Article

Squamous Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: 2004 Modified Terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy
The Journal of reproductive medicine (Impact Factor: 0.7). 12/2005; 50(11):807-10. DOI: 10.1097/01.ogx.0000201921.69949.10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In the current classification, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is categorized as VIN 1, 2 and 3 according to the degree of abnormality. There is neither evidence that the VIN 1-3 morphologic spectrum reflects a biologic continuum nor that VIN 1 is a cancer precursor. The VIN 2 and 3 category includes 2 types of lesion, which differ in morphology, biology and clinical features. VIN, usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed), is HPV related in most cases. Invasive squamous carcinomas of warty or basaloid type is associated with VIN, usual type. VIN, differentiated type, is seen particularly in older women with lichen sclerosus and/or squamous cell hyperplasia in some cases. Neither VIN, differentiated type, nor associated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is HPV related. The term VIN should apply only to histologically high grade squamous lesions (former terms, VIN 2 and VIN 3 and differentiated VIN 3). The term VIN 1 will no longer be used. Two categories should describe squamous VIN: VIN, usual type (encompassing former VIN 2 and 3 of warty, basaloid and mixed types) and VIN, differentiated type (VIN 3, differentiated type).

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    • "Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the female genital tract, accounting for 5% of all gynecological cancers[1].With an estimate of over 5000 new cases and over 1000 deaths in the United States each year, the incidence of vulvar cancer keeps on rising, particularly in young women [1,2].The most frequent histological type of vulvar cancer is squamous cell carcinoma(SCC), which represents 80%–90% of the cases and can be divided into two groups based on whether they are related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection[3,4]. One is the HPV-associated type including the warty or basaloid SCC, and the other is the HPVindependent keratinizing SCC[5,6] .Radical surgery is the main modality of treatment for vulvar cancer, sometimes in combination with presurgical or postsurgical radiotherapy or chemotherapy depending on the tumor size and invasion, but often causes overtreatment in early stage cases when patients present nonmetastasis of lymph node[7] . For this reason, tumor biological markers are needed to predict clinical behavior and metastatic potential of vulvar cancer. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of overexpressed p16INK4a in vulvar cancer. Although the tumor suppressor p16INK4a has been shown to be of prognostic value in a wide variety of cancers and precancerous lesions, its role in the vulvar cancer is still unclear. Methods: All publications in English language on the association between p16INK4a and clinicopathological features of vulvar cancer were searched from Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science, and those in Chinese language were identified manually and online from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed. Odds ratios(ORs) or risk ratios(RRs) with 95% confidence intervals(CIs) were pooled to assess the strength of association. Publication bias was estimated using funnel plots and the Egger's regression test. Results: A total of 17 studies with 2309 patients were included. The p16INK4a overexpression was found to correlate significantly with the lower International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage(I+II vs III+IV; OR = 0.60,95%CI:0.41-0.86,P = 0.006),negative lymph node metastasis(negative vs positive; OR = 0.61,95%CI:0.39-0.95,P = 0.029),patient's age<55(OR = 0.54,95%CI:0.31-0.96,P = 0.034),human papillomavirus-positive status(OR = 0.01,95%CI:0.00-0.11,P<0.001),and higher overall survival(RR = 0.53,95%CI = 0.35-0.80,P = 0.003). Conclusion: The p16INK4a might be associated with a higher survival and indicates better prognosis of vulvar cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · PLoS ONE
    • "uVIN accounts for approximately 90% of VIN lesions. It has previously been graded as low-grade (VIN 1) or high-grade (VIN 2/3) depending on the thickness of vulval epithelium containing undifferentiated cells; however, VIN 1 was removed from the 2004 VIN classification as these lesions have little known risk of invasive carcinoma (Sideri 2005; Wilkinson 2015). uVIN is associated with high-risk HPV types, "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Usual-type vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is a pre-cancerous condition of the vulval skin. Also known as high-grade VIN, VIN 2/3 or high-grade vulval squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), uVIN is associated with high-risk subtype human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The condition causes distressing vulval symptoms in the majority of affected women and may progress to vulval cancer, therefore is usually actively managed. There is no consensus on the optimal management of uVIN. High morbidity and recurrence rates associated with surgical treatments make less invasive treatments highly desirable. Objectives: To determine which interventions are the most effective, safe and tolerable for treating women with uVIN. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Issue 8 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to 1 September 2015). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed medical and surgical interventions in women with uVIN. If no RCTs were available, we included non-randomised studies (NRSs) with concurrent comparison groups that controlled for baseline case mix in multivariate analysis. Data collection and analysis: We used Cochrane methodology with two review authors independently extracting data and assessing risk of bias. Where possible, we synthesised data in meta-analyses using random-effects methods. Network meta-analysis was not possible due to insufficient data. Main results: We included six RCTs involving 327 women and five NRSs involving 648 women. The condition was variously named by investigators as uVIN, VIN2/3 or high-grade VIN. Five RCTs evaluated medical treatments (imiquimod, cidofovir, indole-3 carbinol), and six studies (one RCT and five NRSs) evaluated surgical treatments or photodynamic therapy. We judged two RCTs and four NRSs to be at a high or unclear risk of bias; we considered the others at relatively low risk of bias. Types of outcome measures reported in NRSs varied and we were unable to pool NRS data. Medical interventions: Topical imiquimod was more effective than placebo in achieving a response (complete or partial) to treatment at five to six months post-randomisation (three RCTs, 104 women; risk ratio (RR) 11.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.21 to 44.51; high-quality evidence). At five to six months, a complete response occurred in 36/62 (58%) and 0/42 (0%) women in the imiquimod and placebo groups, respectively (RR 14.40, 95% CI 2.97 to 69.80). Moderate-quality evidence suggested that the complete response was sustained at one year (one RCT, nine complete responses out of 52 women (38%)) and beyond, particularly in women with smaller VIN lesions. Histologically confirmed complete response rates with imiquimod versus cidofovir at six months were 45% (41/91) and 46% (41/89), respectively (one RCT, 180 women; RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.37; moderate-quality evidence). Twelve-month data from this trial are awaited; however, interim findings suggested that complete responses were sustained at 12 months. Only one trial reported vulval cancer at one year (1/24 and 2/23 in imiquimod and placebo groups, respectively). Adverse events were more common with imiquimod than placebo and dose reductions occurred more frequently in the imiquimod group than in the placebo group (two RCTs, 83 women; RR 7.77, 95% CI 1.61 to 37.36; high-quality evidence). Headache, fatigue and discontinuation were slightly more common with imiquimod than cidofovir (moderate-quality evidence). Quality of life scores reported in one trial (52 women) were not significantly different for imiquimod and placebo. The evidence of effectiveness of topical treatments in immunosuppressed women was scant. There was insufficient evidence on other medical interventions. Surgical and other interventions: Low-quality evidence from the best included NRS indicated, when data were adjusted for confounders, that there was little difference in the risk of VIN recurrence between surgical excision and laser vaporisation. Recurrence occurred in 51% (37/70) of women overall, at a median of 14 months, and was more common in multifocal than unifocal lesions (66% versus 34%). Vulval cancer occurred in 11 women (15.1%) overall at a median of 71.5 months (9 to 259 months). The risk of vulval cancer did not differ significantly between excision and laser vaporisation in any of the NRSs; however, events were too few for robust findings. Alternative surgical procedures that might be as effective include Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspiration (CUSA) and loop electrosurgical excision (LEEP) procedures, based on low- to very low-quality evidence, respectively. Very low-quality evidence also suggested that photodynamic therapy may be a useful treatment option.We found one ongoing RCT of medical treatment (imiquimod) compared with surgical treatment. Authors' conclusions: Topical treatment (imiquimod or cidofovir) may effectively treat about half of uVIN cases after a 16-week course of treatment, but the evidence on whether this effect is sustained is limited. Factors predicting response to treatment are not clear, but small lesions may be more likely to respond. The relative risk of progression to vulval cancer is uncertain. However, imiquimod and cidofovir appear to be relatively well tolerated and may be favoured by some women over primary surgical treatment.There is currently no evidence on how medical treatment compares with surgical treatment. Women who undergo surgical treatment for uVIN have about a 50% chance of the condition recurring one year later, irrespective of whether treatment is by surgical excision or laser vaporisation. Multifocal uVIN lesions are at a higher risk of recurrence and progression, and pose greater therapeutic dilemmas than unifocal lesions. If occult cancer is suspected despite a biopsy diagnosis of uVIN, surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. If occult cancer is not a concern, treatment needs to be individualised to take into account the site and extent of disease, and a woman's preferences. Combined modalities may hold the key to optimal treatment of this complex disease.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
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    • "The uVIN tissue samples are graded on a three-tiered scale from mild to severe depending on the proportion of epithelium containing abnormal proliferation . Although International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease proposed to change the three-tiered grading system in 2005 [3] , the traditional scale is still widely used in clinical practice. All uVINs are strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) is the precursor lesion of Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma (VSCC), and the differentiated type (dVIN) is more frequently observed in relation to VSCC. In contrast to usual-type VIN (uVIN), which is related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), a germline mutation in the p53 gene is thought to be associated with ∼90% of dVIN cases. To date, no infectious agent has been identified in association with dVIN, and studies investigating this possibility have been hindered by the difficulty in accurately diagnosing dVIN from small biopsies. Here, we used immunostaining for p16ink4a, a biomarker for HPV infection, to study 14 uVIN high-grade VIN and 14 dVIN cases, and to select 10 dVIN cases to broadly screen for all known viruses using a pan-viral microarray platform (ViroChip). All of the uVIN tissue samples, including 8 warty and 6 basaloid cases, showed positivity with the p16ink4a immunostain. The staining pattern was full-thickness for all except two cases in which positive staining was localized in the lower 1/3 of the epidermis. In contrast, immunostaining for p16ink4a was negative in all dVIN cases. ViroChip analysis of 10 pure dVIN samples confirmed the absence of human papillomavirus subtypes or any other virus with the exception of a single sample that showed a weak microarray signature to a porcine herpesvirus. Follow-up PCR testing of the sample was negative for herpesvirus, and in-depth metagenomic next-generation sequencing revealed only sequences corresponding to non-pathogenic viral flora and bacterial contamination. In this study, we demonstrated lack of a virus association in 10 dVIN cases. Alternative pathways for carcinogenesis such as the p53 mutation should be considered for investigation of potential treatment options in dVIN.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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