on exams and plagiarism (Roig and Caso, 2005;Hensley et al., 2013). In their study, Roig and Caso (2005) found that fraudulent excuses are prevalent (72% of the sample report at least one incident), and mainly motivated by efforts to win time and move a deadline. Thus, using fraudulent excuses may not necessarily be motivated by an effort to illegitimately receive a better grade, but rather to feel better prepared for an examination and put one's best foot forward (and receive a better grade as a result). ...
Article
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Students’ cheating is a serious problem: It undermines the chance to adequately promote, support, and evaluate them. To explain cheating behavior, research seldom focuses on perceived teachers’ characteristics. Thus, we investigate the relationship between students’ cheating behavior and an important teacher characteristic, individual reference norm orientation (IRNO; i.e., the tendency to evaluate students based on their performance development over time). We examined cheating on written exams, on homework, and in oral exams among N = 601 students (64.2% girls; M age = 16.07 years) in N = 31 language classes. Results from doubly manifest multi-level analyses showed that, on the classroom level, cheating on written exams and on homework occurred less frequently the more the classroom of students perceived their teachers as having an IRNO. We found no further evidence for other cheating factors or student characteristics. This supports the idea that teacher characteristics are associated with some forms of students’ cheating behavior.
... In a study conducted by Kadi, Baytekin and Arslan [16], it was found that there was a significant difference between the academic dishonesty tendencies of Mathematics teacher trainees according to the gender variable. According to the certain results that do not overlap with our study, Roig and Caso [29], found higher academic dishonesty tendencies for male Mathematics teacher trainees compared to females while in [36] found that the male pre-service teachers had higher academic dishonesty tendencies than females and [25] reached the conclusion that male Mathematics teacher trainees tend to have a higher level of tendency towards dishonesty in research and reporting dimension than female Mathematics teacher trainees. As a result of their study, [17] found that there was a significant difference related to gender variables in the dimensions of dishonesty tendency in studies such as homework and projects and the citations. ...
Article
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The need to create awareness and consciousness in the universities and educational faculties that train the teacher trainees has been met with the Scientific Research Methods courses, which deals with the ethical and especially scientific and publication ethics aspects of Academic Dishonesty Behaviors because of their frequent occurrence. In this study, it was aimed to examine the Academic Dishonesty Tendency scores of mathematics teacher trainees, who took Scientific Research Methods courses and who did not take these courses. In addition to this it was determined whether these tendencies differ significantly in terms of gender variable. The sample of the research was composed of Mathematics teacher trainees who were studying in the Department of Mathematics Education of a State University. This study is a descriptive study, which was carried out using the general scanning model. The “Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale” (ADTS) was used to determine the academic dishonesty tendencies of the Mathematics teacher trainees. As the result of this study, it was determined that academic dishonesty tendencies of the Mathematics teacher trainees, both who took and did not take Scientific Research Methods courses, were at the medium level.
... We concur, but with a caveat. Selfreported data is fairly common in the area of plagiarism research generally (Genereux and McLeod 1995;Roig and Caso 2005) and while it can be helpful to an extent, even more useful would be institutional academic misconduct data about rates of self-plagiarism among students or research that uses interventions to teach students about self-plagiarism measuring their understanding of the topic before and after the intervention. Studies that report primary data that goes beyond measuring perceptions and attitudes was largely absent from the literature and is much needed ...
Article
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Self-plagiarism is a contentious issue in higher education, research and scholarly publishing contexts. The practice is problematic because it disrupts scientific publishing by over-emphasizing results, increasing journal publication costs, and artificially inflating journal impact, among other consequences. We hypothesized that there was a dearth of empirical studies on the topic of self-plagiarism, with an over-abundance of editorial and commentary articles based on anecdotal evidence. The research question was: What typologies of evidence characterize the literature on self-plagiarism in scholarly and research journals? We conducted a scoping review, using the search terms “self-plagiarism” and “self-plagiarism” (hyphenated), consulting five social sciences research databases, supplemented by a manual search for articles, resulting in over 5900 results. After removing duplicates and excluding non-scholarly sources, we arrived at a data set of 133 sources, with publication dates ranging from 1968 to 2017. With an interrater reliability of over 93% between two researchers, our typological analysis revealed 47 sources (34.3%) were editorials; 41 (29.9%) were conceptual research (including teaching cases); 16 (11.7%) were editorial responses; 12 (8.6%) were secondary research; and only 8 sources (5.8%) were primary research. There is little guidance in the available literature to graduate students or their professors about how to disentangle the complexities of self-plagiarism. With primary and secondary research combined accounting for 14.4% of overall contributions to the data set, and primary research constituting only 6% of overall contributions, we conclude with a call for more empirical evidence on the topic to support contributions to the scholarly dialogue.
... Standar kompetensi lulusan di (Whitley, 1998;Diekhof, 1996;Jensen, 2001;Roig, 2005 ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is how the forms of dishonest behavior in situations doing paper work, mid semester exam and final exam of the semester and describe the purpose of behaving dishonestly. Participants in this study are 29 students of 4th semester of Islamic studies education program at university x in Purwokerto. This research uses qualitative method with vignette open questionnaire data retrieval tool known as method to reveal values in individual and data analysis using content analysis. Based on the results of this study revealed that the task situation is the most used situation by students to do academic dishonesty. Academic forms of academic dishonesty work on paper assignments, mid semester exam and final semester exam is asking / asking answers, cheating / looking at friends' answers, quoting blogs, copying paste, copying answers, opening small papers. While the purpose of academic disagreement on the situation of doing paper assignments, mid semester exam and final exam of the semester that is to be / easy to do, work completed / quickly completed, for friends to teach / get answers, not difficult in doing, accurate answers, good value, -same cackling with friends and borrowing to copy.
... Similarly, Coleman and Mahaffey (2000) found that women are more intolerant of cheating behaviour in universities than men. More recently, Roig and Caso (2005) investigated 565 undergraduate psychology students and found that while there are no significant gender differences in plagiarist behaviour, significantly more men than women used fraudulent excuses when submitting late academic work. ...
Article
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Prior research on plagiarism has indicated that men may have a greater predisposition toward academic dishonesty than women. However, little research has been conducted using psychometrically tested instruments to validate such claims. To address this gap, a survey was conducted with 377 undergraduate students at a Canadian university on their attitudes toward plagiarism using a psychometrically validated instrument (the Attitudes Toward Plagiarism Questionnaire – Revised). Using differential item functioning/Rasch analysis, no overall differences in attitudes toward plagiarism based on gender were found. A descriptive analysis of both men and women revealed that while only a concerning minority of students reported engaging in plagiarist behaviours; there was a tendency for students to take a permissive stance on plagiarism. These results are discussed within the wider context of plagiarism research in higher education.
... These justifications, however, might not equate to the actual motives of these individuals to plagiarize. Indeed, as Roig and Caso (2005) showed, individuals who plagiarize are more likely than peers to offer fraudulent excuses to justify misconduct. ...
Article
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Interventions that are designed to stem plagiarism do not always override the motivation of individuals to cheat and, therefore, may not diminish misconduct. To inform more effective approaches, we conducted a systematic review to clarify the psychological causes of plagiarism. This review of 83 empirical papers showed that a specific blend of circumstances may foster plagiarism: an emphasis on competition and success rather than development and cooperation coupled with impaired resilience, limited confidence, impulsive tendencies, and biased cognitions. Fortunately, whenever students feel their life and studies align to their future aspirations, many of these circumstances tend to dissipate.
... This form of cheating is also common among students and statistically correlated with other types (Etter et al., 2006). Roig and Caso (2005) reported that 72% of the students used a fraudulent excuse at least once in college and that this form of academic misconduct is statistically correlated with exam cheating and plagiarism. During the COVID-19 period, higher education institutions and instructors have received numerous complaints, problems, and demands related to examinations from their students. ...
Article
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Background: During the COVID-19 period, academics and higher education institutions have shown deep concern about academic integrity related to measurement and evaluation issues that have arisen in online education. Objectives: To address this concern, this paper examined the prevalence of cheating behaviour among university students before and during the pandemic by comparing self-reported cheating behaviours of students and academics' perceived levels of cheating behaviours of their students. Methods: A correlational design was employed aligned with study objectives. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that although both groups reported a significant increase in cheating incidents in online education, instructors' perceived frequency of student cheating is remarkably greater than students' self-report cheating incidents. Contrary to the perceptions of instructors and stakeholders in education, students did not report a very drastic cheating increase in online education during the pandemic. The strongest predictive power for online cheating behaviours was the cheating behaviours in face-to-face education. Whereas the sensitivity of institutions and course instructors toward cheating behaviour was negatively associated with cheating behaviours in face-to-face education, this situational factor did not show a significant effect in distance education. Regarding individual factors, we found a significant relationship between cheating behaviours and gender, discipline, whereas no significant relationship was found in terms of student GPA. Consequently, in order to minimize the threats to the validity of scores associated with cheating, faculty should be supported through faculty development programs and resources so that they can develop authentic assessment strategies for measuring higher-order thinking skills. KEYWORDS academic integrity, cheating, COVID-19 pandemic, cyber cheating, online cheating, plagiarism
... Gender difference in cheating is still inconclusive. While in some studies females students were found to cheat significantly less than male students (Smyth & Davis, 2004;Rocha & Teixeira, 2005), others did not find significant gender differences (Roig & Caso, 2005;Hrabak, Vujaklija, Vodopivec, Hren, Marusic & Marusic, 2004). ...
Article
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The study explored student-teachers' views on cheating during examinations. A mixed method approach which involved a survey and focus group interviews was employed. Nine hundred undergraduate education students from a public university and three colleges of education in Ghana were surveyed. Focus group interviews were held with six students from each institution selected. A total of 942 students participated in the study. The findings indicate that fear of failure seem to be the main motivation for cheating; students perceived cheating acts treated as minor offences as 'helping' peers; the severity of the punishment applied if students are caught cheating negatively influence their propensity to cheat; students' perception of ethical values does not determine the level of prevalence of cheating; peer loyalty or fellow feeling is dominant; and students perceive a correspondence between social corruption and cheating. It is recommended that the risk of detection should be increased and the penalty for the 'less serious offences' reconsidered. If students perceive cheating within the context of their social experience, the overall quality of student experience needs to be considered if the likelihood of cheating is to be minimised. It is suggested that more attention needs to be paid to institutionalizing academic integrity instead of managing cheating.
... This form of cheating is also common among students and statistically correlated with other types (Etter et al., 2006). Roig and Caso (2005) reported that 72% of the students used a fraudulent excuse at least once in college and that this form of academic misconduct is statistically correlated with exam cheating and plagiarism. During the COVID-19 period, higher education institutions and instructors have received numerous complaints, problems, and demands related to examinations from their students. ...
Article
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Lay Description What is already known about this topic The COVID‐19 period created an abrupt shift in learning conditions and measurement processes. Educational administrators and teachers have also shown deep concern about academic integrity related to measurement and evaluation issues that have arisen in distance education during the pandemic period. Previous studies investigating the factors affecting students' academic dishonesty in traditional cheating behaviours have primarily focused on individual and situational factors. What this paper adds The online education process caused an increase in cheating behaviour scores. There is a substantial range between students and instructors’ responses about online cheating during the pandemic. Cheating behaviour in face‐to‐face education significantly explains cheating behaviour in online education. Cheaters in face‐to‐face education are also cheaters in online education. The sensitivity shown by university and course instructors toward cheating yielded a mixed result in online and face‐to‐face education. In online and face‐to‐face education settings, cheating behaviour scores of female students are lower than male students. Students with lower GPA scores generally have higher cheating behaviours. Implications for practice and/or policy Individual and contextual factors are major determinants of cheating behaviours. In order to minimize the threats on validity of scores associated with cheating, faculty should be supported through faculty development programs and resources so that they can develop authentic assessment strategies for measuring higher‐order thinking skills. This study fills an important gap in the available literature on cheating before and during COVID‐19. The study has a potential to guide higher education institutions for planning and initiating strategies to address cheating in short and long term.
... increased use of technology, which offers multiple opportunities for students to access and utilize others' work as their own (Anney & Mosha, 2015;Eret & Ok, 2014;Roig, 2001). Instructors are finding it increasingly more difficult to differentiate between plagiarism and proper paraphrasing, which contributes to continued concern within higher education (Roig, 2001;Roig & Caso, 2005). Currently, higher education institutions recognize six forms or categories classified as plagiarism: copy and paste, word switch, style plagiarism, metaphor plagiarism, idea plagiarism, and plagiarism of authorship. ...
Conference Paper
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Plagiarism has been an increased concern for online programs due to the easy accessibility of others’ work. The prevalence of plagiarism is a cause for concern because of the harm the student causes themselves and those they are plagiarizing. A number of steps can be implemented to help students understand plagiarism and how to avoid it. To develop learning modules to address key plagiarism concepts, an understanding of student knowledge of plagiarism is needed. Student questions related to plagiarism issues as well as quiz results were examined to determine student knowledge in online graduate programs in this exploratory sequential mixed methods study.
... First, students' GPA was negatively associated with academic dishonesty. In other words, students with a high GPA cheat less and students with a low GPA cheat more (Aniton & Michael, 1983;Baird, 1980;Bowers, 1964;Haines et al., 1986;Klein et al., 2007;Lipson & McGavern, 1993;Michaels & Miethe, 1989;Olafson, et al., 2013;Roig & Caso, 2005;Singhal, 1982). Although, it should be noted that McCabe et al. (2012) found evidence that students in the top of the rankings who appeared extremely competitive also demonstrated a higher propensity to cheat. ...
... The literature on plagiarism offers many-different-reasons for student-plagiarism. These include, but are not limited to: time, to complete tasks (poor-time-management); perceived disjuncture between award (grade) and effort-required; too-much-work to complete over too-many-subjects; pressure, to do well; perceptions, that students will not get caught; motivation and self-motivation; and individual-factors (Roig & Caso, 2005;Sheard et al., 2003;Park, 2003;Caruana et al., 2000). These-studies tend to focus on individual-student-characteristics. ...
Article
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Undoubtedly, plagiarism has been a global-concern, especially so, in institutions of higher-learning. Furthermore, over the past-decades, cases of student-plagiarism, in higher-education, have increased, substantially. This-issue cannot be taken, without due-consideration, and it is crucial for educators, and universities, at large, to find the best-ways, to discourage and reduce the acts of students' plagiarism. The aim of this-study, therefore, was to address plagiarism in professional-university-education from undergraduate-engineering-students' attitudinal-perspective. In particular, to ascertain how plagiarism is defined by the students; which factors, they perceive, exacerbate plagiarism; how they justify plagiarism; and severity and penalty related to the misconduct. This-paper illustrates a fraction of a larger-research on plagiarism at the School of Engineering. The study-design used a descriptive-survey-approach and a document-analysis. A designed confidential self-report-questioner was applied as the main-instrument for this-study, with the sample-size (N=25), and a response-rate (RR=84%). The tool was pre-tested to ensure its validity and reliability. The data-collection-instrument was subjected to the statistical-analysis to determine its reliability via Cronbach's alpha-coefficient, and found high inter-item consistency (a > 0.9). The major-results of this-study revealed overall and widespread-deficiency in students' understanding of plagiarism; also more than half of the students, in the-subject-sample, were not adequately-informed about plagiarism in academic-writing; 76% of the respondents agreed, that those who say, they have never plagiarized, are lying; and also that everyone else around are plagiarizing (e.g., students, researchers, and academic-staff); 48% of the respondents agreed, that they keep on plagiarizing, because they have not been caught yet, while 33% stated, that they are tempted to plagiarize because, even if caught, the punishment (if any) will be light (the reward outweighs the risk). Several-specific-recommendations, on how to fight plagiarism, were provided, alongside with identification of areas for further-research. This-study would offer awareness to the undergraduates, lecturers, and the faculty-administrators, on the gravity of plagiarism-acts and how to avoid it, in the university. The study also will make a contribution (in its small-way) to the body of knowledge on the subject-matter.
... Finally, honor codes, which are North American specific, have little to limited value in global contexts where the appropriation of language facilitates learning. Honor codes tend to place the responsibility of cheating on the student rather than the university structure, policy, and classroom instruction (McCabe and Trevino 2002;Roig and Caso 2010). Thus, obtaining an accurate measure of plagiarism, which has its own challenges and concerns, comes most accurately through trustworthy human reporting about dishonesty (Rakovski and Levy 2007). ...
Article
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This article investigates whether acts of plagiarism are predictable. Through a deductive, quantitative method, this study examines 517 students and their motivation and intention to plagiarize. More specifically, this study uses an ethical theoretical framework called the Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) to proffer five hypotheses about cognitive, relational, and social processing relevant to ethical decision making. Data results indicate that although most respondents reported that plagiarism was wrong, students with strong intentions to plagiarize had a more positive attitude toward plagiarizing, believed that it was important that family and friends think plagiarizing is acceptable, and perceived that plagiarizing would be an easy task. However, participants in the current study with less intention to plagiarize hold negative views about plagiarism, do not believe that plagiarism is acceptable to family, friends or peers, and perceive that the act of plagiarizing would prove difficult. Based on these findings, this study considers implications important for faculty, librarians, and student support staff in preventing plagiarism through collaborations and outreach programming.
... Někteří žáci také falšují podpisy rodičů, lžou o svých zdravotních či rodinných problémech, aby získali různé úlevy či výhody před svými spolužáky. Toto chování je v textu označené, s plným vědomím, jak může být mimo odborný kontext zavádějící, jako klamání (v zahraničních výzkumech používají různí autoři různé termíny, nejlépe by ale odpovídalo termínům lhaní a falšování; Marsden, Carroll, Neill, 2005;Roig, Caso, 2005). ...
Article
Objectives. The study deals with the relationship between moral and social norms related to dishonest behavior, frequency of cheating, and the ways in which pupils make excuses for the scholastic cheating. Subjects and methods. Survey among early adolescents (N = 438) was focused on determining the frequency of scholastic cheating, on the degree of acceptance of the standards relating to cheating, the moral standards requesting honest behavior, and the acceptance of different reasons for the self-justification of scholastic cheating. Hypotheses. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the theoretical concepts of "moral disengagement" and "neutralization" in relation to justifying scholastic cheating reflect similar cognitive process; 2) justifying on the cognitive level helps students to cope with the discrepancy between the desired normative behavior and their actual behavior. Statistical analyses. Factor analysis and structural modeling were used to verify this hypothesis. Results. It was confirmed that, in terms of scholastic cheating, students have a different attitude towards copying answers and lying. According to the Moral domain theory (domains represent areas of different thinking about situations) pupil's copying of answers falls in the conventional domain, while lying belongs to the moral domain. Our study gave empirical evidence about the overlap between moral disengagement and "the neutralization techniques linked to scholastic cheating justification. Moreover the structural models confirmed that moral neutralization is a mechanism to help the student manage a discrepancy between how "I should behave" and how "I actually behave" only in relation to laying, i.e. moral domain. The copying of answers is probably not clearly classified by pupils themselves as conduct endangering their positive self-portrait, so they have no reason to self-justify it. Moral norms influenced the frequency of individual cheating only indirectly through the mediation of neutralization. The approval of cheating was a stronger predictor of cheating frequency than the agreement with moral standards requesting honest behavior. Study limitation. The study is limited to early adolescents (12-16 ages) and the type of school for which the moral neutralization and the scholastic cheating questionnaires were created, and also linmited by self-reported method of data collection.
... The literature on plagiarism offers many different reasons for student plagiarism. These include, but are not limited to: time, to complete tasks (poor time management); perceived disjuncture between award (grade) and effort required; too much work to complete over too many subjects; pressure, to do well; perceptions, that students will not get caught; motivation and self-motivation; and individual factors (see Roig & Caso, 2005;Sheard et al., 2003;Caruana et al., 2000). These studies tend to focus on individual student characteristics. ...
Book
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In ancient times, even the idea of an intellectual property did not exist. Now intellectual property, becomes a crucial topic, in science, engineering, and academia. In fact, intellectual property, as any other property, can be stolen; its ‘theft’, commonly known as ‘plagiarism’ is a corruption of authentic scholarship and innovation. Scholastic pressure of ‘publish or perish’ for staff, and pressure for good grades for students, have lead both into the plagiarism trap. The discoveries of the Internet and ICTs have, indeed, amplified the prospect to a scale of a colossal ‘mouse click’ plagiarism, which currently has allegedly reached ‘epidemic proportions’, with no professional, institutional, or geographical boundaries. The consequences of plagiarism can be damaging, for perpetrators; an-affiliated institution; a publisher; and the society at large. This book attempts to expose this multilayer phenomenon, and most importantly, to direct on how to avoid and combat the menace. The author trusts, that this book is rather informative and, hence, useful, for any actor, involved in scientific and academic research, writing, as well as in publishing process.
... There are also other forms of dishonesty, discussed less often, such as plagiarism and data falsification (Carroll, 2004) which may be defined as consciously misleading others about the originality of the specific work, about the data and their author (Decoo, 2002). Many studies show, however, that the problem of plagiarism appears at universities as often as or even more often than the problem of cheating as such (Roig & Caso, 2005). One factor which undoubtedly contributes to this phenomenon becoming more intense, especially with regard to plagiarism, is the increasingly widespread and easier Internet access (Ma, Wan & Lu, 2008). ...
Article
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The study investigates the psychological and moral acceptance of cheating and plagiarism among university students in Poland. A sample of 285 students participated. Results demonstrate that the locus of control, justice sensitivity, and some individual ethical philosophical dimensions are significant predictors for accepting dishonest behaviour. My research results support the basic theoretical arguments that point out the role of acceptable individual conditions for cheating and plagiarism. The research offers implications for the practice of moral awareness and for some possible training for university students.
... After assessing existing literature about gender and plagiarism in their article Jereb, Uhr et al. (2018) found inconclusiveness of scientific literature. While some studies (including their own) found differences among gender (for example, Brown & Choong, 2005;Davies et al., 1992;Smyth & Davis, 2004;Whitley et al., 1999), others discovered no significance (Crown & Spiller, 1998;Roig & Caso, 2005). For this reason, it is worth contextualizing answers to question 7 (summarized in table 3) in the context of gender. ...
Article
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This article is about plagiarism from the perspective of university students. It presents data collected among 309 students at the Faculty of Law, Palacký University in Olomouc, to reveal attitudes of future lawyers towards the issue of plagiarism. The research follows previous research made at Mendel University in Brno. Next to the revealing attitudes of students towards plagiarism, the article compares results achieved at both institutions and tries to reveal the most critical factors leading to plagiarism. Moreover, data obtained at Palacký University are put into the broader theoretical context of research on plagiarism.
... The little ethics teaching that is now offered in schools is sometimes restricted to the Philosophy department or even to just one ethics course. McCabe, Trevino and Butterfield (2001) noted that despite research showing that males cheat more often than women (McCabe and Trevino, 1997;Roig and Caso, 2005), the inequalities between men and women seem to be "eroding with time". Concerns about the reliability of University of Zululand credentials were raised by media allegations from 2016 about a "Degrees-for-sale fraud" at the institution that allegedly began as early as 2008. ...
Article
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This study sought to analyse the role of the South African Qualifications Authority in curbing the misrepresentation of qualifications. Academic degrees are highly valued throughout the globe because they are seen as a dependable and trusted proxy for the bearers' knowledge, abilities and skills. In the same vein, the higher education system in South Africa makes every effort to generate well-qualified graduates who are capable of assisting in the leadership of the country's socio-economic growth. Recent reports in the media, on the other hand, create the impression that this initiative is being hampered by the widespread use of counterfeit, phoney and other illegitimate credentials. Consequently, the reputation of the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA) is in grave danger as a result of the increasing prevalence of dishonestly misrepresented qualifications in both the public and private sectors. The education system is also at risk of losing its credibility as a result of actions involving deception, which is a subject that has to be addressed at the highest levels possible. Notably, the public service in South Africa is making significant progress towards the goal of ensuring that individuals who misrepresent their qualifications are barred from ever working in the public sector again. In this regard, SAQA plays an important role by offering verification services to individuals who are interested in applying for jobs in the public sector. Thus, this study contributes to the literature on credentialism and qualifications from the developing world with specific reference to South Africa.
... Regarding the predictive effect of demographic variables on academic misconduct, only age was found to have a significant positive correlation with academic misconduct. Gender had no effect which is consistent with the previous literature 9, 17 . ...
Article
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Academic dishonesty is becoming a big concern for the education systems worldwide. Despite much research on the factors associated with academic dishonesty and the methods to alleviate it, it remains a common problem at the university level. In the current study, we conducted a survey to link personality traits (using the HEXACO model) and people’s general attitudes towards the rule (i.e., “rule conditionality” and “perceived obligation to obey the law/rule”) to academic dishonesty among 370 university students. Using correlational analysis and structural equation modeling, the results indicated that both personality traits and attitudes towards the rule significantly predicted academic misconduct. The findings have important implications for researchers and university educators in dealing with academic misconduct.
... Pada jenjang pendidikan misalnya, ketidakjujuran akademik telah dilakukan pada pendidikan Sekolah Dasar (Fredrika, 2013), Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Lestari & Asyanti, 2015), Sekolah Menengah Atas (Ungusari, 2015) dan Peguruan Tinggi (Herdian & Wulandari, 2018). Sedangkan penelitian yang mengkaji faktor ketidakjujuran akademik dilakukan oleh banyak penelitian (lihat Handayani & Baridwan, 2013: Nursani & Irianto;2013;Mujahidah; (Whitley, 1998;Diekhof, 1996;Jensen, 2001;Hendricks, 2004;Roig, 2005;Hensley dkk, 2013). ...
Article
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This study aimed at examining academic behavior and its relation to demography. The quantitative descriptive approach was used to study more broadly with data collection tools using a closed questionnaire. Respondents in this study were 96 students of the Faculty of Economics and Business at X College in Purwokerto. The results of the study show that, in each semester, honest behavior was more than honest behavior, especially in the first semester of the lecture. While the gender of both women and men did not have high differences. Academic dishonesty was also related to the origin of school, general schools (not based on religion) were more compared to religious-based schools such as MAN. Whereas based on age, 18-20 more academic dishonesty was found. AbstrakPenelitian ini mengkaji perilaku akademik dan kaitannya dengan demografi. Pendekatan kuantitatif deskriptif digunakan untuk mengkaji lebih luas dengan alat pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner tertutup. Responden dalam penelitian ini yaitu 96 mahasiswa Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis pada Perguruan Tinggi X di Purwokerto. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa, disetiap semester perilaku tidak jujur lebih banyak dibandingkan perilaku jujur, terutama pada semester awal perkuliahan. Sedangkan jenis kelamin baik perempuan maupuun laki-laki tidak memiliki perbedaan yang tinggi. Ketidakjujuran akademik juga berkaitan dengan asal sekolah, sekolah yang umum (tidak berbasis agama) lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan sekolah yang berbasis agama seperti MAN. Sedangkan berdasarkan usia, 18-20 lebih banyak ditemukan ketidakjujuran akademik.
... Thus, a student's attitude about whether he/she personally believes cheating to be right or wrong is considered to be of great importance (O'Rourke et al., 2010). Researchers have noted that the tendency towards cheating increases during the later years of university study (Bekaroğlu, 2002;Carpenter, Harding, Finelli, Montgomery, & Passow, 2006;Paldy, 1996;Roig & Caso, 2005;Semerci, 2004;Semerci & Sağlam, 2005). Cheating is a conscious behavior that changes over time throughout the period of learning and acquisition in educational science faculties. ...
... Although cheating on tests, receiving unauthorized help, and plagiarism of written projects have been the most studied forms, CAB covers a much broader spectrum of negative behaviors. For instance, voluntary academic absenteeism, low effort behaviors, and the inappropriate use of institutional resources have similar or higher levels of prevalence than the previously listed forms of CAB (Roig & Caso, 2005). Additionally, CAB can show different levels of severity (see Kisamore et al., 2007;Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, & Armstead, 1996) and different degrees of frequency (see, e.g., Jensen, Arnett, Feldman, & Cauffman, 2002;Marsden, Carroll, & Neill, 2005). ...
Article
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Counterproductive academic behaviors (CAB) are a major problem for educational institutions all over the world. For this reason, to determine the potential predictors of CAB is relevant. After defining CAB and introducing a typology of seven CABs facets (i.e., cheating, absenteeism, plagiarism, deception, breach of rules, low effort, and misuse of resources), this study reports on a comprehensive meta-analysis carried out to estimate the relationships between CAB and its facets with the Big Five personality dimensions and intelligence. Results showed that conscientiousness (K = 77, N = 31,473, ρ = -.28) and agreeableness (K = 56, N = 24,436, ρ = -.14) were predictors of the student's propensity to engage in CAB. Conscientiousness also predicted the 7 facets of CAB, particularly absenteeism (ρ = -.30), cheating (ρ = -.34), misuse of resources (ρ = -.32), low effort (ρ = -.29), and breach of rules (ρ = -.27). Intelligence showed a negative relationship with CAB (K = 55, N = 30,052, ρ = -.19), and it was the best predictor of deception (K = 18, N = 3,575 ρ = -.48). The educational level, the type of cognitive tests, and the intelligence factor assessed were relevant moderators of the validity estimates. The validity of a compound of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and intelligence was .42 for predicting overall CAB. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Most instructors will grant extensions to students upon request (Hills, Overend, and Hildebrandt 2022); however, this approach assumes that a student feels comfortable in making the request and disclosing why they need it. This approach may also encourage some students to fabricate an excuse (Caron, Whitbourne, and Halgin 1992;Roig and Caso 2005). Educators should consider how the ability to meet rigid deadlines or to self-advocate for flexibility represents a greater barrier for some students than for others-"to be flexible is to begin by interrogating assumptions about who the learner is and what tools and capacities they have at their disposal" (Veletsianos and Houlden 2020, 852). ...
Article
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Traditional course deadline policies uphold the myth of the “normal” student, assuming students face few and equal barriers to completing work on time. In contrast, flexible deadline policies acknowledge that students face unequal barriers and seek to mitigate them. Flexible deadline policies maintain structure while transferring some decision-making power from the instructor into the hands of the student. These practices align with current pedagogical movements in higher education that seek to empower all students to meet learning goals. This study explores student perspectives on, and use of, proactive extensions built into a recent university course. We compare extension use in low-stake, high-stake, individual, and team assignments; observe how extension use changed over the term; and examine student self-reported responses about the policy. Students unanimously agreed that the proactive extension policy was valuable to their learning. They reported that the proactive extensions enabled them to improve the quality of their work and to better manage their academic workloads, acting as self-regulated learners. They also frequently described reduced stress as a benefit. Extensions generally appeared to be used as needed rather than encouraging procrastination. Students also identified that the need to request extensions in other courses was a barrier. The instructor of this course also benefitted from implementing this policy. Faculty should consider implementing flexible deadline policies to improve student learning experiences and to contribute to a more equitable and inclusive learning environment.
... Hu and Lei's (2015) survey of 270 Chinese university students did not find statistically significant effects of gender on perceptions of plagiarism. Neither did Roig and Csao (2005) identify any significant gender difference in self-reported engagement in plagiaristic practices. Similarly, Allmon et al.'s. ...
Article
Although much has been written about Chinese students’ understandings of illegitimate intertextual practices, few studies have investigated Chinese university teachers’ perceptions of plagiarism, let alone the effects of their disciplinary background on their knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism. This paper reports on a study that examined the knowledge that 128 Chinese university teachers of different disciplinary backgrounds had of plagiarism, their attitudes toward identified plagiarism, and their own ability to engage in legitimate paraphrasing. Multiple regression analyses showed that disciplinary background and teaching experience were significant predictors of the participants’ knowledge of plagiarism, whereas disciplinary background and overseas experience significantly predicted their stance on plagiarism. A logistic regression analysis identified disciplinary background as a significant predictor of the participants’ ability to produce legitimate paraphrases. Qualitative analyses of the participants’ open-ended responses revealed that their criteria for plagiarism aligned with Anglo-American conceptions of plagiarism and that intertextual competence was dependent in no small measure on linguistic competence.
... Students who are failing a class are 24 times more likely to have a family member die prior to the exam than students who are sitting on an A for the class. The relationship between academic success and excuse fabrication has been found to be significant by Caron, Whitbourne and Halgin (1992), and Roig and Caso (2005). Both studies find that students with higher GPAs report being less likely to fabricate an excuse for missing an assessment. ...
Conference Paper
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SESSION C1: Integration of theory and practice in the learning and teaching process CONTEXT This paper investigates the effect of changing the formative assessment in an intensive introductory Thermodynamics paper offered to students studying towards an Engineering qualification. PURPOSE To improve the use of class time of students in an intensive course so that they are better prepared for their exams which occur in close proximity to learning. APPROACH A new approach involving a fully rounded experience was implemented to improve use of students' class time. Active learning strategies, and mini-exams were employed. The quantity of formative assessment was increased, and the structure of classes was altered to place the formative assessment immediately after each topic covered. RESULTS An improvement to student grades and completion rates was observed compared to the previous instance of the paper. Student feedback towards the new strategy was very favourable. CONCLUSIONS The new structure achieved the aim of lifting passing rates, improving participation and preventing procrastination. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecom mons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2 INTRODUCTION This paper describes an innovation in the delivery of an introductory thermodynamics course offered to students studying towards an engineering qualification. The course was delivered in intensive format, across three weeks of study. Students find it challenging to engage with complex engineering topics in a short period of time, and there is no sizeable study break for pre-exam study. This means that students cannot afford to delay in learning and applying content. Every class must be an opportunity to interact with the content immediately. The innovation described here involved implementing a new daily structure for the course that attempted to mimic the standard process by which students learn material, apply it, study it and practice it in across a traditional-length semester. The new structure involved integrating the lecture and recitation components to the course to increasing the active learning during material delivery, then allowing students to engage in guided study and open-book formative assessment. This paper describes the implementation of this innovation. A brief review of the literature on intensive courses is provided, followed by a description of the approach used in this particular class. The results are then presented, and evaluated in the context of the research and the instructor's own critical reflection.
... Lim and See, 2001), while others incidentally provide an estimate of misconduct prevalence in studies examining other issues such as predictors of cheating (e.g. Roig and Caso, 2005). Such studies could be used to map historical trends in plagiarism and cheating prevalence over the past 30 years. ...
Chapter
Are students cheating and plagiarizing more or less than they used to? The best available evidence, which allows for like-with-like comparisons, suggests that the prevalence of plagiarism and cheating among students trended downward in the 30 years from 1990 to 2020. In addition, there is not clear evidence that students replaced copy-and-paste plagiarism with a corresponding increase in commercial contract cheating. Targeted educational, technological, and policy interventions to reduce plagiarism and cheating, which have become more common, may account for the downward trend. Still, the downward trend in plagiarism and cheating prevalence faces emerging threats.
... For example, Hu and Lei (2015) did not find a main effect of gender on students' perceptions of plagiarism, though the variable interacted significantly with disciplinary background on most of the measures of knowledge and attitudes regarding plagiarism. Similarly, Roig and Csao (2005) did not identify any significant difference between male and female American undergraduate students in self-reported engagement in plagiarism. Nor did Allmon, Page, and Roberts (2000) find any gender-based difference in ethical orientation toward plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty in their survey of American and Australian graduate and undergraduate business students. ...
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This paper reports on a mixed-methods study that utilized a convergent parallel design to examine Chinese graduate students' knowledge of and stance on plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 183 master's students from three broad disciplinary groupings at a major university in northeastern China completed a Perceptions of Plagiarism (PoP) survey, and another 13 graduate students participated in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed disciplinary differences in knowledge of subtle plagiarism, stance on plagiarism caused by inadequate academic ability and due to perceived low risks, and non-condemnatory attitudes toward plagiarism. There were also gender differences in knowledge of inappropriate referencing and attitudes toward plagiarism due to inadequate academic ability or perceived low risks. These results are interpreted in terms of training in English academic writing available, disciplinary knowledge-making practices, and gender characteristics. By way of conclusion, pedagogical implications are derived from the empirical results.
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We study cheating behavior in a large sample of elementary school children in the context of a creative performance task, in the presence and absence of performance incentives. Our data come from a sample of 720 elementary school children with an average age of 8, and contain rich information on a large set of correlates, such as risk and time preferences, IQ, gender and family characteristics. We document that children with higher IQ and higher socioeconomic status have a higher likelihood of cheating. We find that the presence of incentives for better performance does not increase cheating behavior. We also document an interesting interaction between altruism and incentives: altruistic students cheat significantly less in the presence of incentives.
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Portraying matters as other than they truly are is an important part of everyday human communication. In this paper, we use a survey to examine ways in which people fabricate, omit or alter the truth online. Many reasons are found, including creative expression, hiding sensitive information, role-playing, and avoiding harassment or discrimination. The results suggest lying is often used for benign purposes, and we conclude that its use may be essential to maintaining a humane online society
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The classroom is an experimental lab for students as they spend a significant part of their formative years in school and colleges for learning goals. It is essential that the environment of schools and colleges should be able to inculcate positive behavioral traits among students to enable them to develop the required skills and attitude. The current study tried to understand classroom behavior among management students in Gujarat. The classroom behavior has the potential to be influenced by ethical values and entrepreneurial attitude of students. The student engagement practices can be a tool to improve the classroom behavior. The outcomes suggest that the teachers experience disruptive behavior, less ethical standards, and increased entrepreneurial attitude among students. Students' self-perception of behavior is positive, with proper ethical standards and have an entrepreneurial mindset. The study found conflicts in the perceptions of teachers and students for classroom behavior and ethical standards. Positive teacher attitude and practical learning were preferred engagement avenues.
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The purpose of this study was to see the relationship between procrastination and academic cheating in students. The research subjects were 378 students of Makassar State University. The data collection technique uses a scale using an academic cheating scale with aspects of cheating, plagiarism, and facilitating and a procrastination scale with aspects of delay in doing academic assignments, delays in doing academic assignments, differences between intentions and behavior, doing other things that are more fun than doing work or studying. The results showed that there was a relationship between procrastination and academic cheating. Students who have high procrastination have a high academic disability.
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Resumen La deshonestidad expresada en prácticas como el plagio consciente o inconsciente, formas de citar, copiar en exámenes, uso de tecnología para hacer trampa, suplantación de identidad, fraude en la entrega de trabajos duplicados, etc. se muestra de forma cada vez más común y se incorpora a una cultura organizacional a través de valores y antivalores, así como de hábitos que los conforman. El tema de la deshonestidad e integridad académica a partir de la literatura, visualiza un problema actual por la recurrencia del fenómeno. El objetivo de la investigación es analizar la integridad académica y las prácticas deshonestas que la deterioran entre estudiantes de posgrado de dos universidades mexicanas. Se utiliza una metodología cuantitativa, con una muestra no probabilística, en estudiantes de cinco posgrados de ambas instituciones. Se concluye que las prácticas deshonestas mencionadas se encuentran presentes con cierta frecuencia, aunque aún no de manera generalizada Palabras clave Integridad, deshonestidad y prácticas académicas, cultura organizacional Dishonesty, an element that changes the integrity on academic practices for higher educational institutions. Comparative cases study Abstract Dishonesty expressed in practices such as conscious or unconscious plagiarism, ways of quoting, copying in exams, the use of technology to cheat, impersonation in exams, fraud in the delivery of duplicate works, etc., is increasingly shown as a common thing, and it is incorporated into an organizational culture through values and anti-values as well as habits that conform them. The issue of dishonesty and academic integrity from literature, visualizes a current problem because of the recurrence of the phenomenon. The objective of the research is to analyze the academic integrity and the dishonest practices that deteriorate it among postgraduate students of two Mexican Universities. A quantitative methodology is used, with a non-probabilistic sample, in five postgraduate programs, and its students from both institutions. It is concluded that the above mentioned dishonest practices are present with some frequency, although not in a generalized way. Keywords Integrity, dishonesty and academic practices, organizational culture.
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The extensive body of economic and psychological research correlating between students' cheating and their academic grade point average (GPA) consistently finds a significant negative relationship between cheating and the GPA. However, this literature is entirely based on students' responses to direct-question surveys that inquire whether they have ever cheated on their academic assignments. The present paper examines this relationship on the basis of experimental data. It reports the results of a two-round experiment designed to expose student cheating at the individual level and correlate it with three intellectual achievement measures: the GPA, the high-school matriculation average grade (MAG) and the psychometric exam score (PES). The experiment involved two classes of third-year economics students incentivized by a competitive reward to answer a multiple-choice trivia quiz without consulting their electronic devices. While this forbiddance was deliberately overlooked in the first round, providing an opportunity to cheat, it was strictly enforced in the second, conducted two months later in the same classes with the same quiz. A comparison of subjects' performance in the two rounds, self-revealed a considerable extent of cheating in the first one. Regressing the individual cheating levels on subjects' gender and their intellectual achievement measures exhibited no significant differences in cheating between males and females. However, cheating of both genders was found to significantly increase with each achievement measure, implying, in sharp contrast with the direct-question surveys, that higher achievers are bigger cheaters.
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In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationship between prospective teachers' attitudes towards cheating and academic dishonesty tendencies. The research in the relational survey type was conducted in the fall semester of the 2016-2017 academic year. The population of the research consists of prospective teachers studying at a public university education faculty. The sample of the study consists of 635 prospective teachers studying in different classes and departments of the same faculty. The data of the study were obtained from the “Scale for Attitude towards Cheating” and the “Academic Dishonesty Tendency Scale”. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H and Spearman Correlation Analysis tests were used to analyze the data. According to the results of the study, it was found that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of the prospective teachers about cheating according to gender, department, grade and grade point average. While there is a significant difference in academic dishonesty tendencies of prospective teachers according to gender, department and grade point average variables, there is no significant difference according to grade variable. In addition, there was a significant relationship between prospective teachers' attitudes towards cheating and academic dishonesty tendencies. According to the results of the research, it is recommended that prospective teachers should be given seminars in order to increase their awareness about cheating and academic dishonesty, and it is recommended to use plagiarism programs in the evaluation of student teachers' assignments in order to reduce the tendency of academic dishonesty.
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La deshonestidad, elemento que altera la integridad en las prácticas académicas en las Instituciones de Educación Superior. Estudios de caso comparados Recibido 16 de diciembre de 2016 / aprobado 01 de marzo de 2017 Palabras clave Integridad, deshonestidad y prácticas académicas, cultura organizacional Resumen La deshonestidad expresada en prácticas como el plagio consciente o inconsciente, formas de citar, copiar en exámenes, uso de tecnología para hacer trampa, suplantación de identidad, fraude en la entrega de trabajos duplicados, etc. se muestra de forma cada vez más común y se incorpora a una cultura organizacional a través de valores y antivalores, así como de hábitos que los conforman. El tema de la deshonestidad e integridad académica a partir de la literatura, visualiza un problema actual por la recurrencia del fenómeno. El objetivo de la investigación es analizar la integridad académica y las prácticas deshonestas que la deterioran entre estudiantes de posgrado de dos universidades mexicanas. Se utiliza una metodología cuantitativa, con una muestra no probabilística, en estudiantes de cinco posgrados de ambas instituciones. Se concluye que las prácticas deshonestas mencionadas se encuentran presentes con cierta frecuencia, aunque aún no de manera generalizada. Keywords Integrity, dishonesty and academic practices, organizational culture. Dishonesty, an element that changes the integrity on academic practices for higher educational institutions. Comparative cases study Abstract Dishonesty expressed in practices such as conscious or unconscious plagiarism, ways of quoting, copying in exams, the use of technology to cheat, impersonation in exams, fraud in the delivery of duplicate works, etc., is increasingly shown as a common thing, and it is incorporated into an organizational culture through values and anti-values as well as habits that conform them. The issue of dishonesty and academic integrity from literature, visualizes a current problem because of the recurrence of the phenomenon. The objective of the research is to analyze the academic integrity and the dishonest practices that deteriorate it among postgraduate students of two Mexican Universities. A quantitative methodology is used, with a non-probabilistic sample, in five postgraduate programs, and its students from both institutions. It is concluded that the above mentioned dishonest practices are present with some frequency, although not in a generalized way.
Chapter
In der Architektur der Studiengänge nach Bologna spielt das Lehrangebot eine gewichtige Rolle. Die Anwesenheit in Lehrveranstaltungen bildet neben dem Selbststudium eine der beiden Komponenten der Workload. Obwohl Lehrenden wie Studierenden im Prinzip bewusst ist, wie wichtig die Anwesenheit in Lehrveranstaltungen für den Lernerfolg sein kann, kommt es immer wieder zu hochschulpolitischen Kontroversen um die Anwesenheitspflicht. Der folgende Beitrag befasst sich mit 372 größtenteils empirischen Studien, um mehr Einsicht in den Zusammenhang von Anwesenheit und Prüfungserfolg bzw. in die Folgen der Abwesenheit zu erhalten. Die überwältigende Anzahl der Studien kommt zu der Erkenntnis, dass Anwesenheit und Studienerfolg positiv korrelieren, während Abwesenheit mit schlechteren Prüfungsergebnissen einhergeht, wobei es einigen Studien durch Realexperimente sogar gelingt, die Kausalitätsfrage zu lösen. Die Thematisierung der Problematik im Unterricht und eine Anwesenheitskontrolle ohne Sanktionen (Monitoring) können das Risiko schwächerer Studierender minimieren, führen zu besseren Noten und geringeren Abbruchquoten.
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Students from two colleges (n = 546) differing in admission selectivity completed measures of academic procrastination and excuses. Procrastination was higher among students at the selective college than students at the nonselective college. Academic procrastination was motivated by task aversiveness for students at the selective college and by fear of task failure and fear of social disapproval for students at the nonselective college. At the nonselective college only, procrastinators compared to nonprocrastinators reported more often using both legitimate and fraudulent excuses in college and during the current semester. Participants reported that excuses were self-generated for the purpose of gaining more assignment time and that most instructors did not require proof for excuses. The characteristics of courses and instructors likely to promote excuse-making by both procrastinators and nonprocrastinators also were examined. These results reflect the need by administrators and personnel to consider individual and situational differences when implementing student-centered intervention programs.
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Data from more than 6,000 students regarding the prevalence, causes, techniques, faculty and institutional responsibility, deterrent measures, and punishment dimensions of academic dishonesty are presented.
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In two studies undergraduate students were given an original paragraph and several rewritten versions of the paragraph, some of which were plagiarized (e.g., without a citation, superficially modified from the original) and some correctly paraphrased. Students were asked to determine whether each rewritten version had been plagiarized or correctly paraphrased. Approximately 74% of the students in both studies correctly identified the paraphrased versions. However, some of the plagiarized versions were misidentified as having been correctly paraphrased by as many as 40% to 50% of the students. Results suggest that students are often unclear as to what constitutes plagiarism and correct forms of paraphrasing.
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This study investigated the relations of cheating on an exam and using a false excuse to avoid taking an exam as scheduled to various forms of minor deviance. College students completed measures of cheating, false excuse making, and minor deviance. A factor analysis identified clusters of deviance behaviors. Cheaters scored higher than noncheaters on measures of unreliability and risky driving behaviors, and false excuse makers scored higher than other students on measures of substance use, risky driving, illegal behaviors, and personal unreliability. In addition, men scored higher than women on substance abuse and illegal behaviors factors. Results are interpreted in terms of personological theories of honesty and reliability.
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A sample of 115 college undergraduates were given the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students and a cheating and plagiarism questionnaire during separate testing sessions. On these seU-report measures, scores for cheating on examinations and for plagiarism were positively correlated with self-ratings of procrastination and ncg~tlvely correlated with self-reported grade point average. Students who scored h ~ g h on procrastination had significantly higher scores for plagiarism than those who scored low on procrastination. The results suggest that procrastination may be one of many factors mediating academic dishonesty.
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Analysis of student survey data from 6,096 respondents in thirty-one institutions found that academic dishonesty was associated with the existence of an honor code, student perceptions of the certainty of being reported, the severity of penalties, and cheating among peers.
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Research has shown that traditional academic honor codes are generally associated with lower levels of student academic dishonesty. Utilizing data obtained from students at 21 colleges and universities, this study investigated the influence of modified honor codes, an alternative to traditional honor codes, that is gaining popularity on larger campuses. It also tested the model of student academic dishonesty previously suggested by McCabe and Treviño in a more diverse sample of campuses. Results suggest that modified honor codes are associated with lower levels of student dishonesty and that the McCabe and Treviño model appears to be reasonably robust.
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A review was conducted of the results of 107studies of the prevalence and correlates of cheatingamong college students published between 1970 and 1996.The studies found cheating to be more common in the 1969-75 and 1986-96 time periods thanbetween 1976 and 1985. Among the strongest correlates ofcheating were having moderate expectations of success,having cheated in the past, studying under poor conditions, holding positive attitudes towardcheating, perceiving that social norms support cheating,and anticipating a large reward for success. However, animportant limitation on the conclusions drawn from this research is that many variables wereincluded in only one or a few studies. A model of theantecedents of cheating is proposed and the implicationsof this model for the identification of students at risk for cheating and controlling cheatingare discussed.
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This study investigated the relations of cheating on an exam and using a false excuse to avoid taking an exam as scheduled to various forms of minor deviance. College students completed measures of cheating, false excuse making, and minor deviance. A factor analysis identified clusters of deviance behaviors. Cheaters scored higher than noncheaters on measures of unreliability and risky driving behaviors, and false excuse makers scored higher than other students on measures of substance use, risky driving, illegal behaviors, and personal unreliability. In addition, men scored higher than women on substance abuse and illegal behaviors factors. Results are interpreted in terms of personological theories of honesty and reliability.
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We investigated the incidence of self-reported excuse making by undergraduates, including the extent of legitimate and fraudulent excuses, the nature of these excuses, causes and consequences of excuse making, and emotional reactions to having given fraudulent excuses. Fraudulent excuse making was reported by 68% of the 261 students who completed questionnaires. Issues involved in discriminating fraudulent from legitimate excuses are discussed along with ways to reduce the frequency of fraudulent excuses.
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In 2 experiments, a total of 306 undergraduates were given paired writing passages and asked to determine whether the 2nd passage had been plagiarized from the 1st passage. Ss also gave their views on plagiarism and provided information about their experiences with plagiarism. Findings indicate that over half of the Ss admitted to plagiarizing. Most Ss indicated that they felt plagiarism is unethical. It is suggested that Ss rationalized their behavior by engaging in a social comparison process, leading Ss to believe that they were more ethical than their peers. Data discount the notion that plagiarism is inadvertent or the result of confusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In Study 1, undergraduates were asked to consider a scenario in which they were writing a paper and that, in the process of researching material for the paper, they had encountered a relevant paragraph from a journal article which they had to paraphrase. The students were given a two-sentence paragraph and were asked to paraphrase it to the best of their ability. Analysis indicated that between 41% and 68% of the paraphrased paragraphs were "plagiarized" to some degree, where plagiarism was defined as the appropriation of strings of 5 consecutive words or longer. In addition, 52% of the paraphrased paragraphs contained from minor to serious distortions of the original material. In a second study, another sample of undergraduates was asked to paraphrase a similar two-sentence paragraph from a textbook which was easier to read. This time between 9% and 19% of the paraphrased paragraphs evidenced similar amounts of appropriated text, although a comparable proportion of distortions (50%) occurred. The combined results suggest that plagiarism by college students may stem, in part, from their inability to process complex (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Ethics and higher education
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Academic integrity and student development: Legal issues and policy perspectives
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