Comparison of Gene Expression in Male and Female Mouse Blastocysts Revealed Imprinting of the X-Linked Gene, Rhox5/Pem, at Preimplantation Stages

RIKEN, Вако, Saitama, Japan
Current Biology (Impact Factor: 9.57). 02/2006; 16(2):166-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.11.071
Source: PubMed


Mammalian male preimplantation embryos develop more quickly than females . Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged X chromosomes to identify the sex of the embryos, we compared gene expression patterns between male and female mouse blastocysts by DNA microarray. We detected nearly 600 genes with statistically significant sex-linked expression; most differed by 2-fold or less. Of 11 genes showing greater than 2.5-fold differences, four were expressed exclusively or nearly exclusively sex dependently. Two genes (Dby and Eif2s3y) were mapped to the Y chromosome and were expressed in male blastocysts. The remaining two (Rhox5/Pem and Xist) were mapped to the X chromosome and were predominantly expressed in female blastocysts. Moreover, Rhox5/Pem was expressed predominantly from the paternally inherited X chromosome, indicating sex differences in early epigenetic gene regulation.

Download full-text


Available from: Nathan Mise, Oct 29, 2015
    • "The secondary sex ratio of a mouse litter can be determined by visual inspection at birth or at weaning, but more sophisticated techniques are required to track the primary sex ratio as it evolves into the secondary sex ratio. Morphological distinction between males and females, for example, is possible after gonadal differentiation at embryonic day 12.5, while female embryos can be identified throughout embryogenesis via selective mating between a male with an X chromosome containing a fluorescent transgene and a wild-type female (Kobayashi et al. 2006). Sexing mice using either a DNA-or RNA-based PCR method is a less technically demanding protocol that is readily available to most laboratories. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sex ratio is defined as the proportion of males to females in a population. Subdivisions of the sex ratio are the primary (ratio at fertilization) and the secondary (ratio at birth). The expected secondary sex ratio is 0.5, but biological, environmental, or occupational variables can shift the secondary sex ratio from this expectation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
  • Source
    • "In human, gender was also found to be associated with blastocyst grading, male embryos developing at a significantly higher rate than female ones [39]. Such sex-related differences in physiology and kinetics are consistent with documented differences in gene expression [40, 41]. Alternatively, it is hypothesized that female blastocysts suffer from precocious X-chromosome inactivation together with an ICSI-induced decrease in number of trophectoderm cells [42]. "

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
  • Source
    • "ene - dosage compensa - tion , which results in the phenotypic sexual dimorphism associated with DNA and RNA content . As mentioned above , a males ' faster growth was first described in mam - malsÀ Àyet this phylum utilizes the opposite heteromorphic sex chromosome pattern , and vast of majority of genes show higher expression in female embryos ( Kobayashi et al . , 2006 ) ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of dioecious animals suggest that sex-specific development occurs from the onset of embryogenesis. This must be accounted for when addressing issues involving sex-ratio regulation in domestic animals and conservation biology. We investigated the occurrence of growth-rate sexual dimorphism in 84 chicken embryos incubated for 30 hr and nucleic-acid abundance in 99 embryos incubated for 4 hr. Comparative expression of the genes engaged in cell-cycle regulation (16 genes), embryo growth (10 genes), metabolic activity (2 genes), and epigenetic regulation (4 genes) in 4-hr male and female embryos were further analyzed by reverse-trancriptase quantitative PCR. At the stage when somite structure commences, males are growing faster than females. DNA and RNA yields at 4 hr are elevated in males compared to females, and most cell-proliferation-promoting genes are overexpressed in males. Expression of key metabolic genes (G6PD and HPRT) and the principal genes responsible for DNA methylation (DNMTs), however, does not differ between the sexes. These data suggest that the faster growth of early male embryos is conserved among mammalian and bird phyla, and may have an evolutionary importance. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Molecular Reproduction and Development
Show more