Hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan in patients with hereditary IBM due to GNE mutations

Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute/NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.63). 04/2004; 81(3):196-202. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2003.11.012
Source: PubMed


Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM) is an adult onset neuromuscular disorder associated with mutations in the gene UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE), whose product is the rate limiting bi-functional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of sialic acid biosynthesis. Loss of GNE activity in HIBM is thought to impair sialic acid production and interfere with proper sialylation of glycoconjugates, but it remains unclear how such a defect would lead to muscle destruction and muscle weakness. Hypoglycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan, a central protein of the skeletal muscle dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, results in disturbed interactions with extracellular matrix proteins. This has recently been identified as the pathomechanism involved in several congenital muscular dystrophies. We examined the glycosylation status of alpha-dystroglycan in muscle biopsies of four HIBM patients of non-Iranian Jewish origin (one American, two Indians, and one Greek). Two of these patients carry novel compound heterozygous GNE mutations on exon 2 and exon 9. All four muscle biopsies showed absent or markedly reduced immunolabeling with two different antibodies (VIA4 and IIH6) to glycosylated epitopes of alpha-dystroglycan. Normal labeling was found using antibodies to the core alpha-dystroglycan protein, beta-dystroglycan, and laminin alpha-2. These findings resemble those found for other congenital muscular dystrophies, suggesting that HIBM may be a "dystroglycanopathy," and providing an explanation for the muscle weakness of patients with GNE mutations.

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    • "GNE mutations lead to decreased GNE/MNK enzymatic activities and reduced production of sialic acid [7]. Although excellent experimental works have been done in pursuit of the supportive evidence for the hypothesis that it is the decrease in intracellular sialic acid content that leads to the muscle degeneration in GNE myopathy, the exact cellular mechanisms behind the development of the myopathy have remained elusive [8]–[10]. Intracellular Aβ deposition in myofibers was rare and only documented in a few muscle diseases, such as sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) and GNE myopathy [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although intracellular beta amyloid (Aβ) accumulation is known as an early upstream event in the degenerative course of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) myopathy, the process by which Aβdeposits initiate various degradative pathways, and their relationship have not been fully clarified. We studied the possible secondary responses after amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP) deposition including unfolded protein response (UPR), ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) activation and its correlation with autophagy system. Eight GNE myopathy patients and five individuals with normal muscle morphology were included in this study. We performed immunofluorescence and immunoblotting to investigate the expression of AβPP, phosphorylated tau (p-tau) and endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. Proteasome activities were measured by cleavage of fluorogenic substrates. The expression of proteasome subunits and linkers between proteasomal and autophagy systems were also evaluated by immunoblotting and relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Four molecular chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), calreticulin and calnexin and valosin containing protein (VCP) were highly expressed in GNE myopathy. 20S proteasome subunits, three main proteasome proteolytic activities, and the factors linking UPS and autophagy system were also increased. Our study suggests that AβPP deposition results in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and highly expressed VCP deliver unfolded proteins from endoplasmic reticulum to proteosomal system which is activated in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) in GNE myopathy. Excessive ubiquitinated unfolded proteins are exported by proteins that connect UPS and autophagy to autophagy system, which is activated as an alternative pathway for degradation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The enzyme consists of two domains: the GNE domain carries out epimerase function, while the MNK domain conducts the kinase activity. Mutations in the GNE gene can result in two different human disorders, HIBM or sialuria (Huizing et al., 2005). Strong evidence suggests that the etiology of HIBM is related to mutations in the GNE gene (MIM:603824). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary Inclusion Body Myopathy (HIBM, IBM2, MIM:600737) is an autosomal recessive adult onset progressive muscle wasting disorder. It is associated with the degeneration of distal and proximal muscles, while often sparing the quadriceps. The bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE/MNK), encoded by the GNE gene, catalyzes the first two committed, rate-limiting steps in the biosynthesis of N-acetylneunaminic acid (sialic acid). Affected individuals have been identified with mutations in the GNE gene. In the present study, the GNE coding region of 136 symptomatic patients were sequenced. A total of 41 patients were found to have GNE mutations. Eight novel mutations were discovered among seven patients. Of the eight novel mutations, seven were missense (p.I150V, p.Y186C, p.M265T, p.V315T, p.N317D, p.G669R, and p.S699L) and one was nonsense (p.W495X), all of which span the epimerase, kinase, and allosteric domains of GNE. In one patient, one novel mutation was found in the allosteric region and kinase domain of the GNE gene. Mutations in the allosteric region lead to a different disease, sialuria; however, this particular mutation has not been described in patients with sialuria. The pathological significance of this variation with GNE function remains unknown and further studies are needed to identify its connection with HIBM. These findings further expand the clinical and genetic spectrum of HIBM.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
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    • "HIBM is predominantly found among Middle Eastern Jewish families [5,31] and Japanese families (as DMRV/NM) [10,32]; it appears to be much rarer among other populations [33]. Only a few previous families of Asian Indian ancestry have been documented with mutations in GNE [5,16]. Furthermore, an initial biopsy of the quadriceps of the proband appeared normal, which in retrospect is consistent with a quadriceps-sparing myopathy, but may have initially confounded diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many myopathies share clinical features in common, and diagnosis often requires genetic testing. We ascertained a family in which five siblings presented with distal muscle weakness of unknown etiology. We performed high-density genomewide linkage analysis and mutation screening of candidate genes to identify the genetic defect in the family. Preserved clinical biopsy material was reviewed to confirm the diagnosis, and reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine the molecular effect of a splice site mutation. The linkage scan excluded the majority of known myopathy genes, but one linkage peak included the gene GNE, in which mutations cause autosomal recessive hereditary inclusion body myopathy type 2 (HIBM2). Muscle biopsy tissue from a patient showed myopathic features, including small basophilic fibers with vacuoles. Sequence analysis of GNE revealed affected individuals were compound heterozygous for a novel mutation in the 5' splice donor site of intron 10 (c.1816+5G>A) and a previously reported missense mutation (c.2086G>A, p.V696M), confirming the diagnosis as HIBM2. The splice site mutation correlated with exclusion of exon 10 from the transcript, which is predicted to produce an in-frame deletion (p.G545_D605del) of 61 amino acids in the kinase domain of the GNE protein. The father of the proband was heterozygous for the splice site mutation and exhibited mild distal weakness late in life. Our study expands on the extensive allelic heterogeneity of HIBM2 and demonstrates the value of linkage analysis in resolving ambiguous clinical findings to achieve a molecular diagnosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · BMC Medical Genetics
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