Article

The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. A Tool for the Assessment and Improvement of the Psychosocial Work Environment

The National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health (Impact Factor: 3.45). 01/2006; 31(6):438-49. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.948
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to present the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), a questionnaire developed in three different lengths for assessing psychosocial factors at work, stress, and the well-being of employees and some personality factors. The purpose of the COPSOQ concept is to improve and facilitate research, as well as practical interventions at workplaces.
The development of the questionnaire was based on a survey of a representative sample of 1858 Danish employees aged 20-59 years. The response rate was 62%; 49% were women. Altogether 145 questions from some international and Danish questionnaires and 20 self-developed questions were tested with factor analyses, analyses of internal reliability, and analyses of response patterns.
The analyses resulted in a long research version of the questionnaire with 141 questions and 30 dimensions, a medium-length version for work environment professionals with 95 questions and 26 dimensions, and a short version for workplaces with 44 questions and 8 dimensions. Most of the scales have good reliability, and there seems to be very little overlap between the scales. A novel feature of the COPSOQ is the development of five different scales on demands at work.
The COPSOQ concept is a valid and reliable tool for workplace surveys, analytic research, interventions, and international comparisons. The questionnaire seems to be comprehensive and to include most of the relevant dimensions according to several important theories on psychosocial factors at work. The three versions facilitate communication between researchers, work environment professionals, and workplaces.

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    • "The explaining variables measured at baseline were the following. We used the full scales on demands, decision authority, skill discretion, meaningfulness, predictability, reward, role clarity, justice, and social support from leaders and colleagues from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COP- SOQ) [17]. As part of the sessions during the intervention, the stressors were evaluated, and the participant rated the stressors in collaboration with the therapist. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to assess the prognostic factors of return to work (RTW) after one and three years among people on sick leave due to occupational stress. Methods . The study population comprised 223 completers on sick leave, who participated in a stress treatment program. Self-reported psychosocial work environment, life events during the past year, severity of the condition, occupational position, employment sector, marital status, and medication were assessed at baseline. RTW was assessed with data from a national compensation database (DREAM). Results . Self-reported high demands, low decision authority, low reward, low support from leaders and colleagues, bullying, high global symptom index, length of sick leave at baseline, and stressful negative life events during the year before baseline were associated with no RTW after one year. Low work ability and full-time sick leave at inclusion were predictors after three years too. Being single was associated with no RTW after three years. The type of treatment, occupational position, gender, age, and degree of depression were not associated with RTW after one or three years. Conclusion . The impact of the psychosocial work environment as predictor for RTW disappeared over time and only the severity of the condition was a predictor for RTW in the long run.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · BioMed Research International
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    • "The results seem to be plausible given that emotionally demanding occupations are related to health outcomes and burnout [26], although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown [22]. Actually, nursing is a profession with high emotional demands throughout the daily working routine [21] [38]. Results on the emotional demand-control model follow the ones obtained in previous research on the relationship between job strain and self-reported evaluations of sleep, such as insomnia symptoms [12] and sleep disturbances [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Job strain, derived from high psychological demands and low job control, is associated with insomnia, but information on the role of emotional demands and social support in this relationship is scarce. The aims of this study were (i) to test the association between job strain and self-reported insomnia symptoms, (ii) to evaluate the combination of emotional demands and job control regarding insomnia symptoms, and (iii) to analyze the influence of social support in these relationships. This cross-sectional study refers to a sample of nurses ( N = 3,013 and N = 3,035 for Job Strain and Emotional demand-control model, resp.) working at public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 34.3%. Job strain was associated with increased odds for insomnia symptoms (OR: 2.20); the same result was observed with the combination of emotional demands and low job control (OR: 1.99). In both models, the inclusion of low social support combined with high demands and low job control led to increased odds for insomnia symptoms, compared to groups with high social support from coworkers and supervisors. Besides job strain, the study of emotional demands and social support are promising with regards to insomnia symptoms, particularly among nurses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
    • "Supervisor support was assessed with 5 questions extracted from the long Copenhagen Psychological Questionnaire. Questions were rated on a 5-point scale from 1 (always) to 5 (never/hardly never) (Kristensen et al., 2005). Respondents answered questions, such as, " Does your supervisor appreciate the staff and shows consideration to the individual? "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Co-worker and supervisor support can provide knowledge, advice and expertise which may improve motivation, confidence and skills. This exploratory study aimed to examine the association of co-worker and supervisor support, and other socio-demographic and practice variables with work engagement for cancer workers. Methods: The study surveyed 573 cancer workers in Queensland (response rate 56%). Study participants completed surveys containing demographics and psychosocial questionnaires measuring work engagement, co-worker and supervisor support. Of these respondents, a total of 553 responded to the items measuring work engagement and this forms the basis for the present analyses. Oncology nurses represented the largest professional group (37%) followed by radiation therapists (22%). About 54% of the workforce was aged >35 years and 81% were female. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify explanatory variables independently associated with work engagement for cancer workers. Results: After adjusting for the effects of other factors, co-worker and supervisor support were both significantly associated with work engagement. Having 16 years or more experience, being directly involved in patient care, having children and not being a shift worker were positively associated with work engagement. Annual absenteeism of six days or more was associated with low work engagement. The fitted model explained 23% of the total variability in work engagement. Conclusions: This study emphasises that health care managers need to promote co-worker and supervisor support in order to optimise work engagement with special attention to those who are not directly involved in patient care.
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Mary C R Wilson added an answer in Luxury:
    Dear colleagues, I am studying the effect of well-being (luxury/quality of life) on ethical behavior in the workplace?

    Dear colleagues

    I am studying the effect of well-being (luxury/ quality of life) on ethical behavior in the workplace.

    Could you provide me with article contains questionnaire to measure well-being (quality of life, or luxury)?

    Kind regards

    Waleed

    Mary C R Wilson

    Hello Waleed

    I have been looking to find well being and quality of life papers, but I'm still not sure whether they are what you want:

    Kristensen, T. S., Hannerz, H., Høgh, A., & Borg, V. (2005). The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire-a tool for the assessment and improvement of the psychosocial work environment. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 438-449.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Annie_Hogh/publication/7346426_The_Copenhagen_Psychosocial_Questionnaire--a_tool_for_the_assessment_and_improvement_of_the_psychosocial_work_environment/links/0fcfd505afb38c2b1a000000.pdf

    This paper does not include a questionnaire, but the authors may be contacted on ResearchGate:

    Sivanathan, N., Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., & Barling, J. (2004). Leading Well: Transformational Leadership and Well-Being. In International Positive Psychology Summit, 2nd, Washington, DC, US; A version of this chapter was presented at the aforementioned conference.. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232553222_Leading_Well_Transformational_Leadership_and_Well-Being

    Likewise, this paper; perhaps the authors would be able to let you have the questionnaire if you contacted them (see p.321):

    Dodge, R., Daly, A. P., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. D. The challenge of defining wellbeing. Journal of Wellbeing, 2(3), 222-235.

    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lalage_Sanders/publication/233740458_The_challenge_of_defining_wellbeing/links/0c960539b6ffbafb2b000000.pdf

    This conference paper does not supply the questionnaire, but you might be able to contact the first author's email for the questionnaire:

    Karlsson, T., Lindberg, P., & Berntson, E. (2014). Wellbeing at work and the development of a questionnaire. In The 3rd International Wellbeing at Work conference in Copenhagen, 26-28 May 2014 (pp. 129-129). National Research Center for the Working Environment,.

    http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A726915&dswid=-1035

    https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:726915/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    These are further questionnaires that I found, although they are not reported in academic papers and are for well being but also health. The first one does not have a scoring regime; it looks as if it is for employees to complete, but thought that it might be of interest:

    It is from the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly NHS:

    http://www.behealthyatwork.org/documents/H&W%20Example.doc.

    This is a workplace environment audit:

    https://www.bhf.org.uk/~/media/files/publications/health-at-work/health-at-work-environment-audit-template.docx.

    I hope this is helpful

    Very best wishes

    Mary

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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to present the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), a questionnaire developed in three different lengths for assessing psychosocial factors at work, stress, and the well-being of employees and some personality factors. The purpose of the COPSOQ concept is to improve and facilitate research, as well as practical interventions at workplaces. The development of the questionnaire was based on a survey of a representative sample of 1858 Danish employees aged 20-59 years. The response rate was 62%; 49% were women. Altogether 145 questions from some international and Danish questionnaires and 20 self-developed questions were tested with factor analyses, analyses of internal reliability, and analyses of response patterns. The analyses resulted in a long research version of the questionnaire with 141 questions and 30 dimensions, a medium-length version for work environment professionals with 95 questions and 26 dimensions, and a short version for workplaces with 44 questions and 8 dimensions. Most of the scales have good reliability, and there seems to be very little overlap between the scales. A novel feature of the COPSOQ is the development of five different scales on demands at work. The COPSOQ concept is a valid and reliable tool for workplace surveys, analytic research, interventions, and international comparisons. The questionnaire seems to be comprehensive and to include most of the relevant dimensions according to several important theories on psychosocial factors at work. The three versions facilitate communication between researchers, work environment professionals, and workplaces.
      Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

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