Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells
University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United StatesLeukemia Research (Impact Factor: 2.35). 08/2006; 30(7):841-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2005.12.004
Over many centuries, herbal remedies have treated a variety of ailments. This empiric observational approach has produced a number of leads for formulated medicines. Ganoderma lucidum extract was screened for its anti-proliferative activity using a panel of 26 human cancer cell lines. The six most sensitive hematologic cell lines were: HL-60 (ED50 26 microg/ml), U937 (63 microg/ml), K562 (50 microg/ml), Blin-1 (38 microg/ml), Nalm-6 (30 microg/ml) and RPMI8226 (40 microg/ml). Cell cycle analyses revealed a G2/M arrest, most prominently in HL-60 cells. Four hematopoietic cell lines (HL-60, Blin-1, U937, RPMI8226) were examined for apoptosis, which ranged between 21 and 92%. After exposure to G. lucidum extract, HL-60 cells became multinucleated with an increased DNA content. These results indicate that G. lucidum extract has a profound activity against leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells and may be a novel adjunctive therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
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- "Pharmacological effects of triterpenoids have been reviewed previously[1,2,115]. Analysis of extensive scientific research on G. lucidum triterpenoid extracts and purified triterpenoid compounds has demonstrated the following pharmacological effects, documented in scientific publica- tions: @BULLET Anti-cancer effects[56,57,116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132, which were attributed to and described as: o triterpenoid cytotoxicity against cancer cells[56,116,117,125], o inhibition of cell growth[57,118119120121, o induction of cell apoptosis, recognised specifically as mitochondria mediated apoptosis[124,130131, or as induction of DNA damage, G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosiso inhibition of tumor invasion through down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, and o antitumor or antimetastatic activities due to the inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis[119,122]. @BULLET Anti-inflammatory effects133134135, observed as suppression of the inflammatory response. "
ABSTRACT: Based on the analysis of more than 270 patents and scientific articles, this state-of-the-art review presents Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal basidiomycete mushroomwithimmunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects. Cultivation methods for the commercial production of G. lucidum fruit bodies and mycelia are summarized, with main active compounds of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, and proteins, often found in forms of proteoglycans or glycopeptides. Pharmacological effects with emphasis on anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions are presented, separately for spores and dry mycelia, and for the groups of triterpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins and glycoproteins. Patents disclosing preparation methods of extracts and purified pharmaceutical isolates are reviewed, and examples of anti-cancer formulations, used as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals, are given. The review suggests that according to the present understanding, the anti-cancer activity of G. lucidum may be attributed to at least five groups of mechanisms: (1) activation/modulation of the immune response of the host, (2) direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells, (3) inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis, (4) inhibition of cancer cells proliferation and invasive metastasis behaviour, and (5) carcinogens deactivation with protection of cells. Although the data from recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate promising anti-cancer effects, a need is identified for further (1) isolation and purification of compounds, with deeper understanding of their individual and synergistic pharmacological effects, (2)molecular level studies of the antitumor and immuno-supportive mechanisms, (3) well designed in vivo tests and controlled clinical studies, and (4)standardisation and quality control for G. lucidum strains, cultivation processes, extracts and commercial formulations.
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- "In modern times, the mystery of G. lucidum arose the interest of scientists all over the world, and the publications and patents of G. lucidum have increased every year (Boh et al., 2007). It was reported that G. lucidum possessed activities including anti-tumor (Liu et al., 2009; Yue et al., 2007, 2008; Stanley et al., 2005; Sliva, 2006; Müller et al., 2006), antimicrobial (Yoon et al., 1994; Wang and Ng, 2006), antiviral (especially anti- HIV activities) (Min et al., 1998), and antiaging activities (Shieh et al., 2001). Triterpenoids are typical chemical constituents in G. lucidum, and have an important role in the pharmacological effects described above. "
ABSTRACT: A systematic study of the metabolites in Ganoderma lucidum led to isolation of 43 triterpenoids, six of them (1-6) are hitherto unknown. The structures of the latter were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies and comparison with the known related compounds. All of the compounds were assayed for their inhibitory activities against human HeLa cervical cancer cell lines. Some compounds exhibit significant cytotoxicity, and their structure-activity relationships are discussed.
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- "Anti-Allergic ganoderic acids C and D Zhou, ; Liu, ; Smith,  Anti-Androgenic ganoderol B Liu et al., ; Fujita et al., ; Shimizu et al.,  Anti-Angiogenic activity Ethanol extract (Compound not reported) Song, et al.,  Anti-Herpetic Acidic protein bound polysaccharides Kim et al., ; Eo et al., ; Liu et al., ; Oh et al.,  Anti-Oxidant Chloroform extract (Compound not reported) Karaman et al., ; Joseph et al.,  Anti-Microbial: Anti-Viral, Anti-Bacterial, Anti- Fungal Neutral protein bound polysaccharide, Acidic protein bound polysaccharide, ganodermin Wasser, ; Stamets, ; Hobbs, ; McKenna, ; Gao, ; Smith, ; Suay, ; Yoon, ; Sugiura and Ito, ; Kim et al., ; Eo et al., 2000 ; Eo et al., ; Wang and Ng,  Estrogenic Ethanol extract (Compound not reported) Shimizu et al.,  Anti-Mutagenic Methanol extract (Compound not reported) Lakshmi et al.,  Anti-Ulcerogenic Polysaccharides Gao et al.,  Anti-Proliferative activity Ganoderic acid T Hong, ; Jiang, ; Hu, ; Muller et al., ; Tang et al.,  Cardiovascular and Circulatory Functions Powdered mycelium and water extract of mycelium (Compound not reported) Kabir, ; Soo, ; Lee, ; Jin et al.,  2 . Crude polysaccharide fractions isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of G. lucidum potentiated the release of interferon (IFN)-from human T cells . "
ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi) is a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus which has been used extensively as "the mushroom of immortality" in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2000 years. A great deal of work has been carried out on therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum. The basidiocarp, mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum contain approximately 400 different bioactive compounds, which mainly include triterpenoids, polysaccharides, nucleotides, sterols, steroids, fatty acids, proteins/peptides and trace elements which has been reported to have a number of pharmacological effects including immunomodulation, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, chemo-preventive, antitumor, chemo and radio protective, sleep promoting, antibacterial, antiviral (including anti-HIV), hypolipidemic, anti-fibrotic, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-herpetic, antioxidative and radical-scavenging, anti-aging, hypoglycemic, estrogenic activity and anti-ulcer properties. Ganoderma lucidum has now become recognized as an alternative adjuvant in the treatment of leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis and diabetes. The macrofungus is very rare in nature rather not sufficient for commercial exploitation for vital therapeutic emergencies, therefore, the cultivation on solid substrates, stationary liquid medium or by submerged cultivation has become an essential aspect to meet the driving force towards the increasing demands in the international market. Present review focuses on the pharmacological aspects, cultivation methods and bioactive metabolites playing a significant role in various therapeutic applications.