ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Astaxanthin: A Review of its Chemistry and Applications


Abstract and Figures

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the pre-clinical level with humans. This paper reviews the current available evidence regarding astaxanthin chemistry and its potential beneficial effects in humans.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46:185–196 (2006)
Copyright C
Taylor and Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1040-8398
DOI: 10.1080/10408690590957188
Astaxanthin: A Review of its
Chemistry and Applications
Centro de Investigaci´on en Alimentaci´on y Desarrollo, A.C., P.O. Box 1735. Hermosillo, Sonora. exico. 83000
Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic
of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver
for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic
astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially.
Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma,
as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the
nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune
system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin
consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the
pre-clinical level with humans. This paper reviews the current available evidence regarding astaxanthin chemistry and its
potential beneficial effects in humans.
Keywords astaxanthin, health benefits, carotenoids
Astaxanthin (AX) is a pigment that belongs to the family
of the xanthophylls, the oxygenated derivatives of carotenoids
whose synthesis in plants derives from lycopene. AX is one
of the main pigments included in crustacean, salmonids, and
other farmed fish feeds. Its main role is to provide the desir-
able reddish-orange color in these organisms as they do not
have access to natural sources of carotenoids. The use of AX
in the aquaculture industry is important from the standpoint
of pigmentation and consumer appeal but also as an essential
nutritional component for adequate growth and reproduction.
In addition to its effect on color, one of the most important
properties of AX is its antioxidant properties which has been
reported to surpass those of β-carotene or even α-tocopherol
(Miki, 1991). Due to its outstanding antioxidant activity AX
has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting
the organism against a wide range of ailments such as cardio-
vascular problems, different types of cancer and some diseases
of the immunological system. This has stirred great interest in
AX and prompted numerous research studies concerning its po-
tential benefits to humans and animals. Much work has also
been focused on the identification, production, and utilization
Address correspondence to I. Higuera-Ciapara, Centro de Investigaci´on en
Alimentaci´on y Desarrollo. -A.C. Carretera a la Victorial Km 0.6. AP 1735
Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 Mexico. E-mail:
of natural sources of AX (algae, yeast, and crustacean byprod-
ucts) as an alternative to the synthetic pigment which currently
covers most of the world markets. This review paper aims to
provide an updated overview of the most important chemical,
biological and application aspects of this unusual carotenoid un-
derlining its relevance to the growing industry of nutraceutical
Carotenoids comprise a family encompassing more than
600 pigments which are synthesized de novo in higher plants,
mosses, algae, bacteria, and fungi (Goodwin, 1980). The struc-
ture of carotenoids is derived from lycopene (Figure 1). The
majority are hydrocarbons of 40 carbon atoms which contain
two terminal ring systems joined by a chain of conjugated dou-
ble bonds or poliene system (Urich, 1994). Two groups have
been singled out as the most important: the carotenes which
are composed of only carbon and hydrogen; and the xantho-
phylls which are oxygenated derivatives. In the latter, oxygen
can be present as OH groups (as in zeaxanthin), or as oxi-groups
(as in canthaxanthin); or in a combination of both (as in AX).
(Figure 1).
The poliene system gives carotenoids its distinctive molecu-
lar structure, their chemical properties and their light-absortion
Figure 1 Chemical structure of some carotenoids. Source: Urich, 1994.
characteristics. Each double bond from the poliene chain may
exist in two configurations; as geometric isomers cis or trans.
Cis-isomers are thermodynamically less stable than the trans
isomers. Most carotenoids found in nature are predominantly
all trans isomers (Britton, 1995). In addition to forming ge-
ometric isomers, and considering that each molecule has two
chiral centers in C-3 and C-3,AXmay present three configu-
rational isomers: two enantiomers (3R, 3R and 3S, 3S) and a
meso form (3R, 3S) (Turujman et al., 1997) (Figure 2). From
all these isomers, the 3S, 3Sisthe most abundant in nature
(Parajo et al., 1996). Synthetic AX consists of a racemic mix-
ture of the two enantiomers and the meso form (Turujman et al.,
1997). Three types of optical isomers can be found in crustacea
(Cort´es, 1993).
Depending on their origin, AX can be found in associa-
tion with other compounds. It may be sterified in one or both
hydroxyl groups with different fatty acids such as palmitic,
oleic, estearic, or linoleic: it may also be found free, that is,
Figure 2 Astaxanthin configurational isomers (a–c) and a geometric cis isomer (d). Source: Turujman et al., 1997; Osterlie et al., 1999.
with the hydroxyl groups without sterification; or else, form-
ing a chemical complex with proteins (carotenoproteins) or
lipoproteins (carotenolipoproteins). Synthetic AX is not steri-
fied, while found in algae is always sterified (Johnson and An,
1991; Yuan et al., 1997). Crustacean AX on the other hand,
is a mixture of the three forms previously described (Arango,
Synthetic AX
Synthetic AX is an identical molecule to that produced in
living organisms and it consists of a mixture 1:2:1 of isomers
(3S, 3S), (3R, 3S), and (3R, 3R) respectively. It is the main
carotenoid used worldwide in the aquaculture industry. Since
1990, Roche began a large scale production of synthetic AX and
practically fulfilled the world market for the pigment, estimated
at 150–200 million dollars. However, the growing demand for
natural foods and the high cost of synthetic pigments has stim-
ulated the search for natural sources of AX with potential for
Only a few sources of microbial origin can compete econom-
ically with synthetic AX: the green microalgae Haematococcus
pluvialis and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. Their manufac-
turing methods have been reviewed by Johnson and An (1991),
Nelis and De Leenheer (1991), and Parajo et al. (1996). Several
small companies have been founded (Igene, Aquasearch, and
Cyanotech) and are trying to compete with Roche by offering
AX from natural sources. However, so far, these products only
take up a very small fraction of the market due to their limited
production (McCoy, 1999).
Numerous research reports exist concerning the study of mi-
croalgae, particularly Haematococcus pluvialis with the aim of
optimizing the AX production processes. The main focus of
these efforts has been the assessment of various factors and con-
ditions which affect algae growth and the production of AX
(Kakizono et al., 1992; Kobayashi et al., 1992, 1993; Harker
et al., 1995, 1996; Fabregas et al., 1998, 2000; Gong and Chen
1998; Boussiba et al., 1999; Zhang et al., 1999; Hata et al., 2001;
Orosa et al., 2001; and Choi et al., 2002). The recent advances
in photobioreactor technology has been a fundamental tool to
achieve commercial feasibility in the production of AX from
microalgae (Olaizola, 2000) as it has allowed the development
of culture methods with AX concentration varying from 1.5 to
3% on a dry weight basis (Lorenz and Cysewsky, 2000). The
production system consists of microalgae cultivation in large
ponds under controlled conditions, followed by processing to
break down the cell wall to increase the bioavailability of the
carotenoid (Cyanotech, 2000) since the intact spores present low
digestibility (Sommer et al., 1991). The biomass is finally dried
to obtain a fine powder of reddish color. Several AX products
currently marketed are derived from H. pluvialis microalgae and
are being manufactured with the method previously described.
These products may contain between 1.5 and 2.0% of AX and
are utilized as pigments and nutrient for aquatic animals and also
in the poultry industry for the pigmentation of broilers and egg
yolk (Cyanotech, 2000).
On the other hand, other algal species have been proposed
as sources of AX but so far without much success as com-
pared to the species previously described. Gouveia et al. (1996,
2002) shown that Chlorella vulgaris is efficient for pigmenta-
tion purposes with the same magnitude of synthetic pigments.
More recently, a group of researchers has shown interest in the
identification, extraction, and purification of carotenoids from
the microalgae Chlorococcum sp (Li and Chen, 2001; Ma and
Chen, 2001; Zhang and Lee, 2001; Yuan et al., 2002). Chloro-
coccum seems to be a promising source of AX as well as other
carotenoids such as canthaxanthin and adonixanthin.
The interest shown by the aquaculture industry for natural
sources of AX has been growing as a result of the increasing de-
mand for fish fed with natural pigments (Guerin and Hosokawa,
2001). In general, the microbial sources of carotenoids are com-
parable to synthetic sources as far as pigmentation is concerned
(Choubert and Heinrich, 1993; Gouveia et al., 1996, 2002;
Bowen et al., 2002; Gomes et al., 2002). However, it is worth
noting that some authors suggest that sterified AX sourced from
algae could be twice as effective as synthetic AX for the pig-
mentation of red seabream (Guerin and Hosokawa, 2001) in
addition to providing a better growth rate in Penaeus monodon
larvae (Darachai et al., 1999).
For more than two decades, the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma
has been widely studied due to its capacity in producing AX. The
scientific literature is very abundant in reports on this microor-
ganism. Many of these reports have been focused on the effect of
different nutrients or carbon sources in the culture media on the
production of yeast biomass and AX (Kesava et al., 1998; Parajo
et al., 1998a; Chan and Ho, 1999; Ramirez et al., 2000; An, 2001;
Flores-Cotera and Sanchez, 2001). Other authors have been most
interested in optimizing the conditions which favor larger AX
yields (Parajo et al., 1998b; Vazquez and Martin, 1998; Ramirez
et al., 2001) or in assays testing salmonid pigmentation with diets
containing Phaffia, with a similar efficiency to that achieved us-
ing synthetic AX (Gentles and Haard, 1991; Whyte and Sherry,
2001). Other researchers have concentrated on the utilization of
genetically-improved strains of the same yeast to increase AX
yields (An et al., 1989; Adrio et al., 1993; Calo et al., 1995; Fang
and Chiou, 1996; An, 1997). Currently the yeast is marketed in
a fine powder form as a natural source of AX, protein, and other
nutrients and utilized as an ingredient in salmonid feed. It is
manufactured by natural fermentation in a carefully controlled
environment thus effectively obtaining a product with a high
percentage of free AX (8,000 µg/g) (Igene, 2003).
Crustacean Byproducts
Crustacean byproducts are generated during processing op-
erations of recovering or conditioning of the edible portion
of crabs, shrimp, and lobster. Generally, these byproducts are
made up of mineral salts (15–35%), proteins (25–50%), chitin
(25–35%), lipids, and pigments (Lee and Peniston, 1982). The
carotenoid pigments contained therein have been thoroughly
studied and quantified (Kelley and Harmon, 1972; Meyers and
Bligh, 1981; Mandeville, 1991; Shahidi and Synowiecki, 1991;
Olsen and Jacobsen, 1995; Gonzalez-Gallegos et al., 1997).
The carotenoid content in shrimp and crab byproducts varies
Table 1 Carotenoid contents in various sources of crustaceon biowastes
Total Astaxanthin (%)
astaxanthin Others
Source (mg/100g) Free Monoester Diester carotenoids Reference
Shrimp 14.77 3.95 19.72 74.29 zeaxanthin Shahidi and
(P. borealis) Synowiecki, 1991
Shrimp 4.97a8 22.5 69.5 Torrisen et al., 1981
(P. borealis)
Shrimp 3.09a5.6 18.5 75.9 Guillou et al., 1995
(P. borealis)
Crawfish 15.3 40.3 49.4 astacene Meyers and Bligh,
(P. clarkii) 1981
Backs snow crab 11.96 21.16 5.11 56.57 lutein, Shahidi and
(Ch. Opilio) zeaxanthin, astacene Synowiecki, 1991
amg/100g wet basis.
between 119 and 148 µg/g. AX is mainly found free or steri-
fied with fatty acids. These byproducts may also contain small
quantities of lutein, zeaxanthin and astacene (Shahidi and Botta,
1994) Table 1.
The potential utilization of shrimp, krill, crab, and langostilla
byproducts to induce pigmentation of cultured fish has been
tested (Coral et al., 1997). Byproducts generally contain less
than 1000 µg/g of AX. This would imply the incorporation of
large quantities of byproducts as feed ingredients (10–25%) in
order to attain an efficient pigmentation process. A means of pro-
cessing is through the transformation of this biomass into meal.
However, the drying methods which depend on heat application
are not suitable because of the high susceptibility of carotenoids
to oxidative degradation under such thermal processing condi-
tions (Olsen and Jacobsen, 1995). An additional disadvantage is
the high ash and chitin content which significantly decrease the
digestibility by fish and severely limit the rate of byproduct ad-
dition to the formulations (Guillou et al., 1995; Gouveia et al.,
1996; Lorenz, 1998b). In order to avoid this problem various
alternative methods have been suggested so as to process crus-
tacean byproducts. One such methods is silage, which consists
of treating byproducts with organic or inorganic acids in order
to protect them from bacterial decomposition and ease pigment
recovery (Torrisen et al., 1981; Chen and Meyers, 1983; Gillou
et al., 1995). During this treatment, calcium salts are partially
dissolved at the low pH (4–5) due to acid addition; this results
in AX increase in the solid fraction and a higher digestibility
(Torrisen et al., 1981). Alternatively, the pigments have also
been extracted with the use of vegetable or fish oils (Chen and
Meyers, 1982a, 1982b; Meyers and Chen, 1985; Omara-Alwala
et al., 1985; Coral et al., 1997) which can be incorporated di-
rectly as feed ingredients. Similarly, the concurrent recovery of
proteins and pigments in a stable complex form (carotenopro-
tein) has also been demonstrated to be feasible and to provide
an excellent source of pigments and aminoacids (Simpson and
Haard, 1985; Manu-Tawiah and Haard, 1987; Simpson et al.,
1992). The carotenoprotein complexes from crustacea provide
a bluish-brown coloring. When these compounds are denatured
by heat, AX is exposed and develops the typical reddish-orange
color expected by consumers.
Salmonid and crustacean coloring is perceived as a key qual-
ity attribute by consumers. The reddish-orange color charac-
teristic of such organisms originate in the carotenoids obtained
from their feeds which are deposited in their skin, muscle, ex-
oskeleton, and gonads either in their original chemical form
or in a modified state depending on the species (Meyers and
Chen, 1982). The predominant carotenoid in most crustacea and
salmonids is AX (Yamada et al., 1990; Shahidi and Synowiecki,
1991; Gentles and Haard, 1991). For instance, from the total
carotenoids in crustacean exoskeleton, AX comprises 84–99%,
while in the internal organs it represents 70–96% (Tanaka et al.,
1976). In the aquatic environment, the microalgae biosynthesize
AX which are consumed by zooplankton, insects, or crustacea,
and later it is ingested by fish, thereby getting the natural col-
oration (Lorenz, 1998a). Farmed fish and crustacea do not have
access to natural sources of AX, hence the total AX intake must
be derived from their feed.
The use of AX and/or canthaxantin (Figure 1) as pigment-
ing agents in aquaculture species has been well documented
through many scientific publications for more than two decades
(Meyers and Chen, 1982; Torrisen, 1989; Yamada et al., 1990;
No and Storebakken, 1991; Putnam, 1991; Storebakken and No,
1992; Smith et al., 1992; Choubert and Heinrich, 1993; Coral
et al., 1998; Lorenz, 1998a; Gouveia et al., 2002; Bowen et al.,
2002). Currently, the synthetic form of both pigments repre-
sents the most important source for fish and crustacean farming
operations. AX is available under the commercial brand name
Carophyll PinkTM and canthaxanthin as Carophyll Red.TM Both
of these trademarks are owned by Hoffman-LaRoche. In spite
of the fact that canthaxanthin provides a fairly good pigmen-
tation, AX is widely preferred over it due to the higher color
intensity attained with similar concentrations (Storebakken and
No, 1992). Additionally, AX is deposited in muscles more effi-
ciently probably due to a better absorption in the digestive tract
(Torrisen, 1989). It has also been reported that when a combina-
tion of both carotenoids is used, a better pigmentation is obtained
than when using either pigment separately (Torrisen, 1989; Bell
et al., 1998). However, in a more recent study of Buttle et al.
(2001) found that the absortion of these two pigments is species
dependent. These authors found that canthaxantin is more read-
ily deposited in the Atlantic salmon muscle (Salmo salar). Some
researchers have geared their interest in studying the role of the
optical and symmetry isomerism of AX on the absorption and
distribution of these on the various tissues of salmonids. These
studies have shown that the apparent coefficient of digestibil-
ity of the geometric cis isomers is lower than that of all trans
ones, therefore they are not utilized to the same extent for muscle
pigmentation. Moreover, cis isomers tend to preferentially accu-
mulate in the liver, while trans ones do so on muscle and plasma
(Bjerkeng et al., 1997; Bjerkeng, 2000). Also, studies undertaken
on rainbow trout have shown that the distribution of R/S optical
isomers found in faeces, blood, liver, and muscle resembled that
of the overall content of the supplied diet (Osterlie et al., 1999).
In spite of the fact that AX is widely used with the sole purpose
of attaining a given pigmentation, it has many other important
functions in fish related mainly to reproduction: acceleration of
sexual maturity, increasing fertilization and egg survival, and
a better embryo development (Putnam, 1991). It has also been
demonstrated that AX improves liver function, it increases the
defense potential against oxidative stress (Nakano et al., 1995)
and has a significant influence on biodefense mechanisms (Amar
et al., 2001). Similarly, several other physiological and nutri-
tional studies have been performed in crustaceans, mainly on
shrimp, which have suggested that AX increases tolerance to
stress, improves the immune response, acts as an intracellular
protectant, and has a substantial effect on larvae growth and
survival (Gabaudan, 1996; Darachai et al., 1999). Chien et al.,
(2003) proposed that AX is a “semi-essential” nutrient for tiger
shrimp (Penaeus monodon) because the presence of this com-
pound can be critical to the animal when it is physiologically
stressed due to environmental changes.
According to the above information, the use of AX in the
aquaculture industry is important not only from the standpoint
of pigmentation to increase consumer acceptance but also as
a necessary nutrient for adequate growth and reproduction of
commercially valuable species.
Normal aerobic metabolism in organisms generates oxidative
molecules, that is, free radicals (molecules with unpaired elec-
trons) such as hydroxyls and peroxides, as well as reactive oxy-
gen species (singlets) which are needed to sustain life processes.
However, excess quantities of such compounds are dangerous
due to their very high reactivity because they may react with var-
ious cellular components such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates,
and DNA (Di Mascio et al., 1991). This situation may cause ox-
idative damage through a chain reaction with devastating effects
causing protein and lipid oxidation and DNA damage in vivo.
This constant free radical attack against an organism is known
as oxidative stress (Maher, 2000). Such damage has been associ-
ated with different diseases such as macular degeneration due to
the aging process, retinopathy, carcinogenesis, arteriosclerosis,
and Alzheimer disease, among other ailments (Maher, 2000). In
order to control and reduce oxidation, the human body generates
its own enzymatic antioxidants such as super oxide dismutase,
catalase, and peroxidase, as well as other molecules with antiox-
idant activity. However, in many cases, these compounds are not
enough to provide suitable protection against oxidative stress.
Many studies have shown that oxidation can also be inhibited
by consuming proper quantities of antioxidants like vitamin E
(Burton et al., 1982).
An antioxidant is a molecule which has the ability to remove
free radicals from a system either by reacting with them to pro-
duce other innocuous compounds or disrupting the oxidation
reactions (Britton, 1995). Water soluble dietary antioxidants in-
clude vitamin C, and lipophilic antioxidants include vitamin E
(α-tocopherol) and carotenoids such as β-carotene and AX. β-
carotene has been thoroughly studied, but lately AX has drawn
more and more attention due to its multiple functions and its
great antioxidant potential.
The potential effects of carotenoids on human health have
been associated with their antioxidant properties. Persons who
ingest a higher concentration of carotenoids have a lower risk of
chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cataract de-
velopment, macular degeneration, and some types of cancer
(Ziegler, 1991; Mayne, 1996). Numerous studies have shown the
antioxidant activity of antioxidants by quenching active oxygen
species and free radicals in vitro and in vivo through well known
mechanism (Burton and Ingold, 1984; Terao, 1989; Lee and
Min, 1990; Di Mascio et al., 1991; Miki, 1991; Tsuchiya et al.,
1992; Palozza and Krinsky, 1992; Kobayashi and Sakamoto,
1999; Rengel et al., 2000). However, antioxidants can also act as
prooxidants, that is, substances that can induce oxidative stress.
Recent reviews on the subject have summarized the available
data and experimental evidence on the antioxidant/prooxidant
activity of carotenoids in different lipid systems (Palozza, 1998;
Haila, 1999; Young and Lowe, 2001).
Even when current knowledge of the mechanism by virtue
of which carotenoids act as prooxidants is still controversial, a
general mechanism has been described in which at high oxygen
partial pressure, a carotenoid radical could react with oxygen
to generate a carotenoid-peroxyl radical. This is an autoxida-
tion process and such radical could act as a pro-oxidant by
promoting oxidation of unsaturated lipids (Haila, 1999). Ma-
jor factors involved in carotenoids prooxidant activity include
oxygen partial pressure, carotenoid concentration, as well as
the interaction with other antioxidant species, as reviewed by
Palozza (1998). Thus, it has been demonstrated that the choice
of experimental conditions in in vitro studies can greatly affect
the antioxidant/prooxidant activity of these compounds (Haila,
Information is not available on antioxidant/prooxidant mech-
anisms of carotenoids with structures different from β-carotene.
As far as astaxanthin is concerned, only information accounting
for its antioxidant activity is available. It has been reported that
it has a antioxidant activity, as high as 10 times more than other
carotenoids such as zeaxanthin, lutein, canthaxantin, and β-
carotene; and 100 times more that α-tocopherol. Thus, AX has
been dubbed a “super vitamin E” (Miki, 1991). This property has
caused great interest and a growing number of publications have
appeared on the subject. Naguib (2000) measured the antioxi-
dant activity of various carotenoids using a novel fluorometric
assay procedure. These authors found that AX has a higher
antioxidant activity than lutein, licopene, αand β-carotene, and
α-tocopherol. In order to explain such high activity they propose
that, depending on the solvent type, astaxanthin exists in an
equilibrium, with the enol form of the ketone, thus the resulting
dihydroxy conjugated polyene system possesses a hydrogen
atom capable of breaking the free radical reaction in a similar
waytothat of α-tocopherol. Goto et al. (2001) reported that AX
is twice more effective than β-carotene to inhibit the production
of peroxides induced by ADP and Fe2+in liposomes. Similarly,
other studies have shown the superior antioxidant activity of
AX in relation to other carotenoids (Terao, 1989; Lee and Min,
1990; Miki, 1991). The natural functions of carotenoids are
determined by their physicochemical properties which depend
on their molecular structure. Carotenoids react rapidly with free
radicals and their reactivity depends on the length of the poliene
system and the terminal rings (Lee and Min, 1990; Britton, 1995;
Miller et al., 1996; Goto et al. 2001). Other authors have reported
different findings. For instance, Mortensen et al. (1997) have
proposed that the mechanism and rate of free radical scavenging
is dependent on the nature of the free radicals rather than on the
structure of the carotenoids. Thus, caution must be exercised
when studying and comparing the antioxidant activity since
results will be dependent on the experimental conditions set
Manufacturers of natural AX have long tried to penetrate the
aquaculture market niche with very little or no success at all. In
recent years, their attention has shifted towards another growing
industry: the nutraceuticals market (McCoy, 1999). Currently
there is a wide variety of AX products sold in health food stores
in the form of nutritional supplements. Most of these products
are manufactured from algae or yeast extracts. Due to their high
antioxidant properties these supplements have been attributed
with potential properties against many diseases. Thus, research
on the actual benefits of AX as a dietary supplement is very
recent and basically has thus far has been limited to in vitro
assays or pre-clinical trials.
Anticancer Activity
Activity of carotenoids against cancer has been the focus of
much attention due to the association between low levels of
these compounds in the body and cancer prevalence. Several
research groups have studied the effect of AX supplementa-
tion on various cancer types showing that oral administration
of AX inhibits carcinogenesis in mice urinary bladder (Tanaka
et al., 1994), in the oral cavity (Tanaka et al. 1995a) and rat colon
(Tanaka et al., 1995b). This effect has been partially attributed to
suppression of cell proliferation. Furthermore, Jyonouchi et al.,
(2000) found that when mice were inoculated with fibrosarcoma
cells, the dietary administration of AX suppresses tumor growth
and stimulates the immune response against the antigen which
expresses the tumor. AX activity against breast cancer has also
been studied in female mice. Chew et al. (1999) fed mice with
a diet containing 0, 0.1% and 0.4% AX, β-carotene or can-
thaxanthin during three weeks before inoculating the mammary
fat pad with tumor cells. Tumor growth inhibition by AX was
shown to be dependent on the dose and more effective than the
other two carotenoids tested. It has also been suggested that
AX attenuates the liver metastasis induced by stress in mice
thus promoting the immune response though the inhibition of
lipid peroxidation (Kurihara et al., 2002). Kang et al. (2001)
also reported that AX protects the rat liver from damage in-
duced by CCl4through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and
the stimulation of the cell antioxidant system. Additionally, the
effects of AX and other carotenoids on proliferation of human
breast cancerous cells have also been studied. This study showed
that β-carotene and lycopene are more effective than AX in in-
hibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line in vitro (Li et al.,
Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases
The risk of developing arteriosclerosis in humans correlates
positively with the cholesterol content bound to Low Density
Lipoprotein (LDL) or “bad cholesterol” (Golstein and Brown,
1977). Many studies have documented that high levels of LDL
are related to prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as
angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and brain thrombosis
(Maher, 2000). Inhibition of oxidation of LDL has been pos-
tulated as a likely mechanism through which antioxidants could
prevent the development of arteriosclerosis. Several studies have
looked at carotenoids, mainly β-carotene and canthaxanthin, as
inhibitors of LDL oxidation (Carpenter et al., 1997). However
such studies have produced conflicting results as some authors
have suggested otherwise (Gaziano et al. 1995). With respect
to AX, there has been very little research focused toward their
ability to prevent coronary disease. Iwamoto et al. (2000) per-
formed in vivo and ex vivo studies and their results suggest that
AX inhibits the oxidation of LDL which presumably contributes
to arteriosclerosis prevention. Miki et al. (1998) proposed the
manufacture of a drink containing AX whose antioxidant action
on LDL would be useful for the prevention of arteriosclerosis,
ischemic heart disease or ischemic encephalopathy. While it is
feasible that oxidation of LDL may be decreased by antioxidant
consumption, more research is needed to establish the true effect
on coronary heart disease (Jialal and Fuller, 1995).
AX Effect Against Helicobacter Pylori Infections
H. pylori is considered an important factor inducing acute
gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer in humans. The an-
tibacterial action of AX has been shown in mice infected with
this bacterium. When mice are fed with an AX rich diet, the
gastric mucous inflammation is reduced as well as the load and
colonization by the bacterium (Bennedsen et al., 1999; Wang
et al., 2000). Thus, the development of products for therapeu-
tic and prophylactic treatment of the mucous membrane of the
gastrointestinal system caused by H. pylori has been proposed
(Wadstron and Alejung, 2001). The mechanism of AX action to
produce this effect is not known but it is suspected that its antiox-
idant properties play an important role in the protection of the
hydrophobic lining of the mucous membrane making coloniza-
tion by H. pylori much more difficult (Wadstron and Alejung,
2001). The use of AX could represent a new and attractive strat-
egy for the treatment of H. pylori infections.
AX as a Booster and Modulator of the Immunological System
The group led by Jyonouchi et al. has performed the large
majority of investigations regarding the potential activity of AX
as a booster and modulator of the immunological system. AX
increases the production of T-helper cell antibody and increases
the number of antibody secretory cells from primed spleen cells
(Jyonouchi et al., 1996). These authors also studied the effect
of AX in the production of immunoglobulins in vitro by human
blood cells and found that it increases the production of IgA, IgG,
and IgM in response to T-dependent stimuli (Jyonouchi et al.,
1995). Other studies performed in vivo using mice have shown
the immunomodulating action of AX and other carotenoids for
humoral responses to T-dependent antigens, and suggested that
the supplementation with carotenoids may be useful to restore
immune responses (Jyonouchi et al., 1994). In agreement with
the above results, various foods and drinks with added AX have
been prepared to increase the immune response mediated by T-
lymphocytes and NK cells, to alleviate or prevent the decrease of
immunological functions caused by stress (Asami et al., 2001).
Due to its immunomodulating action, AX has also been utilized
as a medication for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such
as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease
(Lignell and Bottiger, 2001).
Additional Benefits
Ultraviolet radiation is a significant risk factor for skin can-
cer due to the activation of a chain reaction which generates
peroxides and other free radicals from lipids. These molecules
damage the cell structures like DNA thus increasing the risk for
cancer development. As we discussed previously, AX is a potent
antioxidant which stimulates and modulates de immune system.
These effects are capable of preventing or delaying sunburns.
The ability of AX extracted from algae to protect against DNA
damage by UV radiation has been shown in studies with cul-
tured rat kidney fibroblasts (O’Connor and O’Brien, 1998) and
human skin cells (Lyons and O’Brien, 2002). Various AX sup-
plements consisting of injectable solutions, capsules, or topical
creams have been manufactured for sunburn prevention from
UV exposure (Lorenz, 2002).
Additional beneficial effects attributed to AX include anti-
inflammatory activity (Uchiumi, 1990; Nakajima, 1995), anti-
cataract prevention activity (Guyen et al., 1998), as a treatment
against rheumatoid arthritis and also carpal tunnel syndrome
(Lignell and Bottiger, 2001; Cyanotech, 2002).
The large majority of the studies to support the multiple po-
tential benefits of AX have been performed with animal models.
Afew clinical trials have been performed with voluntary pa-
tients by the manufacturing companies. For instance, Cyanotech
(2002) has performed extensive work on the preventative effects
of AX on the development of rheumatoid arthritis and carpal
tunnel syndrome. Safety studies of algae derived AX have also
been performed with volunteers who were given a low dose
(228 mg of algal meal equivalent to 3.85 mg AX) or a high dose
(1140 mg of algal meal equivalent to 19.25 mg AX) during 29
consecutive days. According to the clinical tests performed on
the patients, they did not present any disease or intoxication at
these consumption levels. However, the recommended dose is 5
mg AX per day (250 mg of algal meal) (Mera Pharmaceuticals,
Several studies have been done using AX esters in mammals
to prove its effectiveness in the treatment of muscle diseases, for
example, equine exertional rhabdomyolysis (Lignell, 2001) or
to increase the production of breeding and production mammals
(porcine, bovine, and ovine) (Lignell and Inborr, 2000). The ad-
ministration of AX to layer hen diet increases fertility, improves
the overall health status of these animals, and decreases chicken
mortality. Egg production and the yellow coloration of yolks is
also increased, while salmonella infections reduced dramatically
probably due to a stronger membrane formation (Lignell et al.,
1998). It also provides greater pigmentation to chicken meat, a
desirable attribute to some consumers (Akiba et al., 2001).
Adrio, J.L., Veiga., M., Casqueiro, J. et al. 1993. Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma
auxotropic mutants by enrichment methods. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 39:303–
Akiba, Y., Sato, K., Takahashi, K. et al. 2001. Meat color modification in broiler
chickens by feeding yeast Phaffia rhodozyma containing high concentrations
of astaxanthin. Journal of Applied Poultry Research., 10:154–161.
Amar, E.C., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., and Watanabe, T. 2001. Influence of various
dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio-defense mechanisms in rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Research., 32:162–173.
An, G.H., Schuman, D., and Johnson, E. 1989. Isolation of Phaffia rhodozyma
mutants with increased astaxanthin content. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,
An, G.H. 1997. Photosensitization of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma at a low tem-
perature for screening carotenoid hyperproducing mutants. Appl. Biochem.
Biotechnol., 66:263–268.
An, G.H. 2001. Improved growth of the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma (Xantho-
phyllomyces dendrorhous), in the presence of tricarboxilic acid cycle inter-
mediates. Biotechnology Letters., 23:1005–1009.
Arango, G.J. 1996. Resumen de la evaluaci´on sobre la utilizaci ´on de astax-
antina en nutrici´on de camarones. Ter cer simposium internacional de nu-
on acu´
ıcola. 11–13 Nov. Facultad de ciencias biol´ogicas. Universidad
Aut´onoma de Nuevo Le´on. Monterrey Nuevo Le´on.
Asami, S., Yang, Zhi-bo., Yamashita, E., and Otoze, H. 2001. Anti-stress com-
position. Patent US6265450.
Bell, J.G., McEvoy, J., Webster, J.L. et al. 1998. Flesh lipid and carotenoid
composition of scottish farmed atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J. Agric. Food
Chem., 46:119–127.
Bennedsen, M., Wang, X., Willen, R. et al. 1999. Treatment of H. pylori infected
mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load
and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol. Lett., 70:185–189.
Bjerkeng, B., Folling, M., Lagocki, S. et al. 1997. Bioavailability of all-E-
astaxanthin and Z-isomers of astaxanthin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss). Aquaculture., 157:63–82.
Bjerkeng, B. 2000. Carotenoid pigmentation of salmonid fishes-recent progress.,
In: Avances en Nutrici´
on Acu´
ıcola V. Memorias del V Simposium Interna-
cional de Nutrici´
on Acu´
ıcola. Cruz-Su´arez, L. E., Ricque-Marie, D., Tapia-
Salazar M. et al. (Eds.). PP. 19–22 Nov. erida Yucat´an.
Boussiba, S., Bing, W., Zarka, A. et al. 1999. Changes in pigment profiles of
Haematococcus pluvialis during exposure to environmental stresses. Biotech-
nol. Lett., 21:601–604.
Bowen, J., Soutar, C., Serwata, R. et al. 2002. Utilization of (3S, 3S) astax-
anthin acyl esters in pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Aquaculture Nutrition., 8:59–68.
Britton, G. 1995. Structure and properties of carotenoids in relation to function.
The FASEB Journal., 9:1551–1558.
Burton, G.W., and Ingold, K.U. 1984. β-carotene: an unusual type of lipid
antioxidant. Science., 224:569–573.
Burton, G.W., Joyce, A., and Ingold, K.U. 1982. First proof that vitamin E
is major lipid-soluble chain-breaking antioxidant in human blood plasma.
Lancet II: 327.
Buttle, L., Crampton, V., and Williams, P. 2001. The effect of feed pigment type
on flesh pigment deposition and colour in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo
salar L. Aquaculture Research., 32:103–111.
Calo, P., Vel´asquez, J., Sieiro, C. et al. 1995. Analysis of astaxanthin and other
carotenoids from several Phaffia rhodozyma mutants. J. Agric. Food Chem.,
Carpenter, K.L.H., Van Der Veen, C., Hird, R. et al. 1997. The carotenoids
β-carotene, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin inhibit macrophage mediated LDL
oxidation. FEBS Letters., 401:262–266.
Chan, H.Y., and Ho, K.P. 1999. Growth and carotenoid production by pH-stat
cultures of Phaffia rhodozyma.Biotechnology Letters., 21:953–958.
Chen, H.M., and Meyers, S.P. 1982a. Extraction of astaxanthin pigment from
crawfish waste using a soy oil process. J. Food Sci., 47:892–896.
Chen, H.M., and Meyers, S.P. 1982b. Effect of antioxidants on stability of as-
taxanthin pigment in crawfish waste and oil extract. J. Agric. Food Chem.,
Chen, H.M., and Meyers, S.P. 1983. Ensilage treatment of crawfish waste for
improvement of astaxanthin pigment extraction. J. Food Sci., 48:1516–1520,
Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Wong, M.W., and Wong, T.S. 1999. A comparison of the
anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin
in mice in vivo.Anticancer Research., 19(3A):1849–1853.
Chien, Y., Pan, C., and Hunter, B. 2003. The resistance to physical stresses by
Penaeus monodon juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin. Aqua-
culture., 216:177–191.
Choi, Y.E., Yun, Y.S., and Park, J. M. 2002. Evaluation of factors promoting
astaxanthin production by a unicellular green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis,
with fractional factorial design. Biotechnol. Prog., 18:1170–1175.
Choubert, G., and Heinrich, O. 1993. Carotenoid pigments of the green algae
Haematococcus pluvialis: Assay on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss,
pigmentation in comparison with synthetic astaxanthin and canthaxanthin.
Aquaculture., 112:217–226.
Coral, H.G., Huberman, A., De la Lanza, G., and Monroy-Ruiz, J. 1997. Pigmen-
tation of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with oil-extracted astaxan-
thin from the langostilla (Pleuroncodes planipes). Archivos Latinoamericanos
de Nutrici´
on., 47:237–241.
Coral, G., Huberman, A., De la Lanza, G., and Monroy-Ruiz, J. 1998. Muscle
pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed on oil extracted
pigment from langostilla (Pleuroncodes planipes) compared with two com-
mercial sources of astaxanthin. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology.,
Cort´es, C.R. 1993. Aspectos generales de pigmentaciones para peces y
crust´aceos. Memorias del Primer Simposium Internacional de Nutrici´
on y
ıa de Alimentos para Acuacultura. Universidad Aut´onoma de Nuevo
Le´on. pp. 345–353.
Cyanotech, 2000.
Cyanotech, 2002. Cyanotech reports two clinical studies of Bioastin. Are pre-
sented at American College of Nutrition Meeting.
Darachai, J., Piyatiratitivorakul, S., and Menasveta, P. 1999. Effect of astaxan-
thin on growth and survival of Penaeus monodon larvae., In: Proceedings of
the 37t h Kasetsart University Annual Conference. pp. 36–41. Oates, C. G.,
Di Mascio, P., Murphy, M.E., and Sies, H. 1991. Antioxidant defense systems:
the role of carotenoids, tocopherols and thiols. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53:194S–
Fabregas, J., Otero, A., Maseda, A., and Dominguez, A. 1998. Two-stage cultures
for the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.J. Biotech-
nol., 89:65–71.
Fabregas, J., Dominguez, A., Regueiro, M. et al. 2000. Optimization of cul-
ture medium for the continuous cultivation of the microalga Haematococcus
pluvialis.Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 53:530–535.
Fang, T.J., and Chiou, T.Y. 1996. Batch cultivation and astaxanthin production
by a mutant of the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma NCHU-FS501. J. Industrial
Microbiol., 16:175.
Flores-cotera, L.B., and Sanchez, S. 2001. Cooper but not iron limitation in-
creases astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma in a chemically defined
medium. Biotechnology Letters., 23:793–797.
Gabaudan, J. 1996. Dietary astaxanthin improves production yield in shrimp
farming. Fish Chimes., 16:37–39.
Gaziano, J.M., Hatta, A., Flynn, M. et al. 1995. Supplementation with beta
carotene in vivo and in vitro does not inhibit low density lipoprotein oxidation.
Atherosclerosis., 112:187–195.
Gentles, A., and Haard, N. F. 1991. Pigmentation of rainbow trout with enzyme
treated and spray dried Phaffia rhodozyma.The Progressive Fish Culturist.,
Golstein, J.L., and Brown, M.S. 1977. Low DL pathway and its relation to
atherosclerosis. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 46:897–930.
Gomes, E., Dias, J., Silva, P. et al. 2002. Utilization of natural and synthetic
sources of carotenoids in the skin pigmentation of gilthead seabream (Sparus
aurata). Eur. Food Res. Technol., 214:287–293.
Gong, X. D., and Chen, F.1998. Influence of medium components on astaxanthin
content and production of Haematococcus pluvialis.Process Biochemistry.,
Gonzalez-Gallegos, A.J., Shirai Matsumoto, K., and Guerrero Legarreta, I. 1997.
Extracci´on de pigmentos a partir de cefalot´orax de camar ´on (Penaeus sp).
Productos Naturales., 3:97–102.
Goodwin, T.W. 1980. Nature and distribution of carotenoids. Food Chemistry.,
Goto, S., Kogure, K., Abe, K. et al. 2001. Efficient radical trapping at the sur-
face and inside the phospholipid membrane is responsible for highly potent
antiperoxidative activity of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Biochimica et Bio-
physica Acta., 1512:251–258.
Gouveia, L., Gomes, E., and Empis, J. 1996. Potential use of a microalga
(Chlorella vulgaris)inthe pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) muscle. Zertschrift f¨
ur Lebensmittel Untersuchung und-Forschung.,
Gouveia, L., Choubert, G., Pereira, N. et al. 2002. Pigmentation of gilthead
seabream, Sparus aurata (L. 1875) using Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta,
Volvocales)microalga. Aquaculture Research., 33:987–993.
Guerin, M., and Hosokawa., H. 2001. Pigmentation of red seabream with nat-
ural astaxanthin derived from the alga Haematococcus pluvialis comparison
with synthetic astaxanthin. Conference Aquaculture 2001. Book of Abstracts.
p. 263. Lake Buena Vista FL. USA.
Guillou, A., Khalil, M., and Adambounou, L., 1995. Effects of silage preserva-
tion on astaxanthin forms and fatty acid profiles of processed shrimp (Pandalus
borealis)waste. Aquaculture., 130:351–360.
Guyen, V.Ch., Kenmotsu, M., Arai, H., and Yamashita, E. 1998. Astaxanthin
containing food or drink. Patent abstract JP10276721.
Haila, K. 1999. Effects of carotenoids and carotenoid-tocopherol interaction
on lipid oxidation in vitro. Academic Dissertation. University of Helsinki,
Department of Applied Chemistry and Microbiology. Helsinki.
Harker, M., Tsavalos, A.J., and Young, A.J. 1995. Use of response surface
methodology to optimize carotenogenesis in the microalga Haematococcus
pluvialis.J. Appl. Phycol., 7:399–406.
Harker, M., Tsavalos, A.J., and Young, A.J. 1996. Factors responsible for as-
taxanthin formation in the Chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis.Bioresour.
Tec hnol., 55:207–214.
Hata, N., Ogbonna, J.C., Hasegawa, Y., Taroda, H., and Tanaka,H. 2001. Produc-
tion of astaxanthin by Haematococcus pluvialis in a sequential heterotrophic-
photoautotrophic culture. J. Appl. Phycol., 13:395–402.
Igene, 2003.
Iwamoto, T., Hosoda, K., Hirano, R. et al. 2000. Inhibition of low-density
lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Throm-
bosis., 7:216–22.
Jialal, I., and Fuller, C. J. 1995. Effect of vitamin E, vitamin C and beta carotene
on LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology.,
Suppl. G:97G–103G IS.
Johnson, E.A., and An, Gil-Hwan. 1991. Astaxanthin from microbial sources.
CRC Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 11:297–326.
Jyonouchi, H., Sun, S., Iijima, K., and Gross, M.D. 2000. Antitumor activity of
astaxanthin and its mode of action. Nutrition and Cancer., 36:59–65.
Jyonouchi, H., Zhang, L., Gross, M., and Tomita, Y. 1994. Immunomodu-
lating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro anti-
body production to T-dependent antigens. Nutrition and Cancer., 21:47–
Jyonouchi, H., Sun, S., and Gross, M. 1995. Effect of carotenoids on in vitro
immunoglobulin production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells:
astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, enhances in vitro im-
munoglobulin production in response to a T-dependent stimulant and antigen.
Nutrition and cancer., 23:171–183.
Jyonouchi, H., Sun, S., Mizokami, M., and Gross, M. 1996. Effects of vari-
ous carotenoids on cloned, effector-stage T-helper cell activity. Nutrition and
Cancer., 26:313–324.
Kakizono, T., Kobayashi, M., and Nagai, S. 1992. Effect of carbon/nitrogen
ratio on encystment accompanied with astaxanthin formation in a green alga
Haematococcus pluvialis.J. Ferment. Bioeng., 74:403–405.
Kang, J.O., Kim, S.J., and Kim, H. 2001. Effect of astaxanthin on the hepatotoxi-
city, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes in the liver of CCl4treated
rats. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology.,
Kelley, C.E., and Harmon, A. W. 1972. Method of determining carotenoid con-
tents of Alaska pink shrimp and representative values for several shrimp
products. Fishery Bulletin., 70:111–113.
Kesava, S.S., An, G.H., Kim, C.H. et al. 1998. An industrial medium for im-
proved production of carotenoids from a mutant strain of Phaffia rhodozyma.
Bioprocess Engineering., 19:165–170.
Kobayashi, M., and Sakamoto, Y. 1999. Singlet oxygen quenching ability of
astaxanthin esters from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.Biotech-
nology Letters., 21:265–269.
Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., Nishio, N., and Nagai, S. 1992. Effects of light
intensity, light quality and illumination cycle on astaxanthin formation in a
green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.J. Ferment. Bioeng., 74:61–63.
Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T., and Nagai, S. 1993. Enhanced carotenoid biosyn-
thesis by oxidative stress in acetate induced cyst cells of a green uni-
cellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis.Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59:867–
Kurihara, H., Koda, H., Asami, S. et al. 2002. Contribution of the antioxida-
tive property of astaxanthin to its protective effect on the promotion of can-
cer metastasis in mice treated with restraint stress. Life Sciences., 70:2509–
Lee, S.H., and Min, D.B. 1990. Effects, quenching mechanisms, and kinetics of
carotenoids in chlorophyll sensitized photooxidation of soybean oil. J. Agric.
Food Chem., 38:1630–1634.
Lee, J.E., and Peniston, Q. 1982. Utilization of shellfish waste for chitin and
chitosan production., In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Prod-
ucts.pp415. Martin, R., Flick, G., and Hebard, C., (Eds). Avi Wesport., CT.
Li, H.B., and Chen, F. 2001. Preparative isolation and purification of astax-
anthin from the microalga Chlorococcum sp by high-speed counter-current
chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A., 925:133–137.
Li, Z., Wang, Y., and Mo, B. 2002. The effects of carotenoids on the proliferation
of human breast cancer cell and gene expression of bcl-2. Zhonghua Yu Fang
Yi Xue Za Zhi., 36:254–257. Abstract.
Lignell, A., and Bottiger, P. 2001. Use of xanthophylls, astaxanthin e. g. for
treatment of autoimmune diseases, chronic viral and intracellular bacterial
infections. Patent WO01/24787 A1.
Lignell, A., Nicolin, C., Larsson Lars-Hak et al. 1998. Method for increasing
the production of/in breeding and production animals in the poultry industry.
Patent US5744502.
Lignell, A., and Inborr, J. 2000. Agent for increasing the production of/in breed-
ing and production mammals. Patent US6054491.
Lignell, A. 2001. Medicament for improvement of duration of muscle function
or treatment of muscle disorders or diseases. Patent US6245818.
Lorenz, R.T. 1998a. A review of the carotenoid, astaxanthin, as a pig-
ment source and vitamin for cultured Penaeus prawn. http://www. cyan-
Lorenz, R.T. 1998b. A review of astaxanthin as a carotenoid and vitamin source
for sea bream.
Lorenz, R.T. 2002. Method for retarding and preventing sunburn by UV light.
Patent US 6433025.
Lorenz, R.T., and Cysewsky, G.R. 2000. Commercial potential for Haematococ-
cus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin. Trends in Biotechnology.,
Lyons, N.M., and O’Brien, N.M. 2002. Modulatory effects of an algal extract
containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J. Dermatol Sci.,
Ma, R.Y.N., and Chen, F. 2001. Enhanced production of free trans-astaxanthin
by oxidative stress in the cultures of the green microalga Chlorococcum sp.
Process Biochemistry., 36:1175–1179.
Maher, T.J. 2000.
Mandeville, S., Yaylayan, V., Simpson, B. et al. 1991. Isolation and identifica-
tion of carotenoid pigments, lipids and flavor active components from raw
commercial shrimp waste. Food Biotechnology., 5:185–195.
Manu-Tawiah, W., and Haard, N.F. 1987. Recovery of carotenoprotein from the
exoskeleton of snow crab Chinoecetes opilio.Can. Ins. Food Sci. Technol. J.,
Mayne, S.T.1996. Beta-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans.
The Faseb Journal., 10:690–701.
McCoy,M. 1999. Astaxanthin market a hard one to crack. Chemical Engineering
News., April 5. 15–17.
Mera Pharmaceuticals. 2003.
Meyers, S.P., and Chen, H.M. 1982. Astaxanthin and its role in fish culture., In:
Proceeding of the warmwater fish culture. pp. 153–165. Stickney, R.R., and
Meyers, P.S. (Eds.). Louisiana State University.
Meyers, S.P., and Bligh, D. 1981. Characterization of astaxanthin pigments from
heat processed crawfish waste. J. Agric. Food Chem., 3:505–508.
Meyers, S.P., and Chen, H. M. 1985. Process for the utilization of shellfish waste.
Patent US 4505936.
Miki, W., Hosoda, K., Kondo, K., Itakura, H. 1998. Astaxanthin containing
drink. Patent abstract JP10155459.
Miki, W. 1991. Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure
& Appl. Chem., 63:141–146.
Miller, N.J., Sampson, J., Candeias, L.P. et al. 1996. Antioxidant activities of
carotenes and xanthophylls. FEBS Letters 384:240–242.
Mortesen, A., Skibsted, L.H., Sampson, J. et al. 1997. Comparative mechanisms
and rates of free radical scavenging by carotenoid antioxidants. FEBS Letters.,
Naguib, Y.M.A. 2000. Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related
carotenoids. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48:1150–1154.
Nakajima, H. 1995. Stabilized powder of Phaffia coloring matter oil containing
astaxanthin as main component and its production. Patent abstract JP7099924.
Nakano, T., Tosa, M., and Takeuchi, M. 1995. Improvement of biochemical
features in fish health by red yeast and synthetic astaxanthin. J. Agric. Food
Chem. 43:1570–1573.
Nelis, H.J., and De Leenheer, A. P. 1991. Microbial sources of carotenoid pig-
ments used in foods and feeds. Journal of Applied Bacteriology., 70:181–191.
No, H.K., and Storebakken, T. 1991. Pigmentation of rainbow trout with
astaxanthin at different water temperatures. Aquaculture., 97:203–216.
O’Connor, I., and O’Brien, F. 1998. Modulation of UVA light induced oxidative
stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblast. Journal
of Dermatological Science., 16:226–230.
Olaizola, M. 2000. Commercial production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus
pluvialis using 25,000-liter outdoor photobioreactors. Journal of Applied
Phycology., 12:499–506.
Olsen, R.L., and Jacobsen, T. 1995. Characterization of flash-dried shrimp
processing waste. Journal of Marine Biotechnology., 3:208–209.
Omara-Alwala, T.R., Chen, H.M., Ito, Y. et al. 1985. Carotenoid pigment and
fatty acid analyses of crawfish oil extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem., 33:260–263.
Orosa, M., Valero, J.F., Herrero, C., and Abalde, J. 2001. Comparison of the
accumulation of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis and other green
microalgae under N-starvation and high light conditions. Biotechnol. Lett.,
Osterlie, M., Bjerkeng, B., and Liaaen-Jensen, S. 1999. Accumulation of
astaxanthin all E, 9z and 13z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3optical
isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)isselective. Journal of
Nutrition., 2:391–398.
Palozza, P., and Krinsky, N.I. 1992. Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are potent
antioxidants in a membrane model. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 297:291–295.
Palozza, P. 1998. Prooxidant actions of carotenoids in biologic systems. Nutr.
Rev., 56:257–265.
Parajo, J.C., Santos, V., and Vazquez, M. 1996. Producci´on biotecnologica de
astaxantina por Phaffia rhodozyma.Alimentaci´
on, Equipos y Tecnolog´
Parajo, J.C., Santos, V., and Vazquez, M. 1998a. Optimization of carotenoid pro-
duction by Phaffia rhodozyma cells grown on xylose. Process Biochemistry.,
Parajo, J.C., Santos, V., and Vazquez, M. 1998b. Production of carotenoids
by Phaffia rhodozyma growing on media made from hemicellulosic hy-
drolysates of eucalyptus globulus wood. Biotechnology and Bioengineering.,
Putnam, M. 1991. A review of the nature, function, variability and supply
of pigments in salmonid fish. In: Aquaculture and the environment. pp.
245–263. N. de Pauw, and Joyce J. Eds. European Aquaculture Soc. Special
Publication No. 16. Gent. Belgium.
Ramirez, J., nez, M.L., and Valdivia, R. 2000. Increased astaxanthin
production by a Phaffia rhodozyma mutant grown on date juice from Yucca
fillifera.Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology.,24:187–190.
Ramirez, J., Gutierrez, H., and Gschaedler, A. 2001. Optimization of astaxan-
thin production by Phaffia rhodozyma through factorial design and response
surface methodology. Journal of Biotechnology., 88:259–268.
Rengel, D., ıez-Navajas, A., Serna-Rico, A. et al. 2000. Exogenously
incorporated ketocarotenoids in large unilamellar vesicles. Protective activity
against peroxidation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta., 1463:179–187.
Shahidi, F., and Botta, F.R. Eds. 1994. Seafoods: Chemistry, processing,
technology and quality. Chapman and Hall. Londres.
Shahidi, F., and Synowiecki, J. 1991. Isolation and Characterization of nutrients
and value-added products from snow crab (Chinoecetes opilio) and shrimp
(Pandalusborealis) processing discards. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:1527–1532.
Simpson, B.K., and Haard, N. F. 1985. The use of proteolytic enzymes to extract
carotenoproteins from shrimp wastes. Journal of Applied Biochemistry.,
Simpson, B.K., Dauphin, L., and Smith, J.P. 1992. Recovery and characteriza-
tion of carotenoprotein from Lobster (Homarus americanus)waste. Journal
of Aquatic food Technology 1:129–146.
Smith, B.E., Hardy, R.W,. and Torrisen, O.J. 1992. Synthetic astaxanthin
deposition on pan-size coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture.,
Sommer, T.R., Potts, W.T., and Morrissy, N.M. 1991. Utilization of microal-
gal astaxanthin by rainbow trout (oncorhyncchus mykiss). Aquaculture.,
Storebakken, T., and No, H.K. 1992. Pigmentation of rainbow trout. Aquacul-
ture., 100:209–229.
Tanaka, Y., Matsuguchi, H., Katayama, T. et al. 1976. The biosynthesis of
astaxanthin-XVI. The carotenoids in crustacea. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.,
Tanaka, T., Morishita, Y., Suzui, M. et al. 1994. Chemoprevention of mouse
urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring carotenoid
astaxanthin. Carcinogenesis., 15:15–19.
Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Ohnishi, M. et al. 1995a. Chemoprevention of rat
oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and
canthaxanthin. Cancer Research., 55:4059–4064.
Tanaka, T., Kawamori, T., Ohnishi, M. et al. 1995b. Suppression of
azoxymethane–induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary administra-
tion of naturally occurring xanthophylls astaxanthin and canthaxanthin
during the postinitiation phase. Carcinogenesis., 16:2957–2963.
Terao, J. 1989. Antioxidant activity of beta-carotene-related carotenoids in
solutions. Lipids., 24:659–661.
Torrisen, O.J. 1989. Pigmentation of salmonids: interactions of astaxanthin
and canthaxanthin on pigment deposition in rainbow trout. Aquaculture.
Torrisen, O., Tidemann, E., Hansen, F., and Raa, J. 1981. Ensiling in acid. A
method to stabilize astaxanthin in shrimp processing by-products and improve
uptake of this pigment by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture.,
Tsuchiya, M., Scita, G., and Freisleben, H.J. 1992. Antioxidant radical scav-
enging activity of carotenoids and retinoids as compared to α-tocopherol.
Methods enzymol., 213:460–472.
Turujman, S.A., Wamer, W.G., and Wei, R.R. et al. 1997. Rapid liquid chro-
matographic method to distinguish wild salmon from aquacultured salmon
fed synthetic astaxanthin. Journal of AOAC International., 3:622–632.
Uchiumi, K. 1990. Astaxanthin containing composition. Patent abstract
Urich, K. 1994. Comparative Animal Biochemistry. Springer Verlag. Germany.
Vazquez, M., and Martin, A.M. 1998. Optimization of Phaffia rhodozyma
continuous culture through response surface methodology. Biotechnology
and Bioengineering., 57:314–320.
Wadstrom, T., and Alejung, P. 2001. Oral preparation for the prophylactic and
therapeutic treatment of Helicobacter sp. infection. Patent US6262316.
Wang, X., Willen, R., and Wadstrom, T. 2000. Astaxanthin rich algal meal
and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 44:2452–457.
Whyte, J.N.C., and Sherry, K.L. 2001. Pigmentation and composition
of flesh of Atlantic salmon fed diets supplemented with the yeast
Phaffia rhodozyma.North American Journal of Aquaculture., 63:52–
Yamada, S., Tanaka, Y., Sameshima, M., and Ito, Y. 1990. Pigmentation of
prawn panaeus japonicus with carotenoids. Aquaculture., 87:323–330.
Young, A.J., and Lowe, G.M. 2001. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of
carotenoids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics., 385:20–27.
Yuan, J.P., Xian, D.G., and Chen, F. 1997. Separation and analysis of carotenoids
and chlorophylls in Haematococcus lacustris by high performance liquid
chromatography photodiode array detection. Journal Agric. Food Chem.,
Yuan, J.P., Chen, F., Liu, X., and Li, X.Z. 2002. Carotenoid composition in the
green microalga Chlorococcum.Food Chemistry., 76:319–325.
Zhang, D.H., and Lee, Y.K. 2001. Two steps process for ketocarotenoid produc-
tion by a green alga, Chlorococcum sp. strain MA-1. Applied Microbiology
and Biotechnology., 55:537–540.
Zhang, K.W., Gong, X.D., and Chen, F. 1999. Dynamics and stability analysis
of the growth and astaxanthin production system of Haematococcus pluvialis.
Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology., 23:133–137.
Ziegler, R.G. 1991. Vegetables, fruits and carotenoids and the risk of cancers.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 53:251s–259s.
... Its antioxidant activity is higher than that of carotene, which is 1000 times that of vitamin E [131]. Natural astaxanthin is extracted from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma as well as crustacean byproducts [70]. Studies have shown that ASTX plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of LF, NAFLD, liver cancer and liver injury caused by drugs and ischemia and has therapeutic potential in both healthy and diseased livers [71]. ...
Full-text available
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the most prevalent chronic liver disorder worldwide, with liver fibrosis (LF) serving as a pivotal juncture in NAFLD progression. Natural products have demonstrated substantial antifibrotic properties, ushering in novel avenues for NAFLD treatment. This study provides a comprehensive review of the potential of natural products as antifibrotic agents, including flavonoids, polyphenol compounds, and terpenoids, with specific emphasis on the role of Baicalin in NAFLD-associated fibrosis. Mechanistically, these natural products have exhibited the capacity to target a multitude of signaling pathways, including Hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β1, and NF-κB. Moreover, they can augment the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibit pro-fibrotic factors, and diminish fibrosis markers. In conclusion, this review underscores the considerable potential of natural products in addressing NAFLD-related liver fibrosis through multifaceted mechanisms. Nonetheless, it underscores the imperative need for further clinical investigation to authenticate their effectiveness, offering invaluable insights for future therapeutic advancements in this domain.
... (a) Astaxanthin (Asta) is a naturally occurring xanthophyll carotenoid [14,15] that is an efficient Nrf2 activator [16], with potent antioxidant activity [17,18], broad health applications [19], and excellent safety [20]. Asta is distributed systemically [21] and incorporated into cellular membranes, where it spans and stabilizes the lipid bilayer and reduces lipid peroxidation [22]. ...
In genetically heterogeneous (UM-HET3) mice produced by the CByB6F1 × C3D2F1 cross, the Nrf2 activator astaxanthin (Asta) extended the median male lifespan by 12% (p = 0.003, log-rank test), while meclizine (Mec), an mTORC1 inhibitor, extended the male lifespan by 8% (p = 0.03). Asta was fed at 1840 ± 520 (9) ppm and Mec at 544 ± 48 (9) ppm, stated as mean ± SE (n) of independent diet preparations. Both were started at 12 months of age. The 90th percentile lifespan for both treatments was extended in absolute value by 6% in males, but neither was significant by the Wang–Allison test. Five other new agents were also tested as follows: fisetin, SG1002 (hydrogen sulfide donor), dimethyl fumarate, mycophenolic acid, and 4-phenylbutyrate. None of these increased lifespan significantly at the dose and method of administration tested in either sex. Amounts of dimethyl fumarate in the diet averaged 35% of the target dose, which may explain the absence of lifespan effects. Body weight was not significantly affected in males by any of the test agents. Late life weights were lower in females fed Asta and Mec, but lifespan was not significantly affected in these females. The male-specific lifespan benefits from Asta and Mec may provide insights into sex-specific aspects of aging.
... Astaxanthin (AST), a naturally occurring lipid-soluble and red-orange carotenoid, is believed to possess advantageous properties for human health, including the mitigation of CVDs, various cancer types, and autoimmune diseases [22,23]. These benefits are attributed to its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics [24,25]. Nevertheless, the effect of AST on PM 2.5 -induced cardiac dysfunction remains not clear. ...
Full-text available
Background Long-term exposure of humans to air pollution is associated with an increasing risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Astaxanthin (AST), a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment, was proved to have multiple health benefits. However, whether or not AST also exerts a protective effect on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 )-induced cardiomyocyte damage and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Methods In vitro experiments, the H9C2 cells were subjected to pretreatment with varying concentrations of AST, and then cardiomyocyte injury model induced by PM 2.5 was established. The cell viability and the ferroptosis-related proteins expression were measured in different groups. In vivo experiments, the rats were pretreated with different concentrations of AST for 21 days. Subsequently, a rat model of myocardial PM 2.5 injury was established by intratracheal instillation every other day for 1 week. The effects of AST on myocardial tissue injury caused by PM 2.5 indicating by histological, serum, and protein analyses were examined. Results AST significantly ameliorated PM 2.5 -induced myocardial tissue injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, the release of inflammatory factors, and cardiomyocyte H9C2 cell damage. Mechanistically, AST pretreatment increased the expression of SLC7A11, GPX4 and down-regulated the expression of TfR1, FTL and FTH1 in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions Our study suggest that ferroptosis plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyocyte injury induced by PM 2.5 . AST may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for mitigating cardiomyocyte injury caused by PM 2.5 through the inhibition of ferroptosis.
... Although these protocols are effective in the treatment of PCOS, oxidative stress usually ignored. Astaxanthin (ASX), an anti-oxidant and antineoplastic agent, is a lipophilic red-orange carotenoid (14). It is abundant in seafood (crustaceans, fish, etc.), algae, and various plants (15). ...
Full-text available
Objective(s) The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Astaxanthin (ASX) on ovaries in letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) model in female rats by histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Materials and Methods Seventy two Sprague-Dawley female rats with an average weight of 200-250 gr and 10-12 weeks old were randomly divided into 9 groups. PCOS model was applied to all groups except healthy group. In the study, low (10 mg / kg) moderate (20 mg / kg) and high (40 mg / kg) doses of ASX were given to the experimental animals in the PCOS-induced groups for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, ovarian tissues were evaluated histopathologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Results When the histopathological findings were examined, many cystic follicles, apoptotic and necrotic cells were found in the follicles in the PCOS group. In addition, significant decrease in apoptotic and necrotic cells were observed in PCOS+MET+ASX and PCOS+ASX groups. In immunohistochemical staining findings, while TNF-α NF-κB and IL-6 expression levels showed significant increase in PCOS group, these expression levels were decreased in PCOS+MET+ASX and PCOS+ASX groups. In the biochemical evaluations, while MDA were increased, SOD were decreased in the PCOS group. MDA level were decreased while SOD levels were increased in the PCOS+MET+ASX and PCOS+ASX groups. Conclusion In addition to the formation of insulin resistance in the tissue, severe oxidative stress damage occurs in ovarian tissue during PCOS. Metformin improved PCOS by correcting insulin resistance. In this period, the administration of ASX with Metformin protected the ovary from oxidative stress damage
... Trong số các carotenoid, astaxanthin, một nhóm xanthophyll carotenoid được công nhận là một trong những chất chống oxy hóa mạnh nhất được tìm thấy trong tự nhiên, cao hơn cả β-carotene và α-tocopherol (vitamin E) [3]. Astaxanthin là sắc tố màu đỏ hòa tan trong béo được tìm thấy chủ yếu ở vi tảo, nấm men, và một số loài giáp xác. ...
Astaxanthin nguồn gốc từ vi tảo gần đây đã thu hút được sự quan tâm bởi tiềm năng ứng dụng trong thực phẩm, dược phẩm dinh dưỡng, dược phẩm, thức ăn chăn nuôi, và mỹ phẩm. Astaxanthin được sử dụng như một chất bổ sung dinh dưỡng, chất chống oxy hóa, chống viêm, chống ung thư, kích thích miễn dịch. Astaxanthin có thể ngăn ngừa bệnh đường tiêu hóa, bệnh tiểu đường, bệnh tim mạch, và rối loạn thoái hóa thần kinh. Hầu hết các đặc tính này là do khả năng chống oxy hóa cao của astaxanthin, cao hơn nhiều so với các hợp chất tự nhiên đã biết khác. Tuy nhiên, việc phát triển thương mại vẫn còn ở giai đoạn đầu do chi phí sản xuất cao, những khó khăn kỹ thuật trong quá trình chế biến tiếp theo và các vấn đề liên quan đến tính khả dụng sinh học của phân tử sinh học này. Đánh giá hiện tại tập trung vào các ứng dụng công nghiệp của astaxanthin và những thách thức phải đối mặt trong quá trình sản xuất thương mại.
... 20 La dosis diaria recomendada para suplementar astaxantina está entre 2-5 mg. 21,22 Dado lo anterior, en el presente estudio se probó la efectividad de un preparado nutracéutico con una triple combinación fija colágeno nativo tipo II (CII-N), omega-3 (Om-3) y astaxantina (AX), en la reducción del dolor, rigidez y flexibilidad articular en pacientes con osteoartritis de rodilla. ...
Introduction: osteoarthritis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world and is defined as the gradual loss of cartilage in the joints, mainly that of the knee. It is considered a cause of disability in older adults and is characterized by pain, stiffness and loss of mobility. Material and methods: observational study to evaluate the effect of the combination of non-hydrolyzed type II native collagen (CII-NH), omega-3 (Om-3) and astaxanthin (AX), in a population of 182 patients with knee osteoarthritis grade I/II. Measurements of thigh circumference, arcs of movement and pain were obtained through international scales such as the visual analogue pain scale (VAS), the Lequesne index and the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale. Medical check-ups were performed every 30 days for three months. The Statgraphics software (Statgraphics Technologies, Virginia) was used, the evaluation of the variables and the statistical significance were determined by t Student test and the results are shown as a mean. Results: it was shown that daily consumption increases mobility, decreases knee pain and inflammation in patients within three months. Additionally, there was a reduction in the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by the study subjects. Conclusion: the fixed combination of non-hydrolyzed type II collagen, omega-3 and astaxanthin, generates, in the short term, a decrease in inflammation and stiffness in patients with osteoarthritis.
... Pancha et al., (Pancha et al. 2019) have also identified cyanobacteria as a source of certain pigments having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other properties. Many chemical compounds obtained from algal cells because of their anticancer, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties are considered beneficial for human beings and is in high demand (Higuera-Ciapara et al. 2006) (Ambati et al. 2014). Apart from medicinal properties, specific substances obtained from algal biomass can also be used as a food supplement. ...
Full-text available
Though the biological treatment employing bacterial strains has wide application in effluent treatment plant, it has got several limitations. Researches hence while looking for alternative biological organisms that can be used for secondary treatment came up with the idea of using microalgae. Since then, a large number of microalgal/cyanobacterial strains have been identified that can efficiently remove pollutants from wastewater. Some researchers also found out that the algal biomass not only acts as a carbon sink by taking up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and giving oxygen but also is a renewable source of several value-added products that can be extracted from it for the commercial use. In this work, the cleaning effect of different species of microalgae/cyanobacteria on wastewater from varied sources along with the value-added products obtained from the algal biomass as observed by researchers during the past few years are reviewed. While a number of review works in the field of phycoremediation technology was reported in literature, a comprehensive study on phycoremediation of wastewater from different industries and household individually is limited. In the present review work, the efficiency of diverse microalgal/cyanobacterial strains in treatment of wide range of industrial effluents along with municipal wastewater having multi-pollutants has been critically reviewed.
... Initially used as a feed additive for fish and crustaceans [1,2], the red-colored marine carotenoid astaxanthin has gained much attention for human consumption due to its various health-promoting effects. Based on its molecular structure, consisting of a hydrocarbon backbone with conjugated C-C double bonds (nonpolar) and terminal oxy-functionalized ionone rings (polar) at both sides [3], astaxanthin exhibits anti-inflammatory [4,5], anticancer [6] as well as cardioprotective activities [7,8]. As its antioxidative activity is 100 times stronger than α-tocopherol [9], astaxanthin is also used for UV protection and anti-aging applications in the cosmetics industry [10,11]. ...
Full-text available
The marine carotenoid astaxanthin is one of the strongest natural antioxidants and therefore is used in a broad range of applications such as cosmetics or nutraceuticals. To meet the growing market demand, the natural carotenoid producer Corynebacterium glutamicum has been engineered to produce astaxanthin by heterologous expression of genes from the marine bacterium Fulvimarina pelagi. To exploit this promising source of fermentative and natural astaxanthin, an efficient extraction process using ethanol was established in this study. Appropriate parameters for ethanol extraction were identified by screening ethanol concentration (62.5–97.5% v/v), temperature (30–70 °C) and biomass-to-solvent ratio (3.8–19.0 mgCDW/mLsolvent). The results demonstrated that the optimal extraction conditions were: 90% ethanol, 60 °C, and a biomass-to-solvent ratio of 5.6 mgCDW/mLsolvent. In total, 94% of the cellular astaxanthin was recovered and the oleoresin obtained contained 9.4 mg/g astaxanthin. With respect to other carotenoids, further purification of the oleoresin by column chromatography resulted in pure astaxanthin (100%, HPLC). In addition, a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay showed similar activities compared to esterified astaxanthin from microalgae and a nine-fold higher antioxidative activity than synthetic astaxanthin.
... 20 La dosis diaria recomendada para suplementar astaxantina está entre 2-5 mg. 21,22 Dado lo anterior, en el presente estudio se probó la efectividad de un preparado nutracéutico con una triple combinación fija colágeno nativo tipo II (CII-N), omega-3 (Om-3) y astaxantina (AX), en la reducción del dolor, rigidez y flexibilidad articular en pacientes con osteoartritis de rodilla. ...
Seafoods are important sources of nutrients for humans. Proteins and non­ protein nitrogenous compounds play an important role in the nutritional value and sensory quality of seafoods. Consumption of fish and marine oils is also actively encouraged for the prevention and treatment of cardio­ vascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Highly unsaturated long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are regarded as the active components of marine oils and seafood lipids. The basic chemical and biochemical properties of seafood proteins and lipids, in addition to flavour-active components, their microbiological safety and freshness quality, are important factors to be considered. A presentation of the state-of-the-art research results on seafoods with respect to their chemistry, processing technology and quality in one volume was made possible by cooperative efforts ofan international group of experts. Following a brief overview, the book is divided into three sections. In Part 1 (chapters 2 to 8) the chemistry of seafood components such as proteins, lipids, flavorants (together with their properties and nutritional significance) is discussed. Part 2 (chapters 9 to 13) describes the quality of seafoods with respect to their freshness, preservation, micro­ biological safety and sensory attributes. The final section of the book (chapters 14 to 16) summarizes further processing of raw material, underutilized species and processing discards for production of value­ added products.
Seafood processing discards account for approximately three-quarters of the total weight of catch. Despite the presence of valuable components in discards, these have not been used in North America. Although some composting of processing discards has taken place, discards are generally dumped in-land or hauled into the ocean. Nonetheless, meal and silage production has also been used as a possible means of waste utilization.
Producing a fast-growing chemical that costs $2,500 per kg and is made by only one other company would seem like the ideal business to enter, but so far competitors seeking to challenge Hoffmann-La Roche in the astaxanthin market aren't having much luck. Astaxanthin is a pigment in the carotenoid family that is added to the food of farm-raised salmon, trout, and shrimp. It gives their flesh and skin the desirable pink hue that in the wild would be acquired from eating algae. Roche, for years a producer of the vitamin-like substance beta-carotene, started large-scale production of astaxanthin in 1990 in Sisseln, Switzerland. The company says its plant has enough capacity to supply twice the current global demand for the pigment. Roche doesn't disclose sales or production capacity, but others estimate the world astaxanthin market at about $175 million last year, and growing quickly. Not surprisingly, several other firms want to break Roche's astaxanthin monopoly ...
This study determined the level of soy flour appropriate for hamburger (beef patties) production. They were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% of soy flour respectively with some flavouring agents. A 5-point hedonic scale was used to investigate the sensory characteristics of products in terms of juiciness, colour, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability. There were no significant differences between various products but were readily accepted up to 20% level of inclusion. This provides opportunity for a further critical evaluation of the limit of soy flour inclusion in beef patties formulation. There was increasing yield as the level of soy flour in the product increased. The unit costs of product decreased with increasing soy flour inclusion [Global Jnl Agric Res Vol.1(2) 2002: 71-77]
Shell wastes from Snow crab contain about 33 mg% total astax-anthin, 28% protein, 28% chitin, 31% ash and 1% crude fat or a dry matter basis (dmb). Trypsin hydrolysis of shell waste, followed by precipitation of part of the solubilized material with ammonium sulfate, recovered 9% of the dry matter as a lipoprotein fraction. The fraction, called carotenoprotein, included 74% of the crude lipid, 66% of the astaxanthin and 22% of the protein originally present in the shell. The carotenoprotein product contained 239 mg% total astaxanthin, 65% protein (dmb) and was devoid of chitin. Carotenoprotein may find use as a dietary source of colorant and protein for cultured salmonids.RésuméLes résidus des coquilles de crabe Snow contiennent environ 33 mg% d'astaxanthine totale, 28% de protéine, 28% de chitine, 31% de cendres et 1% de graisse brute, sur une base sèche (dmb). L'Hydrolyse à la trypsine du résidu de coquille, suivie de la précipitation au sulfate d'ammonium d'une partie du matériel solubilisé, a permis de recouvrer 9% de la matière sèche comme fraction lipotéique. La fraction, appelée caroténoprotéine, renferma 74% des lipides bruts, 66% de l'astaxanthine et 22% des protéines originalement présents dans la coquille. Le produit caroténoprotéine contenait 239 mg% d'astaxanthine totale, 65% de protéine (dmb) et était libre de chitine. La caroténoprotéine peut être utilisée comme source diététique de colorant et de protéine pour les salmonidés cultivés.